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Van Rompaey, Robbe, Moonen, Marc.  2021.  Distributed Adaptive Acoustic Contrast Control for Node-specific Sound Zoning in a Wireless Acoustic Sensor and Actuator Network. 2020 28th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). :481–485.
This paper presents a distributed adaptive algorithm for node-specific sound zoning in a wireless acoustic sensor and actuator network (WASAN), based on a network-wide acoustic contrast control (ACC) method. The goal of the ACC method is to simultaneously create node-specific zones with high signal power (bright zones) while minimizing power leakage in other node-specific zones (dark zones). To obtain this, a network-wide objective involving the acoustic coupling between all the loudspeakers and microphones in the WASAN is proposed where the optimal solution is based on a centralized generalized eigenvalue decomposition (GEVD). To allow for distributed processing, a gradient based GEVD algorithm is first proposed that minimizes the same objective. This algorithm can then be modified to allow for a fully distributed implementation, involving in-network summations and simple local processing. The algorithm is referred to as the distributed adaptive gradient based ACC algorithm (DAGACC). The proposed algorithm outperforms the non-cooperative distributed solution after only a few iterations and converges to the centralized solution, as illustrated by computer simulations.
Nair, Devika S, BJ, Santhosh Kumar.  2021.  Identifying Rank Attacks and Alert Application in WSN. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :798–802.
Routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) is a fundamental routing protocol of 6LoWPAN, a centre correspondence standard for the Internet of Things. RPL outplay other wireless sensor and ad hoc routing protocols in the aspect of service (QoS), device management, and energy-saving performance. The Rank definition in RPL addresses several issues, such as path optimization, loop avoidance, and power overhead management. RPL rank and version number attacks are two types of the most common forms of RPL attacks, may have crucial ramification for RPL networks. The research directed upon these attacks includes considerable vulnerabilities and efficiency issues. The rank attack on sensor networks is perhaps the utmost common, posing a challenge to network connectivity by falling data or disrupting routing routes. This work presents a rank attack detection system focusing on RPL. Considering many of such issues a method has been proposed using spatial correlation function (SCF) and Dijkstra's algorithm considering parameters like energy and throughput.
Bettoumi, Balkis, Bouallegue, Ridha.  2021.  Efficient Reduction of the Transmission Delay of the Authentication Based Elliptic Curve Cryptography in 6LoWPAN Wireless Sensor Networks in the Internet of Things. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1471–1476.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered as the backbone of Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Authentication is the most important phase that guarantees secure access to such networks but it is more critical than that in traditional Internet because the communications are established between constrained devices that could not compute heavy cryptographic primitives. In this paper, we are studying with real experimentation the efficiency of HIP Diet EXchange header (HIP DEX) protocol over IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) in IoT. The adopted application layer protocol is Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and as a routing protocol, the Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks (RPL). The evaluation concerns the total End-to-End transmission delays during the authentication process between the communicating peers regarding the processing, propagation, and queuing times' overheads results. Most importantly, we propose an efficient handshake packets' compression header, and we detailed a comparison of the above evaluation's criteria before and after the proposed compression. Obtained results are very encouraging and reinforce the efficiency of HIP DEX in IoT networks during the handshake process of constrained nodes.
Kamal, Syed Osama, Muhammad Khan, Bilal.  2021.  Hardware Implementation of IP-Enabled Wireless Sensor Network Using 6LoWPAN. 2021 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics (CAIDA). :227–233.
Wireless sensor networks have become so popular in many applications such as vehicle tracking and monitoring, environmental measurements and radiation analysis. These applications can be ready to go for further processing by connecting it to remote servers through protocols that outside world used such as internet. This brings IPv6 over low power wireless sensor network (6LowPAN) into very important role to develop a bridge between internet and WSN network. Though a reliable communication demands many parameters such as data rate, effective data transmission, data security as well as packet size etc. A gateway between 6lowPAN network and IPV6 is needed where frame size compression is required in order to increase payload of data frame on hardware platform.
Qaisar, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Wang, Xingfu, Hawbani, Ammar, Khan, Asad, Ahmed, Adeel, Wedaj, Fisseha Teju.  2020.  TORP: Load Balanced Reliable Opportunistic Routing for Asynchronous Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1384–1389.
Opportunistic routing (OR) is gaining popularity in low-duty wireless sensor network (WSN), so the need for efficient and reliable data transmission is becoming more essential. Reliable transmission is only feasible if the routing protocols are secure and efficient. Due to high energy consumption, current cryptographic schemes for WSN are not suitable. Trust-based OR will ensure security and reliability with fewer resources and minimum energy consumption. OR selects the set of potential candidates for each sensor node using a prioritized metric by load balancing among the nodes. This paper introduces a trust-based load-balanced OR for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. The candidates are prioritized on the basis of a trusted OR metric that is divided into two parts. First, the OR metric is based on the average of four probability distributions: the distance from node to sink distribution, the expected number of hops distribution, the node degree distribution, and the residual energy distribution. Second, the trust metric is based on the average of two probability distributions: the direct trust distribution and the recommended trust distribution. Finally, the trusted OR metric is calculated by multiplying the average of two metrics distributions in order to direct more traffic through the higher priority nodes. The simulation results show that our proposed protocol provides a significant improvement in the performance of the network compared to the benchmarks in terms of energy consumption, end to end delay, throughput, and packet delivery ratio.
Muzammal, Syeda Mariam, Murugesan, Raja Kumar, Jhanjhi, Noor Zaman, Jung, Low Tang.  2020.  SMTrust: Proposing Trust-Based Secure Routing Protocol for RPL Attacks for IoT Applications. 2020 International Conference on Computational Intelligence (ICCI). :305–310.
With large scale generation and exchange of data between IoT devices and constrained IoT security to protect data communication, it becomes easy for attackers to compromise data routes. In IoT networks, IPv6 Routing Protocol is the de facto routing protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL offers limited security against several RPL-specific and WSN-inherited attacks in IoT applications. Additionally, IoT devices are limited in memory, processing, and power to operate properly using the traditional Internet and routing security solutions. Several mitigation schemes for the security of IoT networks and routing, have been proposed including Machine Learning-based, IDS-based, and Trust-based approaches. In existing trust-based methods, mobility of nodes is not considered at all or its insufficient for mobile sink nodes, specifically for security against RPL attacks. This research work proposes a conceptual design, named SMTrust, for security of routing protocol in IoT, considering the mobility-based trust metrics. The proposed solution intends to provide defense against popular RPL attacks, for example, Blackhole, Greyhole, Rank, Version Number attacks, etc. We believe that SMTrust shall provide better network performance for attacks detection accuracy, mobility and scalability as compared to existing trust models, such as, DCTM-RPL and SecTrust-RPL. The novelty of our solution is that it considers the mobility metrics of the sensor nodes as well as the sink nodes, which has not been addressed by the existing models. This consideration makes it suitable for mobile IoT environment. The proposed design of SMTrust, as secure routing protocol, when embedded in RPL, shall ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability among the sensor nodes during routing process in IoT communication and networks.
Hörmann, Leander B., Pichler-Scheder, Markus, Kastl, Christian, Bernhard, Hans-Peter, Priller, Peter, Springer, Andreas.  2020.  Location-Based Trustworthiness of Wireless Sensor Nodes Using Optical Localization. 2020 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM). :1–4.
A continually growing number of sensors is required for monitoring industrial processes and for continuous data acquisition from industrial plants and devices. The cabling of sensors represent a considerable effort and potential source of error, which can be avoided by using wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes form a wireless sensor network (WSN) to efficiently transmit data to the destination. For the acceptance of WSNs in industry, it is important to build up networks with high trustworthiness. The trustworthiness of the WSN depends not only on a secure wireless communication but also on the ability to detect modifications at the wireless sensor nodes itself. This paper presents the enhancement of the WSN's trustworthiness using an optical localization system. It can be used for the preparation phase of the WSN and also during operation to track the positions of the wireless sensor nodes and detect spatial modification. The location information of the sensor nodes can also be used to rate their trustworthiness.
Zhu, Tian, Tong, Fei.  2020.  A Cluster-Based Cooperative Jamming Scheme for Secure Communication in Wireless Sensor Network. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1–5.
The environment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes the communication not only have the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, but also be limited to the low power and communication capability of sensor equipment. Both of them make it hard to ensure the confidentiality of communication. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based cooperative jamming scheme based on physical layer security for WSNs. The mathematical principle of the scheme is based on the design principle of code division multiple access. By using the orthogonality of orthogonal vectors, the legitimate receiver can effectively eliminate the noise, which is generated by the cooperative jamming nodes to disturb the eavesdropper. This scheme enables the legitimate receiver to ensure a strong communication confidentiality even if there is no location or channel advantage comparing with eavesdroppers. Through extensive simulations, the security performance of the proposed scheme is investigated in terms of secrecy rate.
You, Guoping, Zhu, Yingli.  2020.  Structure and Key Technologies of Wireless Sensor Network. 2020 Cross Strait Radio Science Wireless Technology Conference (CSRSWTC). :1–2.
With the improvement of scientific and technological level in China, wireless sensor network technology has been widely promoted and applied, which has now been popularized to various fields of society from military defense. Wireless sensor network combines sensor technology, communication technology and computer technology together, and has the ability of information collection, transmission and processing. In this paper, the structure of wireless sensor network and node localization technology are briefly introduced, and the key technologies of wireless sensor network development are summarized from the four aspects of energy efficiency, node localization, data fusion and network security. As a detection system of perceiving the physical world, WSN is also facing challenges while developing rapidly.
Vasilyev, Vladimir, Shamsutdinov, Rinat.  2020.  Security Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks Using SIEM and Multi-Agent Approach. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :291–296.
The paper addresses the issue of providing information security to wireless sensor networks using Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) methodology along with multi-agent approach. The concept of wireless sensor networks and providing their information security, including construction of SIEM system architecture, SIEM analysis methodologies and its main features, are considered. The proposed approach is to integrate SIEM system methodology with a multi-agent architecture which includes data collecting agents, coordinating agent (supervisor) and local Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) based on artificial immune system mechanisms. Each IDS is used as an agent that performs a primary analysis and sends information about suspicious activity to the server. The server performs correlation analysis, identifies the most significant incidents, and helps to prioritize the incident response. The presented results of computational experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
JOUINI, Oumeyma, SETHOM, Kaouthar.  2020.  Physical Layer Security Proposal for Wireless Body Area Networks. 2020 IEEE 5th Middle East and Africa Conference on Biomedical Engineering (MECBME). :1–5.
Over the last few decades, and thanks to the advancement of embedded systems and wireless technologies, the wireless sensors network (WSN) are increasingly used in many fields. Many researches are being done on the use of WSN in Wireless body Area Network (WBAN) systems to facilitate and improve the quality of care and remote patient monitoring.The broadcast nature of wireless communications makes it difficult to hide transmitted signals from unauthorized users. To this end, Physical layer security is emerging as a promising paradigm to protect wireless communications against eavesdropping attacks. The primary contribution of this paper is achieving a minimum secrecy outage probability by using the jamming technique which can be used by the legitimate communication partner to increase the noise level of the eavesdropper and ensure higher secure communication rate. We also evaluate the effect of additional jammers on the security of the WBAN system.
Zahid, Muhammad Noaman, Jiang, Jianliang, Lu, Heng, Rizvi, Saad, Eric, Deborah, Khan, Shahrukh, Zhang, Hengli.  2020.  Security Issues and Challenges in RFID, Wireless Sensor Network and Optical Communication Networks and Solutions. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference of Safe Production and Informatization (IICSPI). :592–599.
Nowadays, Security is the biggest challenge in communication networks. Well defined security protocols not only solve the privacy and security issues but also help to reduce the implementation cost and simplify network's operation. Network society demands more reliable and secure network services as well as infrastructure. In communication networks, data theft, hacking, fraud, cyber warfare are serious security threats. Security as defined by experts is confirming protected communication amongst communication/computing systems and consumer applications in private and public networks, it is important for promising privacy, confidentiality, and protection of information. This paper highlights the security related issues and challenges in communication networks. We also present the holistic view for the underlaying physical layer including physical infrastructure attacks, jamming, interception, and eavesdropping. This research focused on improving the security measures and protocols in different communication networks.
Lalouani, Wassila, Younis, Mohamed.  2020.  Machine Learning Enabled Secure Collection of Phasor Data in Smart Power Grid Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :546–553.
In a smart power grid, phasor measurement devices provide critical status updates in order to enable stabilization of the grid against fluctuations in power demands and component failures. Particularly the trend is to employ a large number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) that are inter-networked through wireless links. We tackle the vulnerability of such a wireless PMU network to message replay and false data injection (FDI) attacks. We propose a novel approach for avoiding explicit data transmission through PMU measurements prediction. Our methodology is based on applying advanced machine learning techniques to forecast what values will be reported and associate a level of confidence in such prediction. Instead of sending the actual measurements, the PMU sends the difference between actual and predicted values along with the confidence level. By applying the same technique at the grid control or data aggregation unit, our approach implicitly makes such a unit aware of the actual measurements and enables authentication of the source of the transmission. Our approach is data-driven and varies over time; thus it increases the PMU network resilience against message replay and FDI attempts since the adversary's messages will violate the data prediction protocol. The effectiveness of approach is validated using datasets for the IEEE 14 and IEEE 39 bus systems and through security analysis.
Ghorashi, Seyed Ramin, Zia, Tanveer, Jiang, Yinhao.  2020.  Optimisation of Lightweight Klein Encryption Algorithm With 3 S-box. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) have offered great opportunities for the growth of smart objects in the last decade. Smart devices are deployed in many fields such as smart cities, healthcare and agriculture. One of the applications of IoT is Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that require inexpensive and space-economic design for remote sensing and communication capabilities. This, unfortunately, lead to their inherent security vulnerabilities. Lightweight cryptography schemes are designed to counter many attacks in low-powered devices such as the IoT and WSN. These schemes can provide support for data encryption and key management while maintaining some level of efficiency. Most of these block ciphers provide good security. However, due to the complex cryptographic scheme's efficiency and optimisation is an issue. In this work, we focus on a new lightweight encryption scheme called the Klein block cipher. The algorithms of Klein block cipher are analysed for performance and security optimisations. A new algorithm which consists of 3-layer substitute box is proposed to reduce the need for resource consumption but maintain the security.
Desnitsky, Vasily A., Kotenko, Igor V., Parashchuk, Igor B..  2020.  Neural Network Based Classification of Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :284–287.
The paper proposes a method for solving problems of classifying multi-step attacks on wireless sensor networks in the conditions of uncertainty (incompleteness and inconsistency) of the observed signs of attacks. The method aims to eliminate the uncertainty of classification of attacks on networks of this class one the base of the use of neural network approaches to the processing of incomplete and contradictory knowledge on possible attack characteristics. It allows increasing objectivity (accuracy and reliability) of information security monitoring in modern software and hardware systems and Internet of Things networks that actively exploit advantages of wireless sensor networks.
Ellinidou, Soultana, Sharma, Gaurav, Markowitch, Olivier, Gogniat, Guy, Dricot, Jean-Michel.  2020.  A novel Network-on-Chip security algorithm for tolerating Byzantine faults. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT). :1–6.
Since the number of processors and cores on a single chip is increasing, the interconnection among them becomes significant. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has direct access to all resources and information within a System-on-Chip (SoC), rendering it appealing to attackers. Malicious attacks targeting NoC are a major cause of performance depletion and they can cause arbitrary behavior of links or routers, that is, Byzantine faults. Byzantine faults have been thoroughly investigated in the context of Distributed systems however not in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. Hence, in this paper we propose a novel fault model followed by the design and implementation of lightweight algorithms, based on Software Defined Network-on-Chip (SDNoC) architecture. The proposed algorithms can be used to build highly available NoCs and can tolerate Byzantine faults. Additionally, a set of different scenarios has been simulated and the results demonstrate that by using the proposed algorithms the packet loss decreases between 65% and 76% under Transpose traffic, 67% and 77% under BitReverse and 55% and 66% under Uniform traffic.
Al Guqhaiman, Ahmed, Akanbi, Oluwatobi, Aljaedi, Amer, Chow, C. Edward.  2020.  Lightweight Multi-Factor Authentication for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :188–194.
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are liable to malicious attacks due to limited bandwidth, limited power, high propagation delay, path loss, and variable speed. The major differences between UWSNs and Terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs) necessitate a new mechanism to secure UWSNs. The existing Media Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have addressed the network performance of UWSNs, but are vulnerable to several attacks. The secure MAC and routing protocols must exist to detect Sybil, Blackhole, Wormhole, Hello Flooding, Acknowledgment Spoofing, Selective Forwarding, Sinkhole, and Exhaustion attacks. These attacks can disrupt or disable the network connection. Hence, these attacks can degrade the network performance and total loss can be catastrophic in some applications, like monitoring oil/gas spills. Several researchers have studied the security of UWSNs, but most of the works detect malicious attacks solely based on a certain predefined threshold. It is not optimal to detect malicious attacks after the threshold value is met. In this paper, we propose a multi-factor authentication model that is based on zero-knowledge proof to detect malicious activities and secure UWSNs from several attacks.
Qurashi, Mohammed Al, Angelopoulos, Constantinos Marios, Katos, Vasilios.  2020.  An Architecture for Resilient Intrusion Detection in IoT Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–7.
We introduce a lightweight architecture of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) for ad-hoc IoT networks. Current state-of-the-art IDS have been designed based on assumptions holding from conventional computer networks, and therefore, do not properly address the nature of IoT networks. In this work, we first identify the correlation between the communication overheads and the placement of an IDS (as captured by proper placement of active IDS agents in the network). We model such networks as Random Geometric Graphs. We then introduce a novel IDS architectural approach by having only a minimum subset of the nodes acting as IDS agents. These nodes are able to monitor the network and detect attacks at the networking layer in a collaborative manner by monitoring 1-hop network information provided by routing protocols such as RPL. Conducted experiments show that our proposed IDS architecture is resilient and robust against frequent topology changes due to node failures. Our detailed experimental evaluation demonstrates significant performance gains in terms of communication overhead and energy dissipation while maintaining high detection rates.
Xu, Peng, Hu, Dongyang, Chen, Gaojie.  2020.  Physical-Layer Cooperative Key Generation with Correlated Eavesdropping Channels in IoT. 2020 International Conferences on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) and IEEE Congress on Cybermatics (Cybermatics). :29—36.
With a massive amount of wireless sensor nodes in Internet of Things (IoT), it is difficult to establish key distribution and management mechanism for traditional encryption technology. Alternatively, the physical layer key generation technology is promising to implement in IoT, since it is based on the principle of information-theoretical security and has the advantage of low complexity. Most existing key generation schemes assume that eavesdropping channels are independent of legitimate channels, which may not be practical especially when eavesdropper nodes are near to legitimate nodes. However, this paper investigates key generation problems for a multi-relay wireless network in IoT, where the correlation between eavesdropping and legitimate channels are considered. Key generation schemes are proposed for both non-colluding and partially colluding eavesdroppers situations. The main idea is to divide the key agreement process into three phases: 1) we first generate a secret key by exploiting the difference between the random channels associated with each relay node and the eavesdropping channels; 2) another key is generated by integrating the residual common randomness associated with each relay pair; 3) the two keys generated in the first two phases are concatenated into the final key. The secrecy key performance of the proposed key generation schemes is also derived with closed-forms.
Al-Aali, Yousuf, Boussakta, Said.  2020.  Lightweight block ciphers for resource-constrained devices. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1—6.
Lightweight cryptography is a new branch of cryptography focused on providing security to resource-constraint devices such as wireless sensor networks (WSN), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFIDs) and other embedded systems. The factors considered in lightweight cryptography are mainly circuit area, memory requirement, processing time, latency, power, and energy consumption. This paper presents a discussion on common lightweight block ciphers in terms of different performance parameters, strength, design trends, limitations, and applications including the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) round 1 and 2 candidates. Analysis of these lightweight algorithms has offered an insight into this newly emerging field of cryptography.
Primo, Abena.  2020.  A Comparison of Blockchain-Based Wireless Sensor Network Protocols. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0793—0799.
Wireless sensors are often deployed in environments where it is difficult for them to discern friend from enemy. An example case is a military tactical scenario, where sensors are deployed to map the location of an item but where some of the nodes have been compromised or where there are other malicious nodes present. In this scenario, sharing data with other network nodes may present a critical security risk to the sensor nodes. Blockchain technology, with its ability to house a secure distributed ledger, offers a possible solution. However, blockchain applications for Wireless Sensor Networks suffer from poor latency in block propagation which in turn decreases throughput and network scalability. Several researchers have proposed solutions for improved network throughput. In this work, a comparison of these existing works is performed leading to a taxonomy of existing algorithms. Characteristics consistently found in algorithms reporting improved throughput are presented and, later, these characteristics are used in the development of a new algorithm for improving throughput. The proposed algorithm utilizes a proof-of- authority consensus algorithm with a node trust-based scheme. The proposed algorithm shows strong results over the base case algorithm and was evaluated with blockchain network simulations of up to 20000 nodes.
Meng, Yuan, Yan, Jing, Yang, Xian, Luo, Xiaoyuan.  2020.  Privacy Preserving Localization Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4481—4486.
The position information leakage of under-water sensor networks has been widely concerned. However, the underwater environment has unique characteristics compared with the terrestrial environment, for example, the asynchronous clock, stratification compensation. Therefore, the privacy preserving localization algorithm for terrestrial is not suitable. At present, the proposed privacy preserving localization algorithm is at the cost of reducing the localization accuracy and increasing the complexity of the algorithm. In this paper, a privacy preserving localization algorithm for underwater sensor networks with ray compensation is proposed. Besides, the localization algorithm we designed hides the position information of anchor nodes, and eliminates the influence of asynchronous clock. More importantly, the positioning accuracy is improved. Finally, the simulation results show that the location algorithm with privacy preserving and without privacy preserving have the same location accuracy. In addition, the algorithm proposed in this paper greatly improves the positioning accuracy compared with the existing work.
Tang, Di, Gu, Jian, Han, Weijia, Ma, Xiao.  2020.  Quantitative Analysis on Source-Location Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :805—809.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in various applications for continuous event monitoring and detection. Dual to lack of a protected physical boundary, WSNs are vulnerable to trace-back attacks. The existing secure routing protocols are designed to protect source location privacy by increasing uncertainty of routing direction against statistic analysis on traffic flow. Nevertheless, the security has not been quantitatively measured and shown the direction of secure routing design. In this paper, we propose a theoretical security measurement scheme to define and analyze the quantitative amount of the information leakage from each eavesdropped message. Through the theoretical analysis, we identify vulnerabilities of existing routing algorithms and quantitatively compute the direction information leakage based on various routing strategy. The theoretical analysis results also indicate the direction for maximization of source location privacy.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Improving the Packet Delivery Reliability and Privacy Protection in Monitoring Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1083—1088.
Source location privacy (SLP) protection ensures security of assets in monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Also, low end-to-end delay (EED) and high packet delivery ratio (PDR) guarantee high packet delivery reliability. Therefore, it is important to ensure high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR in mission-critical monitoring applications. Thus, this study proposes a new angle-based agent node routing protocol (APr) which is capable of achieving high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR. The proposed APr protocol employs multiple routing strategies to enable a dynamic agent node selection process and creation of obfuscating routing paths. Analysis results reveal that the APr protocol achieves high packet delivery reliability to outperform existing intermediate node-based protocols such as the AdrR and tree-based protocols such as the TbR. Furthermore, the APr protocol achieves significantly high levels of SLP protection to outperform the AdrR protocol.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Kang, Moonsoo, Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Controlling the Communication Overhead of Source Location Privacy Protocols in Multi-hop Communication Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :055—059.
Fake source packet routing protocols can ensure Source Location Privacy (SLP) protection. However, the protocols have demonstrated some performance limitations including high energy consumption, low packet delivery ratio (PDR), and long end-to-end delay (EED). In this study, a 2-level phantom routing protocol is proposed to address some limitations of an existing fake source packet routing protocol. The proposed protocol supplants the fake source packets with a random second level phantom node to alleviate the limitations. Analysis results confirm that the proposed protocol is capable of achieving strong SLP protection with minimized communication overhead. By removing the fake packet traffic in the network, the protocol incurs minimized energy consumption, maximized PDR, and minimized EED.