Visible to the public Biblio

Found 307 results

Filters: Keyword is Wireless sensor networks  [Clear All Filters]
2021-07-08
Chandavarkar, B. R., Gadagkar, Akhilraj V..  2020.  Mitigating Localization and Neighbour Spoofing Attacks in Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.
The location information of a node is one of the essential attributes used in most underwater communication routing algorithms to identify a candidate forwarding node by any of the sources. The exact location information of a node exchanged with its neighbours' in plain text and the absence of node authentication results in some of the attacks such as Sybil attack, Blackhole attack, and Wormhole attack. Moreover, the severe consequence of these attacks is Denial of Service (DoS), poor network performance, reduced network lifetime, etc. This paper proposes an anti-Spoof (a-Spoof) algorithm for mitigating localization and neighbour spoofing attacks in UASN. a-Spoof uses three pre-shared symmetric keys to share the location. Additionally, location integrity provided through the hash function. Further, the performance of a-Spoof demonstrated through its implementation in UnetStack with reference to end-to-end packet delay and the number of hops.
2021-07-07
Suciu, George, Hussain, Ijaz, Petrescu, Gabriel.  2020.  Role of Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile WSN Technologies and Implementation. 2020 International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE). :1–6.
Computing capabilities such as real time data, unlimited connection, data from sensors, environmental analysis, automated decisions (machine learning) are demanded by many areas like industry for example decision making, machine learning, by research and military, for example GPS, sensor data collection. The possibility to make these features compatible with each domain that demands them is known as ubiquitous computing. Ubiquitous computing includes network topologies such as wireless sensor networks (WSN) which can help further improving the existing communication, for example the Internet. Also, ubiquitous computing is included in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In this article, it is discussed the mobility of WSN and its advantages and innovations, which make possible implementations for smart home and office. Knowing the growing number of mobile users, we place the mobile phone as the key factor of the future ubiquitous wireless networks. With secure computing, communicating, and storage capacities of mobile devices, they can be taken advantage of in terms of architecture in the sense of scalability, energy efficiency, packet delay, etc. Our work targets to present a structure from a ubiquitous computing point of view for researchers who have an interest in ubiquitous computing and want to research on the analysis, to implement a novel method structure for the ubiquitous computing system in military sectors. Also, this paper presents security and privacy issues in ubiquitous sensor networks (USN).
2021-06-30
Čečil, Roman, Šetka, Vlastimil, Tolar, David, Sikora, Axel.  2020.  RETIS – Real-Time Sensitive Wireless Communication Solution for Industrial Control Applications. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Smart and Wireless Systems within the Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems (IDAACS-SWS). :1—9.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) has been always a vital component of many industrial applications. The paper proposes a new wireless URLLC solution called RETIS, which is suitable for factory automation and fast process control applications, where low latency, low jitter, and high data exchange rates are mandatory. In the paper, we describe the communication protocol as well as the hardware structure of the network nodes for implementing the required functionality. Many techniques enabling fast, reliable wireless transmissions are used - short Transmission Time Interval (TTI), TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), MIMO, optional duplicated data transfer, Forward Error Correction (FEC), ACK mechanism. Preliminary tests show that reliable endto-end latency down to 350 μs and packet exchange rate up to 4 kHz can be reached (using quadruple MIMO and standard IEEE 802.15.4 PHY at 250 kbit/s).
2021-06-28
Imrith, Vashish N., Ranaweera, Pasika, Jugurnauth, Rameshwar A., Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2020.  Dynamic Orchestration of Security Services at Fog Nodes for 5G IoT. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Fog Computing is one of the edge computing paradigms that envisages being the proximate processing and storage infrastructure for a multitude of IoT appliances. With its dynamic deployability as a medium level cloud service, fog nodes are enabling heterogeneous service provisioning infrastructure that features scalability, interoperability, and adaptability. Out of the various 5G based services possible with the fog computing platforms, security services are imperative but minimally investigated direct live. Thus, in this research, we are focused on launching security services in a fog node with an architecture capable of provisioning on-demand service requests. As the fog nodes are constrained on resources, our intention is to integrate light-weight virtualization technology such as Docker for forming the service provisioning infrastructure. We managed to launch multiple security instances configured to be Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) on the fog infrastructure emulated via a Raspberry Pi-4 device. This environment was tested with multiple network flows to validate its feasibility. In our proposed architecture, orchestration strategies performed by the security orchestrator were stated as guidelines for achieving pragmatic, dynamic orchestration with fog in IoT deployments. The results of this research guarantee the possibility of developing an ambient security service model that facilitates IoT devices with enhanced security.
Nageswar Rao, A., Rajendra Naik, B., Nirmala Devi, L., Venkata Subbareddy, K..  2020.  Trust and Packet Loss Aware Routing (TPLAR) for Intrusion Detection in WSNs. 2020 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :386–391.
In this paper, a new intrusion detection mechanism is proposed based on Trust and Packet Loss Rate at Sensor Node in WSNs. To find the true malicious nodes, the proposed mechanism performs a deep analysis on the packet loss. Two independent metrics such as buffer capacity metric and residual energy metric are considered for packet loss rate evaluation. Further, the trust evaluation also considers the basic communication interactions between sensor nodes. Based on these three metrics, a new composite metric called Packet Forwarding Probability (PFP) is derived through which the malicious nodes are identified. Simulation experiments are conducted over the proposed mechanism and the performance is evaluated through False Positive Rate (FPR) and Malicious Detection Rate (MDR). The results declare that the proposed mechanism achieves a better performance compared to the conventional approaches.
Sharnagat, Lekhchand, Babu, Rajesh, Adhikari, Jayant.  2020.  Trust Evaluation for Securing Compromised data Aggregation against the Collusion Attack in WSN. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :1–5.
With a storage space limit on the sensors, WSN has some drawbacks related to bandwidth and computational skills. This limited resources would reduce the amount of data transmitted across the network. For this reason, data aggregation is considered as a new process. Iterative filtration (IF) algorithms, which provide trust assessment to the various sources from which the data aggregation has been performed, are efficient in the present data aggregation algorithms. Trust assessment is done with weights from the simple average method to aggregation, which treats attack susceptibility. Iteration filter algorithms are stronger than the ordinary average, but they do not handle the current advanced attack that takes advantage of false information with many compromise nodes. Iterative filters are strengthened by an initial confidence estimate to track new and complex attacks, improving the solidity and accuracy of the IF algorithm. The new method is mainly concerned with attacks against the clusters and not against the aggregator. In this process, if an aggregator is attacked, the current system fails, and the information is eventually transmitted to the aggregator by the cluster members. This problem can be detected when both cluster members and aggregators are being targeted. It is proposed to choose an aggregator which chooses a new aggregator according to the remaining maximum energy and distance to the base station when an aggregator attack is detected. It also save time and energy compared to the current program against the corrupted aggregator node.
P N, Renjith, K, Ramesh.  2020.  Trust based Security framework for IoT data. 2020 4th International Conference on Computer, Communication and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1–5.
With an incredible growth in MEMS and Internet, IoT has developed to an inevitable invention and resource for human needs. IoT reframes the communication and created a new way of machine to machine communication. IoT utilizes smart sensor to monitor and track environmental changes in any area of interest. The high volume of sensed information is processed, formulated and presented to the user for decision making. In this paper a model is designed to perform trust evaluation and data aggregation with confidential transmission of secured information in to the network and enables higher secure and reliable data transmission for effective analysis and decision making. The Sensors in IoT devices, senses the same information and forwards redundant data in to the network. This results in higher network congestion and causes transmission overhead. This could be control by introducing data aggregation. A gateway sensor node can act as aggregator and a forward unique information to the base station. However, when the network is adulterated with malicious node, these malicious nodes tend to injects false data in to the network. In this paper, a trust based malicious node detection technique has been introduced to isolate the malicious node from forwarding false information into the network. Simulation results proves the proposed protocol can be used to reduce malicious attack with increased throughput and performance.
Oualhaj, Omar Ait, Mohamed, Amr, Guizani, Mohsen, Erbad, Aiman.  2020.  Blockchain Based Decentralized Trust Management framework. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :2210–2215.
The blockchain is a storage technology and transmission of information, transparent, secure, and operating without central control. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized trust management and cooperation model where data is shared via blockchain and we explore the revenue distribution under different consensus schemes. To reduce the power calculation with respect to the control mechanism, our proposal adopts the possibility of Proof on Trust (PoT) and Proof of proof-of-stake based trust to replace the proof of work (PoW) scheme, to carry out the mining and storage of new data blocks. To detect nodes with malicious behavior to provide false system information, the trust updating algorithm is proposed..
2021-06-01
Pandey, Pragya, Kaur, Inderjeet.  2020.  Improved MODLEACH with Effective Energy Utilization Technique for WSN. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :987—992.
Wireless sensor network (WSNs) formed from an enormous number of sensor hub with the capacity to detect and process information in the physical world in a convenient way. The sensor nodes contain a battery imperative, which point of confinement the system lifetime. Because of vitality limitations, the arrangement of WSNs will required development methods to keep up the system lifetime. The vitality productive steering is the need of the innovative WSN systems to build the process time of system. The WSN system is for the most part battery worked which should be ration as conceivable as to cause system to continue longer and more. WSN has developed as a significant figuring stage in the ongoing couple of years. WSN comprises of countless sensor points, which are worked by a little battery. The vitality of the battery worked nodes is the defenseless asset of the WSN, which is exhausted at a high rate when data is transmitted, because transmission vitality is subject to the separation of transmission. Sensor nodes can be sent in the cruel condition. When they are conveyed, it ends up difficult to supplant or energize its battery. Therefore, the battery intensity of sensor hub ought to be utilized proficiently. Many steering conventions have been proposed so far to boost the system lifetime and abatement the utilization vitality, the fundamental point of the sensor hubs is information correspondence, implies move of information packs from one hub to other inside the system. This correspondence is finished utilizing grouping and normal vitality of a hub. Each bunch chooses a pioneer called group head. The group heads CHs are chosen based by and large vitality and the likelihood. There are number of bunching conventions utilized for the group Head determination, the principle idea is the existence time of a system which relies on the normal vitality of the hub. In this work we proposed a model, which utilizes the leftover vitality for group head choice and LZW pressure Technique during the transmission of information bundles from CHs to base station. Work enhanced the throughput and life time of system and recoveries the vitality of hub during transmission and moves more information in less vitality utilization. The Proposed convention is called COMPRESSED MODLEACH.
Chinchawade, Amit Jaykumar, Lamba, Onkar Singh.  2020.  Authentication Schemes and Security Issues in Internet Of Everything (IOE) Systems. 2020 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :342–345.
Nowadays, Internet Of Everything (IOE) has demanded for a wide range of applications areas. IOE is started to replaces an Internet Of things (IOT). IOE is a combination of massive number of computing elements and sensors, people, processes and data through the Internet infrastructure. Device to Device communication and interfacing of Wireless Sensor network with IOE can makes any system as a Smart System. With the increased the use of Internet and Internet connected devices has opportunities for hackers to launch attacks on unprecedented scale and impact. The IOE can serve the varied security in the various sectors like manufacturing, agriculture, smart grid, payments, IoT gateways, healthcare and industrial ecosystems. To secure connections among people, process, data, and things, is a major challenge in Internet of Everything.. This paper focuses on various security Issues and Authentication Schemes in the IOE systems.
2021-05-25
Abbas, Syed Ghazanfar, Hashmat, Fabiha, Shah, Ghalib A..  2020.  A Multi-layer Industrial-IoT Attack Taxonomy: Layers, Dimensions, Techniques and Application. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1820—1825.

Industrial IoT (IIoT) is a specialized subset of IoT which involves the interconnection of industrial devices with ubiquitous control and intelligent processing services to improve industrial system's productivity and operational capability. In essence, IIoT adapts a use-case specific architecture based on RFID sense network, BLE sense network or WSN, where heterogeneous industrial IoT devices can collaborate with each other to achieve a common goal. Nonetheless, most of the IIoT deployments are brownfield in nature which involves both new and legacy technologies (SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System)). The merger of these technologies causes high degree of cross-linking and decentralization which ultimately increases the complexity of IIoT systems and introduce new vulnerabilities. Hence, industrial organizations becomes not only vulnerable to conventional SCADA attacks but also to a multitude of IIoT specific threats. However, there is a lack of understanding of these attacks both with respect to the literature and empirical evaluation. As a consequence, it is infeasible for industrial organizations, researchers and developers to analyze attacks and derive a robust security mechanism for IIoT. In this paper, we developed a multi-layer taxonomy of IIoT attacks by considering both brownfield and greenfield architecture of IIoT. The taxonomy consists of 11 layers 94 dimensions and approximately 100 attack techniques which helps to provide a holistic overview of the incident attack pattern, attack characteristics and impact on industrial system. Subsequently, we have exhibited the practical relevance of developed taxonomy by applying it to a real-world use-case. This research will benefit researchers and developers to best utilize developed taxonomy for analyzing attack sequence and to envisage an efficient security platform for futuristic IIoT applications.

Kore, Ashwini, Patil, Shailaja.  2020.  Robust Cross-Layer Security Framework For Internet of Things Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :142—147.

The significant development of Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm for monitoring the real-time applications using the wireless communication technologies leads to various challenges. The secure data transmission and privacy is one of the key challenges of IoT enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) communications. Due to heterogeneity of attackers like Man-in-Middle Attack (MIMA), the present single layered security solutions are not sufficient. In this paper, the robust cross-layer trust computation algorithm for MIMA attacker detection proposed for IoT enabled WSNs called IoT enabled Cross-Layer Man-in-Middle Attack Detection System (IC-MADS). In IC-MADS, first robust clustering method proposed to form the clusters and cluster head (CH) preference. After clustering, for every sensor node, its trust value computed using the parameters of three layers such as MAC, Physical, and Network layers to protect the network communications in presence of security threats. The simulation results prove that IC-MADS achieves better protection against MIMA attacks with minimum overhead and energy consumption.

2021-05-20
Mheisn, Alaa, Shurman, Mohammad, Al-Ma’aytah, Abdallah.  2020.  WSNB: Wearable Sensors with Neural Networks Located in a Base Station for IoT Environment. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1—4.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system paradigm that recently introduced, which includes different smart devices and applications, especially, in smart cities, e.g.; manufacturing, homes, and offices. To improve their awareness capabilities, it is attractive to add more sensors to their framework. In this paper, we propose adding a new sensor as a wearable sensor connected wirelessly with a neural network located on the base station (WSNB). WSNB enables the added sensor to refine their labels through active learning. The new sensors achieve an average accuracy of 93.81%, which is 4.5% higher than the existing method, removing human support and increasing the life cycle for the sensors by using neural network approach in the base station.
2021-05-18
Shen, Chao.  2020.  Laser-based high bit-rate visible light communications and underwater optical wireless network. 2020 Photonics North (PN). :1–1.
This talk presents an overview of the latest visible light communication (VLC) and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) research and development from the device to the system level. The utilization of laser-based devices and systems for LiFi and underwater Internet of Things (IoT) has been discussed.
2021-05-13
Hachimi, Marouane, Kaddoum, Georges, Gagnon, Ghyslain, Illy, Poulmanogo.  2020.  Multi-stage Jamming Attacks Detection using Deep Learning Combined with Kernelized Support Vector Machine in 5G Cloud Radio Access Networks. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—5.

In 5G networks, the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is considered a promising future architecture in terms of minimizing energy consumption and allocating resources efficiently by providing real-time cloud infrastructures, cooperative radio, and centralized data processing. Recently, given their vulnerability to malicious attacks, the security of C-RAN networks has attracted significant attention. Among various anomaly-based intrusion detection techniques, the most promising one is the machine learning-based intrusion detection as it learns without human assistance and adjusts actions accordingly. In this direction, many solutions have been proposed, but they show either low accuracy in terms of attack classification or they offer just a single layer of attack detection. This research focuses on deploying a multi-stage machine learning-based intrusion detection (ML-IDS) in 5G C-RAN that can detect and classify four types of jamming attacks: constant jamming, random jamming, deceptive jamming, and reactive jamming. This deployment enhances security by minimizing the false negatives in C-RAN architectures. The experimental evaluation of the proposed solution is carried out using WSN-DS (Wireless Sensor Networks DataSet), which is a dedicated wireless dataset for intrusion detection. The final classification accuracy of attacks is 94.51% with a 7.84% false negative rate.

Wu, Xiaohe, Xu, Jianbo, Huang, Weihong, Jian, Wei.  2020.  A new mutual authentication and key agreement protocol in wireless body area network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :199—203.

Due to the mobility and openness of wireless body area networks (WBANs), the security of WBAN has been questioned by people. The patient's physiological information in WBAN is sensitive and confidential, which requires full consideration of user anonymity, untraceability, and data privacy protection in key agreement. Aiming at the shortcomings of Li et al.'s protocol in terms of anonymity and session unlinkability, forward/backward confidentiality, etc., a new anonymous mutual authentication and key agreement protocol was proposed on the basis of the protocol. This scheme only uses XOR and the one-way hash operations, which not only reduces communication consumption but also ensures security, and realizes a truly lightweight anonymous mutual authentication and key agreement protocol.

2021-04-27
H, R. M., Shet, U. Harshitha, Shetty, R. D., Shrinivasa, J, A. N., S, K. R. N..  2020.  Triggering and Auditing the Event During Intrusion Detections in WSN’s Defence Application. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1328–1332.
WSNs are extensively used in defence application for monitoring militant activities in various ways in large unknown territories. Here WSNs has to have large set of distributed systems in the form as sensors nodes. Along with security concerns, False Alarming is also a factor which may interrupt the service and downgrade the application further. Thus in our work we have made sure that when a trigger is raised to an event, images can be captured from the connected cameras so that it will be helpful for both auditing the event as well as capturing the scene which led to the triggering of the event.
2021-04-09
Soni, G., Sudhakar, R..  2020.  A L-IDS against Dropping Attack to Secure and Improve RPL Performance in WSN Aided IoT. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :377—383.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), it is feasible to interconnect networks of different devices and all these different devices, such as smartphones, sensor devices, and vehicles, are controlled according to a particular user. These different devices are delivered and accept the information on the network. This thing is to motivate us to do work on IoT and the devices used are sensor nodes. The validation of data delivery completely depends on the checks of count data forwarding in each node. In this research, we propose the Link Hop Value-based Intrusion Detection System (L-IDS) against the blackhole attack in the IoT with the assist of WSN. The sensor nodes are connected to other nodes through the wireless link and exchange data routing, as well as data packets. The LHV value is identified as the attacker's presence by integrating the data delivery in each hop. The LHV is always equivalent to the Actual Value (AV). The RPL routing protocol is used IPv6 to address the concept of routing. The Routing procedure is interrupted by an attacker by creating routing loops. The performance of the proposed L-IDS is compared to the RPL routing security scheme based on existing trust. The proposed L-IDS procedure is validating the presence of the attacker at every source to destination data delivery. and also disables the presence of the attacker in the network. Network performance provides better results in the existence of a security scheme and also fully represents the inoperative presence of black hole attackers in the network. Performance metrics show better results in the presence of expected IDS and improve network reliability.

Fadhilah, D., Marzuki, M. I..  2020.  Performance Analysis of IDS Snort and IDS Suricata with Many-Core Processor in Virtual Machines Against Dos/DDoS Attacks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Wireless Sensors and Powering (BCWSP). :157—162.
The rapid development of technology makes it possible for a physical machine to be converted into a virtual machine, which can operate multiple operating systems that are running simultaneously and connected to the internet. DoS/DDoS attacks are cyber-attacks that can threaten the telecommunications sector because these attacks cause services to be disrupted and be difficult to access. There are several software tools for monitoring abnormal activities on the network, such as IDS Snort and IDS Suricata. From previous studies, IDS Suricata is superior to IDS Snort version 2 because IDS Suricata already supports multi-threading, while IDS Snort version 2 still only supports single-threading. This paper aims to conduct tests on IDS Snort version 3.0 which already supports multi-threading and IDS Suricata. This research was carried out on a virtual machine with 1 core, 2 core, and 4 core processor settings for CPU, memory, and capture packet attacks on IDS Snort version 3.0 and IDS Suricata. The attack scenario is divided into 2 parts: DoS attack scenario using 1 physical computer, and DDoS attack scenario using 5 physical computers. Based on overall testing, the results are: In general, IDS Snort version 3.0 is better than IDS Suricata. This is based on the results when using a maximum of 4 core processor, in which IDS Snort version 3.0 CPU usage is stable at 55% - 58%, a maximum memory of 3,000 MB, can detect DoS attacks with 27,034,751 packets, and DDoS attacks with 36,919,395 packets. Meanwhile, different results were obtained by IDS Suricata, in which CPU usage is better compared to IDS Snort version 3.0 with only 10% - 40% usage, and a maximum memory of 1,800 MB. However, the capabilities of detecting DoS attacks are smaller with 3,671,305 packets, and DDoS attacks with a total of 7,619,317 packets on a TCP Flood attack test.
2021-04-08
Vyetrenko, S., Khosla, A., Ho, T..  2009.  On combining information-theoretic and cryptographic approaches to network coding security against the pollution attack. 2009 Conference Record of the Forty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. :788–792.
In this paper we consider the pollution attack in network coded systems where network nodes are computationally limited. We consider the combined use of cryptographic signature based security and information theoretic network error correction and propose a fountain-like network error correction code construction suitable for this purpose.
Mori, S..  2020.  A Fundamental Analysis of Caching Data Protection Scheme using Light-weight Blockchain and Hashchain for Information-centric WSNs. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :200–201.
This paper explains a novel caching data protection scheme that uses lightweight blockchain and hashchain for information-centric wireless sensor networks. The proposed verification procedure in a Blockchain is conducted based on the proof-of-consensus validation mechanism without using exhaustive mining computations; therefore, our scheme is suitable for resource-shortage wireless and mobile devices. Hashchains are utilized for traceability and signatures that ensure a block's validity. We make a primitive evaluation of the scheme using computer simulations in familiar low-power wide-area wireless environments.
2021-03-29
Bodhe, A., Sangale, A..  2020.  Network Parameter Analysis; ad hoc WSN for Security Protocol with Fuzzy Logic. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :960—963.

The wireless communication has become very vast, important and easy to access nowadays because of less cost associated and easily available mobile devices. It creates a potential threat for the community while accessing some secure information like banking passwords on the unsecured network. This proposed research work expose such a potential threat such as Rogue Access Point (RAP) detection using soft computing prediction tool. Fuzzy logic is used to implement the proposed model to identify the presence of RAP existence in the network.

2021-03-15
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
2021-03-09
Fiade, A., Triadi, A. Yudha, Sulhi, A., Masruroh, S. Ummi, Handayani, V., Suseno, H. Bayu.  2020.  Performance Analysis of Black Hole Attack and Flooding Attack AODV Routing Protocol on VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). :1–5.
Wireless technology is widely used today and is growing rapidly. One of the wireless technologies is VANET where the network can communicate with vehicles (V2V) which can prevent accidents on the road. Energy is also a problem in VANET so it needs to be used efficiently. The presence of malicious nodes or nodes can eliminate and disrupt the process of data communication. The routing protocol used in this study is AODV. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comparison of blackhole attack and flooding attack against energy-efficient AODV on VANET. This research uses simulation methods and several supporting programs such as OpenStreetMap, SUMO, NS2, NAM, and AWK to test the AODV routing protocol. Quality of service (QOS) parameters used in this study are throughput, packet loss, and end to end delay. Energy parameters are also used to examine the energy efficiency used. This study uses the number of variations of nodes consisting of 20 nodes, 40 nodes, 60 nodes, and different network conditions, namely normal network conditions, network conditions with black hole attacks, and network conditions with flooding attacks. The results obtained can be concluded that the highest value of throughput when network conditions are normal, the greatest value of packet loss when there is a black hole attack, the highest end to end delay value and the largest remaining energy when there is a flooding attack.