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Kazlouski, Andrei, Marchioro, Thomas, Manifavas, Harry, Markatos, Evangelos.  2021.  Do partner apps offer the same level of privacy protection? The case of wearable applications 2021 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops and other Affiliated Events (PerCom Workshops). :648—653.
We analyze partner health apps compatible with the Fitbit fitness tracker, and record what third parties they are talking to. We focus on the ten partner Android applications that have more than 50,000 downloads and are fitness-related. Our results show that most of the them contact “unexpected” third parties. Such third parties include social networks; analytics and advertisement services; weather APIs. We also investigate what information is shared by the partner apps with these unexpected entities. Our findings suggest that in many cases personal information of users might be shared, including the phone model; location and SIM carrier; email and connection history.
Sasu, Vasilică-Gabriel, Ciubotaru, Bogdan-Iulian, Popovici, Ramona, Popovici, Alexandru-Filip, Goga, Nicolae, Datta, Gora.  2021.  A Quantitative Research for Determining the User Requirements for Developing a System to Detect Depression. 2021 International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB). :1—4.
Purpose: Smart apps and wearables devices are an increasingly used way in healthcare to monitor a range of functions associated with certain health conditions. Even if in the present there are some devices and applications developed, there is no sufficient evidence of the use of such wearables devices in the detection of some disorders such as depression. Thus, through this paper, we want to address this need and present a quantitative research to determine the user requirements for developing a smart device that can detect depression. Material and Methods: To determine the user requirements for developing a system to detect depression we developed a questionnaire which was applied to 205 participants. Results and conclusions: Such a system addressed to detect depression is of interest among the respondents. The most essential parameters to be monitored refer to sleep quality, level of stress, circadian rhythm, and heart rate. Also, the developed system should prioritize reliability, privacy, security, and ease of use.
Tewari, Naveen, Datt, Gopal.  2021.  A Systematic Review of Security Issues and challenges with Futuristic Wearable Internet of Things (IoTs). 2021 International Conference on Technological Advancements and Innovations (ICTAI). :319—323.
Privacy and security are the key challenges of wearable IoTs. Smart wearables are becoming popular choice of people because of their indispensable application in the field of clinical medication and medical care, wellbeing the executives, working environments, training, and logical examination. Currently, IoT is facing several challenges, such as- user unawareness, lack of efficient security protocols, vulnerable wireless communication and device management, and improper device management. The paper investigates a efficient audit of safety and protection issues involved in wearable IoT devices with the following structure, as- (i) Background of IoT systems and applications (ii) Security and privacy issues in IoT (iii) Popular wearable IoTs in demand (iv) Highlight the existing IoT security and privacy solutions, and (v) Approaches to secure the futuristic IoT based environment. Finally, this study summarized with security vulnerabilities in IoT, Countermeasures and existing security and privacy solutions, and futuristic smart wearables.
Gómez, Giancarlo, Espina, Enrique, Armas-Aguirre, Jimmy, Molina, Juan Manuel Madrid.  2021.  Cybersecurity architecture functional model for cyber risk reduction in IoT based wearable devices. 2021 Congreso Internacional de Innovación y Tendencias en Ingeniería (CONIITI). :1—4.
In this paper, we propose a functional model for the implementation of devices that use the Internet of Things (IoT). In recent years, the number of devices connected to the internet per person has increased from 0.08 in 2003 to a total of 6.58 in 2020, suggesting an increase of 8,225% in 7 years. The proposal includes a functional IoT model of a cybersecurity architecture by including components to ensure compliance with the proposed controls within a cybersecurity framework to detect cyber threats in IoT-based wearable devices. The proposal focuses on reducing the number of vulnerabilities present in IoT devices since, on average, 57% of these devices are vulnerable to attacks. The model has a 3-layer structure: business, applications, and technology, where components such as policies, services and nodes are described accordingly. The validation was done through a simulated environment of a system for the control and monitoring of pregnant women using wearable devices. The results show reductions of the probability index and the impact of risks by 14.95% and 6.81% respectively.
Narwal, Bhawna, Ojha, Arushi, Goel, Nimisha, Dhawan, Sudipti.  2020.  A Yoking-Proof Based Remote Authentication Scheme for Cloud-Aided Wearable Devices (YPACW). 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.

The developments made in IoT applications have made wearable devices a popular choice for collecting user data to monitor this information and provide intelligent service support. Since wearable devices are continuously collecting and transporting a user's sensitive data over the network, there exist increased security challenges. Moreover, wearable devices lack the computation capabilities in comparison to traditional short-range communication devices. In this paper, authors propounded a Yoking Proof based remote Authentication scheme for Cloud-aided Wearable devices (YPACW) which takes PUF and cryptographic functions and joins them to achieve mutual authentication between the wearable devices and smartphone via a cloud server, by performing the simultaneous verification of these devices, using the established yoking-proofs. Relative to Liu et al.'s scheme, YPACW provides better results with the reduction of communication and processing cost significantly.

Zhang, C., Shahriar, H., Riad, A. B. M. K..  2020.  Security and Privacy Analysis of Wearable Health Device. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1767—1772.

Mobile wearable health devices have expanded prevalent usage and become very popular because of the valuable health monitor system. These devices provide general health tips and monitoring human health parameters as well as generally assisting the user to take better health of themselves. However, these devices are associated with security and privacy risk among the consumers because these devices deal with sensitive data information such as users sleeping arrangements, dieting formula such as eating constraint, pulse rate and so on. In this paper, we analyze the significant security and privacy features of three very popular health tracker devices: Fitbit, Jawbone and Google Glass. We very carefully analyze the devices' strength and how the devices communicate and its Bluetooth pairing process with mobile devices. We explore the possible malicious attack through Bluetooth networking by hacker. The outcomes of this analysis show how these devices allow third parties to gain sensitive information from the device exact location that causes the potential privacy breach for users. We analyze the reasons of user data security and privacy are gained by unauthorized people on wearable devices and the possible challenge to secure user data as well as the comparison of three wearable devices (Fitbit, Jawbone and Google Glass) security vulnerability and attack type.

Shi, Yang, Wang, Xiaoping, Fan, Hongfei.  2017.  Light-weight white-box encryption scheme with random padding for wearable consumer electronic devices. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. 63:44–52.
Wearable devices can be potentially captured or accessed in an unauthorized manner because of their physical nature. In such cases, they are in white-box attack contexts, where the adversary may have total visibility on the implementation of the built-in cryptosystem, with full control over its execution platform. Dealing with white-box attacks on wearable devices is undoubtedly a challenge. To serve as a countermeasure against threats in such contexts, we propose a lightweight encryption scheme to protect the confidentiality of data against white-box attacks. We constructed the scheme's encryption and decryption algorithms on a substitution-permutation network that consisted of random secret components. Moreover, the encryption algorithm uses random padding that does not need to be correctly decrypted as part of the input. This feature enables non-bijective linear transformations to be used in each encryption round to achieve strong security. The required storage for static data is relatively small and the algorithms perform well on various devices, which indicates that the proposed scheme satisfies the requirements of wearable computing in terms of limited memory and low computational power.
MacDermott, Áine, Lea, Stephen, Iqbal, Farkhund, Idowu, Ibrahim, Shah, Babar.  2019.  Forensic Analysis of Wearable Devices: Fitbit, Garmin and HETP Watches. 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–6.
Wearable technology has been on an exponential rise and shows no signs of slowing down. One category of wearable technology is Fitness bands, which have the potential to show a user's activity levels and location data. Such information stored in fitness bands is just the beginning of a long trail of evidence fitness bands can store, which represents a huge opportunity to digital forensic practitioners. On the surface of recent work and research in this area, there does not appear to be any similar work that has already taken place on fitness bands and particularly, the devices in this study, a Garmin Forerunner 110, a Fitbit Charge HR and a Generic low-cost HETP fitness tracker. In this paper, we present our analysis of these devices for any possible digital evidence in a forensically sound manner, identifying files of interest and location data on the device. Data accuracy and validity of the evidence is shown, as a test run scenario wearing all of the devices allowed for data comparison analysis.
Hassan, Mehmood, Mansoor, Khwaja, Tahir, Shahzaib, Iqbal, Waseem.  2019.  Enhanced Lightweight Cloud-assisted Mutual Authentication Scheme for Wearable Devices. 2019 International Conference on Applied and Engineering Mathematics (ICAEM). :62–67.
With the emergence of IoT, wearable devices are drawing attention and becoming part of our daily life. These wearable devices collect private information about their wearers. Mostly, a secure authentication process is used to verify a legitimate user that relies on the mobile terminal. Similarly, remote cloud services are used for verification and authentication of both wearable devices and wearers. Security is necessary to preserve the privacy of users. Some traditional authentication protocols are proposed which have vulnerabilities and are prone to different attacks like forgery, de-synchronization, and un-traceability issues. To address these vulnerabilities, recently, Wu et al. (2017) proposed a cloud-assisted authentication scheme which is costly in terms of computations required. Therefore this paper proposed an improved, lightweight and computationally efficient authentication scheme for wearable devices. The proposed scheme provides similar level of security as compared to Wu's (2017) scheme but requires 41.2% lesser computations.
Zhao, Tianming, Wang, Yan, Liu, Jian, Chen, Yingying.  2018.  Your Heart Won'T Lie: PPG-based Continuous Authentication on Wrist-worn Wearable Devices. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. :783–785.
This paper presents a photoplethysmography (PPG)-based continuous user authentication (CA) system, which especially leverages the PPG sensors in wrist-worn wearable devices to identify users. We explore the uniqueness of the human cardiac system captured by the PPG sensing technology. Existing CA systems require either the dedicated sensing hardware or specific gestures, whereas our system does not require any users' interactions but only the wearable device, which has already been pervasively equipped with PPG sensors. Notably, we design a robust motion artifacts (MA) removal method to mitigate the impact of MA from wrist movements. Additionally, we explore the characteristic fiducial features from PPG measurements to efficiently distinguish the human cardiac system. Furthermore, we develop a cardiac-based classifier for user identification using the Gradient Boosting Tree (GBT). Experiments with the prototype of the wrist-worn PPG sensing platform and 10 participants in different scenarios demonstrate that our system can effectively remove MA and achieve a high average authentication success rate over \$90%\$.
Hagen, Loni.  2017.  Overcoming the Privacy Challenges of Wearable Devices: A Study on the Role of Digital Literacy. Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. :598–599.

This paper argues that standard privacy policy principles are unsuitable for wearable devices, and introduces a proposal to test the role of digital literacy on privacy concerns and behaviors, in an effort to devise modified privacy policies that are appropriate for wearable devices.

Hamouda, R. Ben, Hafaiedh, I. Ben.  2017.  Formal Modeling and Verification of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Protocol: S-TDMA Protocol. 2017 International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications (IINTEC). :72–77.

WBANs integrate wearable and implanted devices with wireless communication and information processing systems to monitor the well-being of an individual. Various MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols with different objectives have been proposed for WBANs. The fact that any flaw in these critical systems may lead to the loss of one's life implies that testing and verifying MAC's protocols for such systems are on the higher level of importance. In this paper, we firstly propose a high-level formal and scalable model with timing aspects for a MAC protocol particularly designed for WBANs, named S-TDMA (Statistical frame based TDMA protocol). The protocol uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) bus arbitration, which requires temporal aspect modeling. Secondly, we propose a formal validation of several relevant properties such as deadlock freedom, fairness and mutual exclusion of this protocol at a high level of abstraction. The protocol was modeled using a composition of timed automata components, and verification was performed using a real-time model checker.

Zhang, P., Zhang, X., Sun, X., Liu, J. K., Yu, J., Jiang, Z. L..  2017.  Anonymous Anti-Sybil Attack Protocol for Mobile Healthcare Networks Analytics. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :668–674.

Mobile Healthcare Networks (MHN) continuouslycollect the patients' health data sensed by wearable devices, andanalyze the collected data pre-processed by servers combinedwith medical histories, such that disease diagnosis and treatmentare improved, and the heavy burden on the existing healthservices is released. However, the network is vulnerable to Sybilattacks, which would degrade network performance, disruptproceedings, manipulate data or cheat others maliciously. What'smore, the user is reluctant to leak identity privacy, so the identityprivacy preserving makes Sybil defenses more difficult. One ofthe best choices is mutually authenticating each other with noidentity information involved. Thus, we propose a fine-grainedauthentication scheme based on Attribute-Based Signature (ABS)using lattice assumption, where a signer is authorized by an at-tribute set instead of single identity string. This ABS scheme usesFiat-Shamir framework and supports flexible threshold signaturepredicates. Moreover, to anonymously guarantee integrity andavailability of health data in MHN, we design an anonymousanti-Sybil attack protocol based on our ABS scheme, so thatSybil attacks are prevented. As there is no linkability betweenidentities and services, the users' identity privacy is protected. Finally, we have analyzed the security and simulated the runningtime for our proposed ABS scheme.

Langone, M., Setola, R., Lopez, J..  2017.  Cybersecurity of Wearable Devices: An Experimental Analysis and a Vulnerability Assessment Method. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:304–309.

The widespread diffusion of the Internet of Things (IoT) is introducing a huge number of Internet-connected devices in our daily life. Mainly, wearable devices are going to have a large impact on our lifestyle, especially in a healthcare scenario. In this framework, it is fundamental to secure exchanged information between these devices. Among other factors, it is important to take into account the link between a wearable device and a smart unit (e.g., smartphone). This connection is generally obtained via specific wireless protocols such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE): the main topic of this work is to analyse the security of this communication link. In this paper we expose, via an experimental campaign, a methodology to perform a vulnerability assessment (VA) on wearable devices communicating with a smartphone. In this way, we identify several security issues in a set of commercial wearable devices.

Doolan, S., Hoseiny, N., Hosein, N., Bhagwandin, D..  2017.  Constant Time, Fixed Memory, Zero False Negative Error Logging for Low Power Wearable Devices. 2017 IEEE Conference on Wireless Sensors (ICWiSe). :1–5.

Wireless wearable embedded devices dominate the Internet of Things (IoT) due to their ability to provide useful information about the body and its local environment. The constrained resources of low power processors, however, pose a significant challenge to run-time error logging and hence, product reliability. Error logs classify error type and often system state following the occurrence of an error. Traditional error logging algorithms attempt to balance storage and accuracy by selectively overwriting past log entries. Since a specific combination of firmware faults may result in system instability, preserving all error occurrences becomes increasingly beneficial as IOT systems become more complex. In this paper, a novel hash-based error logging algorithm is presented which has both constant insertion time and constant memory while also exhibiting no false negatives and an acceptable false positive error rate. Both theoretical analysis and simulations are used to compare the performance of the hash-based and traditional approaches.

Yadav, S., Howells, G..  2017.  Analysis of ICMetrics Features/Technology for Wearable Devices IOT Sensors. 2017 Seventh International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies (EST). :175–178.

This paper investigates the suitability of employing various measurable features derived from multiple wearable devices (Apple Watch), for the generation of unique authentication and encryption keys related to the user. This technique is termed as ICMetrics. The ICMetrics technology requires identifying the suitable features in an environment for key generation most useful for online services. This paper presents an evaluation of the feasibility of identifying a unique user based on desirable feature set and activity data collected over short and long term and explores how the number of samples being factored into the ICMetrics system affects uniqueness of the key.

Odesile, A., Thamilarasu, G..  2017.  Distributed Intrusion Detection Using Mobile Agents in Wireless Body Area Networks. 2017 Seventh International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies (EST). :144–149.

Technological advances in wearable and implanted medical devices are enabling wireless body area networks to alter the current landscape of medical and healthcare applications. These systems have the potential to significantly improve real time patient monitoring, provide accurate diagnosis and deliver faster treatment. In spite of their growth, securing the sensitive medical and patient data relayed in these networks to protect patients' privacy and safety still remains an open challenge. The resource constraints of wireless medical sensors limit the adoption of traditional security measures in this domain. In this work, we propose a distributed mobile agent based intrusion detection system to secure these networks. Specifically, our autonomous mobile agents use machine learning algorithms to perform local and network level anomaly detection to detect various security attacks targeted on healthcare systems. Simulation results show that our system performs efficiently with high detection accuracy and low energy consumption.

Fereidooni, H., Frassetto, T., Miettinen, M., Sadeghi, A. R., Conti, M..  2017.  Fitness Trackers: Fit for Health but Unfit for Security and Privacy. 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Connected Health: Applications, Systems and Engineering Technologies (CHASE). :19–24.

Wearable devices for fitness tracking and health monitoring have gained considerable popularity and become one of the fastest growing smart devices market. More and more companies are offering integrated health and activity monitoring solutions for fitness trackers. Recently insurances are offering their customers better conditions for health and condition monitoring. However, the extensive sensitive information collected by tracking products and accessibility by third party service providers poses vital security and privacy challenges on the employed solutions. In this paper, we present our security analysis of a representative sample of current fitness tracking products on the market. In particular, we focus on malicious user setting that aims at injecting false data into the cloud-based services leading to erroneous data analytics. We show that none of these products can provide data integrity, authenticity and confidentiality.

Alharam, A. K., El-madany, W..  2017.  Complexity of Cyber Security Architecture for IoT Healthcare Industry: A Comparative Study. 2017 5th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud Workshops (FiCloudW). :246–250.

In recent years a wide range of wearable IoT healthcare applications have been developed and deployed. The rapid increase in wearable devices allows the transfer of patient personal information between different devices, at the same time personal health and wellness information of patients can be tracked and attacked. There are many techniques that are used for protecting patient information in medical and wearable devices. In this research a comparative study of the complexity for cyber security architecture and its application in IoT healthcare industry has been carried out. The objective of the study is for protecting healthcare industry from cyber attacks focusing on IoT based healthcare devices. The design has been implemented on Xilinx Zynq-7000, targeting XC7Z030 - 3fbg676 FPGA device.

Zhang, Q., Liang, Z..  2017.  Security Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Based Smart Wristbands. 2017 2nd International Conference on Frontiers of Sensors Technologies (ICFST). :421–425.

Wearable devices are being more popular in our daily life. Especially, smart wristbands are booming in the market recently, which can be used to monitor health status, track fitness data, or even do medical tests, etc. For this reason, smart wristbands can obtain a lot of personal data. Hence, users and manufacturers should pay more attention to the security aspects of smart wristbands. However, we have found that some Bluetooth Low Energy based smart wristbands have very weak or even no security protection mechanism, therefore, they are vulnerable to replay attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, brute-force attacks, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, etc. We have investigated four different popular smart wristbands and a smart watch. Among them, only the smart watch is protected by some security mechanisms while the other four smart wristbands are not protected. In our experiments, we have also figured out all the message formats of the controlling commands of these smart wristbands and developed an Android software application as a testing tool. Powered by the resolved command formats, this tool can directly control these wristbands, and any other wristbands of these four models, without using the official supporting applications.

Chen, Y., Chen, W..  2017.  Finger ECG-Based Authentication for Healthcare Data Security Using Artificial Neural Network. 2017 IEEE 19th International Conference on E-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom). :1–6.

Wearable and mobile medical devices provide efficient, comfortable, and economic health monitoring, having a wide range of applications from daily to clinical scenarios. Health data security becomes a critically important issue. Electrocardiogram (ECG) has proven to be a potential biometric in human recognition over the past decade. Unlike conventional authentication methods using passwords, fingerprints, face, etc., ECG signal can not be simply intercepted, duplicated, and enables continuous identification. However, in many of the studies, algorithms developed are not suitable for practical application, which usually require long ECG data for authentication. In this work, we introduce a two-phase authentication using artificial neural network (NN) models. This algorithm enables fast authentication within only 3 seconds, meanwhile achieves reasonable performance in recognition. We test the proposed method in a controlled laboratory experiment with 50 subjects. Finger ECG signals are collected using a mobile device at different times and physical statues. At the first stage, a ``General'' NN model is constructed based on data from the cohort and used for preliminary screening, while at the second stage ``Personal'' NN models constructed from single individual's data are applied as fine-grained identification. The algorithm is tested on the whole data set, and on different sizes of subsets (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40). Results proved that the proposed method is feasible and reliable for individual authentication, having obtained average False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) below 10% for the whole data set.

Sonune, S., Kalbande, D..  2017.  IoT Enabled API for Secure Transfer of Medical Data. 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control (I2C2). :1–6.

Internet of Things devices (IoT-D) have limited resource capacity. But these devices can share resources. Hence, they are being used in variety of applications in various fields including smart city, smart energy, healthcare etc. Traditional practice of medicine and healthcare is mostly heuristic driven. There exist big gaps in our understanding of human body, disease and health. We can use upcoming digital revolution to turn healthcare upside down with data-driven medical science. Various healthcare companies now provide remote healthcare services. Healthcare professionals are also adapting remote healthcare monitoring practices so as to monitor patients who are either hospitalized or executing their normal lifestyle activities at remote locations. Wearable devices available in the market calculate different health parameters and corresponding applications pass the information to server through their proprietary platforms. However, these devices or applications cannot directly communicate or share the data. So, there needs an API to access health and wellness data from different wearable medical devices and applications. This paper proposes and demonstrates an API to connect different wearable healthcare devices and transfer patient personal information securely to the doctor or health provider.

Kwiatkowska, M..  2016.  Advances and challenges of quantitative verification and synthesis for cyber-physical systems. 2016 Science of Security for Cyber-Physical Systems Workshop (SOSCYPS). :1–5.

We are witnessing a huge growth of cyber-physical systems, which are autonomous, mobile, endowed with sensing, controlled by software, and often wirelessly connected and Internet-enabled. They include factory automation systems, robotic assistants, self-driving cars, and wearable and implantable devices. Since they are increasingly often used in safety- or business-critical contexts, to mention invasive treatment or biometric authentication, there is an urgent need for modelling and verification technologies to support the design process, and hence improve the reliability and reduce production costs. This paper gives an overview of quantitative verification and synthesis techniques developed for cyber-physical systems, summarising recent achievements and future challenges in this important field.

Wang, Chen, Guo, Xiaonan, Wang, Yan, Chen, Yingying, Liu, Bo.  2016.  Friend or Foe?: Your Wearable Devices Reveal Your Personal PIN Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :189–200.

The proliferation of wearable devices, e.g., smartwatches and activity trackers, with embedded sensors has already shown its great potential on monitoring and inferring human daily activities. This paper reveals a serious security breach of wearable devices in the context of divulging secret information (i.e., key entries) while people accessing key-based security systems. Existing methods of obtaining such secret information relies on installations of dedicated hardware (e.g., video camera or fake keypad), or training with labeled data from body sensors, which restrict use cases in practical adversary scenarios. In this work, we show that a wearable device can be exploited to discriminate mm-level distances and directions of the user's fine-grained hand movements, which enable attackers to reproduce the trajectories of the user's hand and further to recover the secret key entries. In particular, our system confirms the possibility of using embedded sensors in wearable devices, i.e., accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, to derive the moving distance of the user's hand between consecutive key entries regardless of the pose of the hand. Our Backward PIN-Sequence Inference algorithm exploits the inherent physical constraints between key entries to infer the complete user key entry sequence. Extensive experiments are conducted with over 5000 key entry traces collected from 20 adults for key-based security systems (i.e. ATM keypads and regular keyboards) through testing on different kinds of wearables. Results demonstrate that such a technique can achieve 80% accuracy with only one try and more than 90% accuracy with three tries, which to our knowledge, is the first technique that reveals personal PINs leveraging wearable devices without the need for labeled training data and contextual information.

Tsao, Chia-Chin, Chen, Yan-Ying, Hou, Yu-Lin, Hsu, Winston H..  2015.  Identify Visual Human Signature in community via wearable camera. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2229–2233.

With the increasing popularity of wearable devices, information becomes much easily available. However, personal information sharing still poses great challenges because of privacy issues. We propose an idea of Visual Human Signature (VHS) which can represent each person uniquely even captured in different views/poses by wearable cameras. We evaluate the performance of multiple effective modalities for recognizing an identity, including facial appearance, visual patches, facial attributes and clothing attributes. We propose to emphasize significant dimensions and do weighted voting fusion for incorporating the modalities to improve the VHS recognition. By jointly considering multiple modalities, the VHS recognition rate can reach by 51% in frontal images and 48% in the more challenging environment and our approach can surpass the baseline with average fusion by 25% and 16%. We also introduce Multiview Celebrity Identity Dataset (MCID), a new dataset containing hundreds of identities with different view and clothing for comprehensive evaluation.