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Ahmadian, M. M., Shahriari, H. R..  2016.  2entFOX: A framework for high survivable ransomwares detection. 2016 13th International Iranian Society of Cryptology Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :79–84.

Ransomwares have become a growing threat since 2012, and the situation continues to worsen until now. The lack of security mechanisms and security awareness are pushing the systems into mire of ransomware attacks. In this paper, a new framework called 2entFOX' is proposed in order to detect high survivable ransomwares (HSR). To our knowledge this framework can be considered as one of the first frameworks in ransomware detection because of little publicly-available research in this field. We analyzed Windows ransomwares' behaviour and we tried to find appropriate features which are particular useful in detecting this type of malwares with high detection accuracy and low false positive rate. After hard experimental analysis we extracted 20 effective features which due to two highly efficient ones we could achieve an appropriate set for HSRs detection. After proposing architecture based on Bayesian belief network, the final evaluation is done on some known ransomware samples and unknown ones based on six different scenarios. The result of this evaluations shows the high accuracy of 2entFox in detection of HSRs.

Buranasaksee, U., Porkaew, K., Supasitthimethee, U..  2014.  AccAuth: Accounting system for OAuth protocol. Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies (ICADIWT), 2014 Fifth International Conference on the. :8-13.

When a user accesses a resource, the accounting process at the server side does the job of keeping track of the resource usage so as to charge the user. In cloud computing, a user may use more than one service provider and need two independent service providers to work together. In this user-centric context, the user is the owner of the information and has the right to authorize to a third party application to access the protected resource on the user's behalf. Therefore, the user also needs to monitor the authorized resource usage he granted to third party applications. However, the existing accounting protocols were proposed to monitor the resource usage in terms of how the user uses the resource from the service provider. This paper proposed the user-centric accounting model called AccAuth which designs an accounting layer to an OAuth protocol. Then the prototype was implemented, and the proposed model was evaluated against the standard requirements. The result showed that AccAuth passed all the requirements.

Bai, Xu, Jiang, Lei, Dai, Qiong, Yang, Jiajia, Tan, Jianlong.  2017.  Acceleration of RSA processes based on hybrid ARM-FPGA cluster. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :682–688.

Cooperation of software and hardware with hybrid architectures, such as Xilinx Zynq SoC combining ARM CPU and FPGA fabric, is a high-performance and low-power platform for accelerating RSA Algorithm. This paper adopts the none-subtraction Montgomery algorithm and the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) to implement high-speed RSA processors, and deploys a 48-node cluster infrastructure based on Zynq SoC to achieve extremely high scalability and throughput of RSA computing. In this design, we use the ARM to implement node-to-node communication with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) while use the FPGA to handle complex calculation. Finally, the experimental results show that the overall performance is linear with the number of nodes. And the cluster achieves 6× 9× speedup against a multi-core desktop (Intel i7-3770) and comparable performance to a many-core server (288-core). In addition, we gain up to 2.5× energy efficiency compared to these two traditional platforms.

Yi, Zhuo, Du, Xuehui, Liao, Ying, Lu, Xin.  2019.  An Access Authentication Algorithm Based on a Hierarchical Identity-Based Signature over Lattice for the Space-Ground Integrated Network. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–9.

Access authentication is a key technology to identify the legitimacy of mobile users when accessing the space-ground integrated networks (SGIN). A hierarchical identity-based signature over lattice (L-HIBS) based mobile access authentication mechanism is proposed to settle the insufficiencies of existing access authentication methods in SGIN such as high computational complexity, large authentication delay and no-resistance to quantum attack. Firstly, the idea of hierarchical identity-based cryptography is introduced according to hierarchical distribution of nodes in SGIN, and a hierarchical access authentication architecture is built. Secondly, a new L-HIBS scheme is constructed based on the Small Integer Solution (SIS) problem to support the hierarchical identity-based cryptography. Thirdly, a mobile access authentication protocol that supports bidirectional authentication and shared session key exchange is designed with the aforementioned L-HIBS scheme. Results of theoretical analysis and simulation experiments suggest that the L-HIBS scheme possesses strong unforgeability of selecting identity and adaptive selection messages under the standard security model, and the authentication protocol has smaller computational overhead and shorter private keys and shorter signature compared to given baseline protocols.

Alshehri, A., Sandhu, R..  2017.  Access Control Models for Virtual Object Communication in Cloud-Enabled IoT. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :16–25.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the latest evolution of the Internet, encompassing an enormous number of connected physical "things." The access-control oriented (ACO) architecture was recently proposed for cloud-enabled IoT, with virtual objects (VOs) and cloud services in the middle layers. A central aspect of ACO is to control communication among VOs. This paper develops operational and administrative access control models for this purpose, assuming topic-based publishsubscribe interaction among VOs. Operational models are developed using (i) access control lists for topics and capabilities for virtual objects and (ii) attribute-based access control, and it is argued that role-based access control is not suitable for this purpose. Administrative models for these two operational models are developed using (i) access control lists, (ii) role-based access control, and (iii) attribute-based access control. A use case illustrates the details of these access control models for VO communication, and their differences. An assessment of these models with respect to security and privacy preserving objectives of IoT is also provided.
Yap, B. L., Baskaran, V. M..  2016.  Active surveillance using depth sensing technology \#8212; Part I: Intrusion detection. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Taiwan (ICCE-TW). :1–2.

In part I of a three-part series on active surveillance using depth-sensing technology, this paper proposes an algorithm to identify outdoor intrusion activities by monitoring skeletal positions from Microsoft Kinect sensor in real-time. This algorithm implements three techniques to identify a premise intrusion. The first technique observes a boundary line along the wall (or fence) of a surveilled premise for skeletal trespassing detection. The second technique observes the duration of a skeletal object within a region of a surveilled premise for loitering detection. The third technique analyzes the differences in skeletal height to identify wall climbing. Experiment results suggest that the proposed algorithm is able to detect trespassing, loitering and wall climbing at a rate of 70%, 85% and 80% respectively.

Jin, X., Haddad, W. M., Hayakawa, T..  2017.  An Adaptive Control Architecture for Cyber-Physical System Security in the Face of Sensor and Actuator Attacks and Exogenous Stochastic Disturbances. 2017 IEEE 56th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :1380–1385.

In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive control architecture for addressing security and safety in cyber-physical systems subject to exogenous disturbances. Specifically, we develop an adaptive controller for time-invariant, state-dependent adversarial sensor and actuator attacks in the face of stochastic exogenous disturbances. We show that the proposed controller guarantees uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop dynamical system in a mean-square sense. We further discuss the practicality of the proposed approach and provide a numerical example involving the lateral directional dynamics of an aircraft to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed adaptive control architecture.

Kakanakov, N., Shopov, M..  2017.  Adaptive models for security and data protection in IoT with Cloud technologies. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1001–1004.

The paper presents an example Sensor-cloud architecture that integrates security as its native ingredient. It is based on the multi-layer client-server model with separation of physical and virtual instances of sensors, gateways, application servers and data storage. It proposes the application of virtualised sensor nodes as a prerequisite for increasing security, privacy, reliability and data protection. All main concerns in Sensor-Cloud security are addressed: from secure association, authentication and authorization to privacy and data integrity and protection. The main concept is that securing the virtual instances is easier to implement, manage and audit and the only bottleneck is the physical interaction between real sensor and its virtual reflection.

Fan, Renshi, Du, Gaoming, Xu, Pengfei, Li, Zhenmin, Song, Yukun, Zhang, Duoli.  2019.  An Adaptive Routing Scheme Based on Q-learning and Real-time Traffic Monitoring for Network-on-Chip. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :244—248.
In the Network on Chip (NoC), performance optimization has always been a research focus. Compared with the static routing scheme, dynamical routing schemes can better reduce the data of packet transmission latency under network congestion. In this paper, we propose a dynamical Q-learning routing approach with real-time monitoring of NoC. Firstly, we design a real-time monitoring scheme and the corresponding circuits to record the status of traffic congestion for NoC. Secondly, we propose a novel method of Q-learning. This method finds an optimal path based on the lowest traffic congestion. Finally, we dynamically redistribute network tasks to increase the packet transmission speed and balance the traffic load. Compared with the C-XY routing and DyXY routing, our method achieved improvement in terms of 25.6%-49.5% and 22.9%-43.8%.
Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Signorello, S., Marchal, S., François, J., Festor, O., State, R..  2017.  Advanced interest flooding attacks in named-data networking. 2017 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–10.

The Named-Data Networking (NDN) has emerged as a clean-slate Internet proposal on the wave of Information-Centric Networking. Although the NDN's data-plane seems to offer many advantages, e.g., native support for multicast communications and flow balance, it also makes the network infrastructure vulnerable to a specific DDoS attack, the Interest Flooding Attack (IFA). In IFAs, a botnet issuing unsatisfiable content requests can be set up effortlessly to exhaust routers' resources and cause a severe performance drop to legitimate users. So far several countermeasures have addressed this security threat, however, their efficacy was proved by means of simplistic assumptions on the attack model. Therefore, we propose a more complete attack model and design an advanced IFA. We show the efficiency of our novel attack scheme by extensively assessing some of the state-of-the-art countermeasures. Further, we release the software to perform this attack as open source tool to help design future more robust defense mechanisms.

Arefin, Sayed Erfan, Heya, Tasnia Ashrafi, Chakrabarty, Amitabha.  2019.  Agent Based Fog Architecture using NDN and Trust Management for IoT. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :257—262.
Statistics suggests, proceeding towards IoT generation, is increasing IoT devices at a drastic rate. This will be very challenging for our present-day network infrastructure to manage, this much of data. This may risk, both security and traffic collapsing. We have proposed an infrastructure with Fog Computing. The Fog layer consists two layers, using the concepts of Service oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Agent based composition model which ensures the traffic usage reduction. In order to have a robust and secured system, we have modified the Fog based agent model by replacing the SOA with secured Named Data Network (NDN) protocol. Knowing the fact that NDN has the caching layer, we are combining NDN and with Fog, as it can overcome the forwarding strategy limitation and memory constraints of NDN by the Agent Society, in the Middle layer along with Trust management.
A. Dutta, R. K. Mangang.  2015.  "Analog to information converter based on random demodulation". 2015 International Conference on Electronic Design, Computer Networks Automated Verification (EDCAV). :105-109.

With the increase in signal's bandwidth, the conventional analog to digital converters (ADCs), operating on the basis of Shannon/Nyquist theorem, are forced to work at very high rates leading to low dynamic range and high power consumptions. This paper here tells about one Analog to Information converter developed based on compressive sensing techniques. The high sampling rates, which is the main drawback for ADCs, is being successfully reduced to 4 times lower than the conventional rates. The system is also accompanied with the advantage of low power dissipation.

Shropshire, J..  2014.  Analysis of Monolithic and Microkernel Architectures: Towards Secure Hypervisor Design. System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on. :5008-5017.

This research focuses on hyper visor security from holistic perspective. It centers on hyper visor architecture - the organization of the various subsystems which collectively compromise a virtualization platform. It holds that the path to a secure hyper visor begins with a big-picture focus on architecture. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted with this perspective. This study investigates the impact of monolithic and micro kernel hyper visor architectures on the size and scope of the attack surface. Six architectural features are compared: management API, monitoring interface, hyper calls, interrupts, networking, and I/O. These subsystems are core hyper visor components which could be used as attack vectors. Specific examples and three leading hyper visor platforms are referenced (ESXi for monolithic architecture; Xen and Hyper-V for micro architecture). The results describe the relative strengths and vulnerabilities of both types of architectures. It is concluded that neither design is more secure, since both incorporate security tradeoffs in core processes.

Aloui, M., Elbiaze, H., Glitho, R., Yangui, S..  2018.  Analytics as a service architecture for cloud-based CDN: Case of video popularity prediction. 2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–4.
User Generated Videos (UGV) are the dominating content stored in scattered caches to meet end-user Content Delivery Networks (CDN) requests with quality of service. End-User behaviour leads to a highly variable UGV popularity. This aspect can be exploited to efficiently utilize the limited storage of the caches, and improve the hit ratio of UGVs. In this paper, we propose a new architecture for Data Analytics in Cloud-based CDN to derive UGVs popularity online. This architecture uses RESTful web services to gather CDN logs, store them through generic collections in a NoSQL database, and calculate related popular UGVs in a real time fashion. It uses a dynamic model training and prediction services to provide each CDN with related popular videos to be cached based on the latest trained model. The proposed architecture is implemented with k-means clustering prediction model and the obtained results are 99.8% accurate.
Gonzalez, D., Alhenaki, F., Mirakhorli, M..  2019.  Architectural Security Weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) an Empirical Study Based on Disclosed Software Vulnerabilities. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA). :31–40.

Industrial control systems (ICS) are systems used in critical infrastructures for supervisory control, data acquisition, and industrial automation. ICS systems have complex, component-based architectures with many different hardware, software, and human factors interacting in real time. Despite the importance of security concerns in industrial control systems, there has not been a comprehensive study that examined common security architectural weaknesses in this domain. Therefore, this paper presents the first in-depth analysis of 988 vulnerability advisory reports for Industrial Control Systems developed by 277 vendors. We performed a detailed analysis of the vulnerability reports to measure which components of ICS have been affected the most by known vulnerabilities, which security tactics were affected most often in ICS and what are the common architectural security weaknesses in these systems. Our key findings were: (1) Human-Machine Interfaces, SCADA configurations, and PLCs were the most affected components, (2) 62.86% of vulnerability disclosures in ICS had an architectural root cause, (3) the most common architectural weaknesses were “Improper Input Validation”, followed by “Im-proper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation” and “Improper Authentication”, and (4) most tactic-related vulnerabilities were related to the tactics “Validate Inputs”, “Authenticate Actors” and “Authorize Actors”.

Polyakov, V. V., Lapin, S. A..  2018.  Architecture of the Honeypot System for Studying Targeted Attacks. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :202-205.
Among the threats to information systems of state institutions, enterprises and financial organizations of particular importance are those originating from organized criminal groups that specialize in obtaining unauthorized access to the computer information protected by law. Criminal groups often possess a material base including financial, technical, human and other resources that allow to perform targeted attacks on information resources as secretly as possible. The principal features of such targeted attacks are the use of software created or modified specifically for use in illegal purposes with respect to specific organizations. Due to these circumstances, the detection of such attacks is quite difficult, and their prevention is even more complicated. In this regard, the task of identifying and analyzing such threats is very relevant. One effective way to solve it is to implement the Honeypot system, which allows to research the strategy and tactics of the attackers. In the present article, there is proposed the original architecture of the Honeypot system designed to study targeted attacks on information systems of criminogenic objects. The architectural design includes such basic elements as the functional component, the registrar of events occurring in the system and the protector. The key features of the proposed Honeypot system are considered, and the functional purpose of its main components is described. The proposed system can find its application in providing information security of institutions, organizations and enterprises, it can be used in the development of information security systems.
Repetto, M., Carrega, A., Lamanna, G..  2019.  An architecture to manage security services for cloud applications. 2019 4th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Security (ICCCS). :1—8.
The uptake of virtualization and cloud technologies has pushed novel development and operation models for the software, bringing more agility and automation. Unfortunately, cyber-security paradigms have not evolved at the same pace and are not yet able to effectively tackle the progressive disappearing of a sharp security perimeter. In this paper, we describe a novel cyber-security architecture for cloud-based distributed applications and network services. We propose a security orchestrator that controls pervasive, lightweight, and programmable security hooks embedded in the virtual functions that compose the cloud application, pursuing better visibility and more automation in this domain. Our approach improves existing management practice for service orchestration, by decoupling the management of the business logic from that of security. We also describe the current implementation stage for a programmable monitoring, inspection, and enforcement framework, which represents the ground technology for the realization of the whole architecture.
Agrawal, R., Stokes, J. W., Selvaraj, K., Marinescu, M..  2019.  Attention in Recurrent Neural Networks for Ransomware Detection. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :3222–3226.

Ransomware, as a specialized form of malicious software, has recently emerged as a major threat in computer security. With an ability to lock out user access to their content, recent ransomware attacks have caused severe impact at an individual and organizational level. While research in malware detection can be adapted directly for ransomware, specific structural properties of ransomware can further improve the quality of detection. In this paper, we adapt the deep learning methods used in malware detection for detecting ransomware from emulation sequences. We present specialized recurrent neural networks for capturing local event patterns in ransomware sequences using the concept of attention mechanisms. We demonstrate the performance of enhanced LSTM models on a sequence dataset derived by the emulation of ransomware executables targeting the Windows environment.

Iqbal, H., Ma, J., Mu, Q., Ramaswamy, V., Raymond, G., Vivanco, D., Zuena, J..  2017.  Augmenting Security of Internet-of-Things Using Programmable Network-Centric Approaches: A Position Paper. 2017 26th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–6.

Advances in nanotechnology, large scale computing and communications infrastructure, coupled with recent progress in big data analytics, have enabled linking several billion devices to the Internet. These devices provide unprecedented automation, cognitive capabilities, and situational awareness. This new ecosystem–termed as the Internet-of-Things (IoT)–also provides many entry points into the network through the gadgets that connect to the Internet, making security of IoT systems a complex problem. In this position paper, we argue that in order to build a safer IoT system, we need a radically new approach to security. We propose a new security framework that draws ideas from software defined networks (SDN), and data analytics techniques; this framework provides dynamic policy enforcements on every layer of the protocol stack and can adapt quickly to a diverse set of industry use-cases that IoT deployments cater to. Our proposal does not make any assumptions on the capabilities of the devices - it can work with already deployed as well as new types of devices, while also conforming to a service-centric architecture. Even though our focus is on industrial IoT systems, the ideas presented here are applicable to IoT used in a wide array of applications. The goal of this position paper is to initiate a dialogue among standardization bodies and security experts to help raise awareness about network-centric approaches to IoT security.

Nakhla, N., Perrett, K., McKenzie, C..  2017.  Automated computer network defence using ARMOUR: Mission-oriented decision support and vulnerability mitigation. 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.

Mission assurance requires effective, near-real time defensive cyber operations to appropriately respond to cyber attacks, without having a significant impact on operations. The ability to rapidly compute, prioritize and execute network-based courses of action (CoAs) relies on accurate situational awareness and mission-context information. Although diverse solutions exist for automatically collecting and analysing infrastructure data, few deliver automated analysis and implementation of network-based CoAs in the context of the ongoing mission. In addition, such processes can be operatorintensive and available tools tend to be specific to a set of common data sources and network responses. To address these issues, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) is leading the development of the Automated Computer Network Defence (ARMOUR) technology demonstrator and cyber defence science and technology (S&T) platform. ARMOUR integrates new and existing off-the-shelf capabilities to provide enhanced decision support and to automate many of the tasks currently executed manually by network operators. This paper describes the cyber defence integration framework, situational awareness, and automated mission-oriented decision support that ARMOUR provides.

Kwon, Y., Kim, H. K., Koumadi, K. M., Lim, Y. H., Lim, J. I..  2017.  Automated Vulnerability Analysis Technique for Smart Grid Infrastructure. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

A smart grid is a fully automated power electricity network, which operates, protects and controls all its physical environments of power electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various vulnerability analysis methodologies for general systems have been suggested, whereas there has been few practical research targeting the smart grid infrastructure. In this paper, we highlight the significance of security vulnerability analysis in the smart grid environment. Then we introduce various automated vulnerability analysis techniques from executable files. In our approach, we propose a novel binary-based vulnerability discovery method for AMI and EV charging system to automatically extract security-related features from the embedded software. Finally, we present the test result of vulnerability discovery applied for AMI and EV charging system in Korean smart grid environment.

Nazir, S., Patel, S., Patel, D..  2017.  Autonomic computing meets SCADA security. 2017 IEEE 16th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC). :498–502.

National assets such as transportation networks, large manufacturing, business and health facilities, power generation, and distribution networks are critical infrastructures. The cyber threats to these infrastructures have increasingly become more sophisticated, extensive and numerous. Cyber security conventional measures have proved useful in the past but increasing sophistication of attacks dictates the need for newer measures. The autonomic computing paradigm mimics the autonomic nervous system and is promising to meet the latest challenges in the cyber threat landscape. This paper provides a brief review of autonomic computing applications for SCADA systems and proposes architecture for cyber security.

Fargo, F., Sury, S..  2018.  Autonomic Secure HPC Fabric Architecture. 2018 IEEE/ACS 15th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1-4.

Cloud computing is the major paradigm in today's IT world with the capabilities of security management, high performance, flexibility, scalability. Customers valuing these features can better benefit if they use a cloud environment built using HPC fabric architecture. However, security is still a major concern, not only on the software side but also on the hardware side. There are multiple studies showing that the malicious users can affect the regular customers through the hardware if they are co-located on the same physical system. Therefore, solving possible security concerns on the HPC fabric architecture will clearly make the fabric industries leader in this area. In this paper, we propose an autonomic HPC fabric architecture that leverages both resilient computing capabilities and adaptive anomaly analysis for further security.

Kahvazadeh, Sarang, Masip-Bruin, Xavi, Díaz, Rodrigo, Marín-Tordera, Eva, Jurnet, Alejandro, Garcia, Jordi, Juan, Ana, Simó, Ester.  2019.  Balancing Security Guarantees vs QoS Provisioning in Combined Fog-to-Cloud Systems. 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–6.

Several efforts are currently active in dealing with scenarios combining fog, cloud computing, out of which a significant proportion is devoted to control, and manage the resulting scenario. Certainly, although many challenging aspects must be considered towards the design of an efficient management solution, it is with no doubt that whatever the solution is, the quality delivered to the users when executing services and the security guarantees provided to the users are two key aspects to be considered in the whole design. Unfortunately, both requirements are often non-convergent, thus making a solution suitably addressing both aspects is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a decoupled transversal security strategy, referred to as DCF, as a novel architectural oriented policy handling the QoS-Security trade-off, particularly designed to be applied to combined fog-to-cloud systems, and specifically highlighting its impact on the delivered QoS.