Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-09-16
Astakhova, Liudmila, Medvedev, Ivan.  2020.  The Software Application for Increasing the Awareness of Industrial Enterprise Workers on Information Security of Significant Objects of Critical Information Infrastructure. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :121–126.
Digitalization of production and management as the imperatives of Industry 4.0 stipulated the requirements of state regulators for informing and training personnel of a significant object of critical information infrastructure. However, the attention of industrial enterprises to this problem is assessed as insufficient. This determines the relevance and purpose of this article - to develop a methodology and tool for raising the awareness of workers of an industrial enterprise about information security (IS) of significant objects of critical information infrastructure. The article reveals the features of training at industrial enterprises associated with a high level of development of safety and labor protection systems. Traditional and innovative methods and means of training personnel at the workplace within the framework of these systems and their opportunities for training in the field of information security are shown. The specificity of the content and forms of training employees on the security of critical information infrastructure has been substantiated. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the development of methods and software applications that can perform the functions of identifying personal qualities of employees; testing the input level of their knowledge in the field of IS; testing for knowledge of IS rules (by the example of a response to socio-engineering attacks); planning an individual thematic plan for employee training; automatic creation of a modular program and its content; automatic notification of the employee about the training schedule at the workplace; organization of training according to the schedule; control self-testing and testing the level of knowledge of the employee after training; organizing a survey to determine satisfaction with employee training. The practical significance of the work lies in the possibility of implementing the developed software application in industrial enterprises, which is confirmed by the successful results of its testing.
2021-01-11
Tiwari, P., Skanda, C. S., Sanjana, U., Aruna, S., Honnavalli, P..  2020.  Secure Wipe Out in BYOD Environment. 2020 International Workshop on Big Data and Information Security (IWBIS). :109–114.
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is a new trend where employees use their personal devices to connect to their organization networks to access sensitive information and work-related systems. One of the primary challenges in BYOD is to securely delete company data when an employee leaves an organization. In common BYOD programs, the personal device in use is completely wiped out. This may lead to the deletion of personal data during exit procedures. Due to performance and deletion latency, erasure of data in most file systems today results in unlinking the file location and marking data blocks as unused. This may suffice the need of a normal user trying to delete unwanted files but the file content is not erased from the data blocks and can be retrieved with the help of various data recovery and forensic tools. In this paper, we discuss: (1) existing work related to secure deletion, and (2) secure and selective deletion methods that delete only the required files or directories without tampering personal data. We present two per-file deletion methods: Overwriting data and Encryption based deletion which erase specific files securely. Our proposed per-file deletion methods reduce latency and performance overheads caused by overwriting an entire disk.
2020-11-20
Mousavi, M. Z., Kumar, S..  2019.  Analysis of key Factors for Organization Information Security. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COMITCon). :514—518.
Protecting sensitive information from illegal access and misuse is crucial to all organizations. An inappropriate Information Security (IS) policy and procedures are not only a suitable environment for an outsider attack but also a good chance for the insiders' misuse. In this paper, we will discuss the roles of an organization in information security and how human behavior affects the Information Security System (ISS). How an organization can create and instill an effective information security culture in an organization to improve their information safeguards. The findings in this review can be used to further researches and will be useful for organizations to improve their information security structure (ISC).
Bhaharin, S. H., Mokhtar, U. A., Sulaiman, R., Yusof, M. M..  2019.  Issues and Trends in Information Security Policy Compliance. 2019 6th International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS). :1—6.
In the era of Industry 4.0 (IR 4.0), information leakage has become a critical issue for information security. The basic approach to addressing information leakage threats is to implement an information security policy (ISP) that defines the standards, boundaries, and responsibilities of users of information and technology of an organization. ISPs are one of the most commonly used methods for controlling internal user security behaviours, which include, but not limited to, computer usage ethics; organizational system usage policies; Internet and email usage policies; and the use of social media. Human error is the main security threat to information security, resulting from negligence, ignorance, and failure to adhere to organizational information security policies. Information security incidents are a problem related to human behaviour because technology is designed and operated by humans, presenting the opportunities and spaces for human error. In addition to the factor of human error as the main source of information leakage, this study aims to systematically analyse the fundamental issues of information security policy compliance. An analysis of these papers identifies and categories critical factor that effect an employee's attitude toward compliance with ISP. The human, process, technology element and information governance should be thought as a significant scope for more efficiency of information security policy compliance and in any further extensive studies to improve on information security policy compliance. Therefore, to ensure these are properly understood, further study is needed to identity the information governance that needs to be included in organizations and current best practices for developing an information security policy compliance within organizations.
2020-07-30
TÎTU, Mihail Aurel, POP, Alina Bianca, ŢÎŢU, Ştefan.  2018.  The correlation between intellectual property management and quality management in the modern knowledge-based economy. 2018 10th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1—6.
The aim of this research paper is to highlight the intellectual property place and role within an industrial knowledge-based organization which performs design activities. The research begins by presenting the importance of integrating intellectual property policy implementation with quality policy. The research is based on the setting of objectives in the intellectual property field. This research also establishes some intellectual property strategies, and improvement measures for intellectual property protection management. The basis for these activities is correlation of the quality policy with an intellectual property policy, as well as the point of strength identified in the studied organization. The issues discussed in this scientific paper conclude on the possibility of the implementation of standards in the intellectual property field.
2020-07-27
Adetunji, Akinbobola Oluwaseun, Butakov, Sergey, Zavarsky, Pavol.  2018.  Automated Security Configuration Checklist for Apple iOS Devices Using SCAP v1.2. 2018 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1–6.
The security content automation includes configurations of large number of systems, installation of patches securely, verification of security-related configuration settings, compliance with security policies and regulatory requirements, and ability to respond quickly when new threats are discovered [1]. Although humans are important in information security management, humans sometimes introduce errors and inconsistencies in an organization due to manual nature of their tasks [2]. Security Content Automation Protocol was developed by the U.S. NIST to automate information security management tasks such as vulnerability and patch management, and to achieve continuous monitoring of security configurations in an organization. In this paper, SCAP is employed to develop an automated security configuration checklist for use in verifying Apple iOS device configuration against the defined security baseline to enforce policy compliance in an enterprise.
2020-05-11
Üzüm, İbrahim, Can, Özgü.  2018.  An anomaly detection approach for enterprise file integration. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–4.
An information system based on real-time file integrations has an important role in today's organizations' work process management. By connecting to the network, file flow and integration between corporate systems have gained a great significance. In addition, network and security issues have emerged depending on the file structure and transfer processes. Thus, there has become a need for an effective and self-learning anomaly detection module for file transfer processes in order to provide the persistence of integration channels, accountability of transfer logs and data integrity. This paper proposes a novel anomaly detection approach that focuses on file size and integration duration of file transfers between enterprise systems. For this purpose, size and time anomalies on transferring files will be detected by a machine learning-based structure. Later, an alarm system is going to be developed in order to inform the authenticated individuals about the anomalies.
2020-05-04
Zalozhnev, Alexey Yu., Andros, Denis A., Ginz, Vasiliy N., Loktionov, Anatoly Eu..  2019.  Information Systems and Network Technologies for Personal Data Cyber Security in Public Health. 2019 International Multidisciplinary Information Technology and Engineering Conference (IMITEC). :1–5.
The article focuses on Personal Data Cyber Security Systems. These systems are the critical components for Health Information Management Systems of Public Health enterprises. The purpose of this article is to inform and provide the reader with Personal Data Cyber Security Legislation and Regulation in Public Health Sector and enlighten him with the Information Systems that were designed and implemented for Personal Data Cyber Security in Public Health.
2020-04-03
Kozlov, Aleksandr, Noga, Nikolai.  2019.  The Method of Assessing the Level of Compliance of Divisions of the Complex Network for the Corporate Information Security Policy Indicators. 2019 Twelfth International Conference "Management of large-scale system development" (MLSD). :1—5.

The method of assessment of degree of compliance of divisions of the complex distributed corporate information system to a number of information security indicators is offered. As a result of the methodology implementation a comparative assessment of compliance level of each of the divisions for the corporate information security policy requirements may be given. This assessment may be used for the purpose of further decision-making by the management of the corporation on measures to minimize risks as a result of possible implementation of threats to information security.

Mishra, Menaka, Upadhyay, A.K..  2019.  Need of Private and Public Sector Information Security. 2019 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science Engineering (Confluence). :168—173.

In this research paper author surveys the need of data protection from intelligent systems in the private and public sectors. For this, she identifies that the Smart Information Security Intel processes needs to be the suggestive key policy for both sectors of governance either public or private. The information is very sensitive for any organization. When the government offices are concerned, information needs to be abstracted and encapsulated so that there is no information stealing. For this purposes, the art of skill set and new optimized technology needs to be stationed. Author identifies that digital bar-coded air port like security using conveyor belts and digital bar-coded conveyor boxes to scan switched ON articles like internet of things needs to be placed. As otherwise, there can potentially be data, articles or information stealing from the operational sites where access is unauthorized. Such activities shall need to be scrutinized, minutely. The biometric such as fingerprints, iris, voice and face recognition pattern updates in the virtual data tables must be taken to keep data entry-exit log up to-date. The information technicians of the sentinel systems must help catch the anomalies in the professional working time in private and public sectors if there is red flag as indicator. The author in this research paper shall discuss in detail what we shall station, how we shall station and what all measures we might need to undertake to safeguard the stealing of sensitive information from the organizations like administration buildings, government buildings, educational schools, hospitals, courts, private buildings, banks and all other offices nation-wide. The TO-BE new processes shall make the AS-IS office system more information secured, data protected and personnel security stronger.

2020-02-17
Yee, George O. M..  2019.  Designing Good Security Metrics. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:580–585.

This paper begins with an introduction to security metrics, describing the need for security metrics, followed by a discussion of the nature of security metrics, including the challenges found with some security metrics used in the past. The paper then discusses what makes a good security metric and proposes a rigorous step-by-step method that can be applied to design good security metrics, and to test existing security metrics to see if they are good metrics. Application examples are included to illustrate the method.

Hadar, Ethan, Hassanzadeh, Amin.  2019.  Big Data Analytics on Cyber Attack Graphs for Prioritizing Agile Security Requirements. 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). :330–339.

In enterprise environments, the amount of managed assets and vulnerabilities that can be exploited is staggering. Hackers' lateral movements between such assets generate a complex big data graph, that contains potential hacking paths. In this vision paper, we enumerate risk-reduction security requirements in large scale environments, then present the Agile Security methodology and technologies for detection, modeling, and constant prioritization of security requirements, agile style. Agile Security models different types of security requirements into the context of an attack graph, containing business process targets and critical assets identification, configuration items, and possible impacts of cyber-attacks. By simulating and analyzing virtual adversary attack paths toward cardinal assets, Agile Security examines the business impact on business processes and prioritizes surgical requirements. Thus, handling these requirements backlog that are constantly evaluated as an outcome of employing Agile Security, gradually increases system hardening, reduces business risks and informs the IT service desk or Security Operation Center what remediation action to perform next. Once remediated, Agile Security constantly recomputes residual risk, assessing risk increase by threat intelligence or infrastructure changes versus defender's remediation actions in order to drive overall attack surface reduction.

Shukla, Meha, Johnson, Shane D., Jones, Peter.  2019.  Does the NIS implementation strategy effectively address cyber security risks in the UK? 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–11.
This research explored how cyber security risks are managed across UK Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) sectors following implementation of the 2018 Networks and Information Security (NIS) legislation. Being in its infancy, there has been limited study into the effectiveness of this national framework for cyber risk management. The analysis of data gathered through interviews with key stakeholders against the NIS objectives indicated a collaborative implementation approach to improve cyber-risk management capabilities in CNI sectors. However, more work is required to bridge the gaps in the NIS framework to ensure holistic security across cyber spaces as well as non-cyber elements: cyber-physical security, cross-sector CNI service security measures, outcome-based regulatory assessments and risks due to connected smart technology implementations alongside legacy systems. This paper proposes ten key recommendations to counter the danger of not meeting the NIS key strategic objectives. In particular, it recommends that the approach to NIS implementation needs further alignment with its objectives, such as bringing a step-change in the cyber-security risk management capabilities of the CNI sectors.
2020-02-10
Chechik, Marsha.  2019.  Uncertain Requirements, Assurance and Machine Learning. 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). :2–3.
From financial services platforms to social networks to vehicle control, software has come to mediate many activities of daily life. Governing bodies and standards organizations have responded to this trend by creating regulations and standards to address issues such as safety, security and privacy. In this environment, the compliance of software development to standards and regulations has emerged as a key requirement. Compliance claims and arguments are often captured in assurance cases, with linked evidence of compliance. Evidence can come from testcases, verification proofs, human judgement, or a combination of these. That is, we try to build (safety-critical) systems carefully according to well justified methods and articulate these justifications in an assurance case that is ultimately judged by a human. Yet software is deeply rooted in uncertainty making pragmatic assurance more inductive than deductive: most of complex open-world functionality is either not completely specifiable (due to uncertainty) or it is not cost-effective to do so, and deductive verification cannot happen without specification. Inductive assurance, achieved by sampling or testing, is easier but generalization from finite set of examples cannot be formally justified. And of course the recent popularity of constructing software via machine learning only worsens the problem - rather than being specified by predefined requirements, machine-learned components learn existing patterns from the available training data, and make predictions for unseen data when deployed. On the surface, this ability is extremely useful for hard-to specify concepts, e.g., the definition of a pedestrian in a pedestrian detection component of a vehicle. On the other, safety assessment and assurance of such components becomes very challenging. In this talk, I focus on two specific approaches to arguing about safety and security of software under uncertainty. The first one is a framework for managing uncertainty in assurance cases (for "conventional" and "machine-learned" systems) by systematically identifying, assessing and addressing it. The second is recent work on supporting development of requirements for machine-learned components in safety-critical domains.
Cha, Shi-Cho, Li, Zhuo-Xun, Fan, Chuan-Yen, Tsai, Mila, Li, Je-Yu, Huang, Tzu-Chia.  2019.  On Design and Implementation a Federated Chat Service Framework in Social Network Applications. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Agents (ICA). :33–36.
As many organizations deploy their chatbots on social network applications to interact with their customers, a person may switch among different chatbots for different services. To reduce the switching cost, this study proposed the Federated Chat Service Framework. The framework maintains user profiles and historical behaviors. Instead of deploying chatbots, organizations follow the rules of the framework to provide chat services. Therefore, the framework can organize service requests with context information and responses to emulate the conversations between users and chat services. Consequently, the study can hopefully contribute to reducing the cost for a user to communicate with different chatbots.
2020-01-21
Hou, Ye, Such, Jose, Rashid, Awais.  2019.  Understanding Security Requirements for Industrial Control System Supply Chains. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :50–53.

We address the need for security requirements to take into account risks arising from complex supply chains underpinning cyber-physical infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICS). We present SEISMiC (SEcurity Industrial control SysteM supply Chains), a framework that takes into account the whole spectrum of security risks - from technical aspects through to human and organizational issues - across an ICS supply chain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SEISMiC through a supply chain risk assessment of Natanz, Iran's nuclear facility that was the subject of the Stuxnet attack.

2020-01-20
Zhu, Yan, Zhang, Yi, Wang, Jing, Song, Weijing, Chu, Cheng-Chung, Liu, Guowei.  2019.  From Data-Driven to Intelligent-Driven: Technology Evolution of Network Security in Big Data Era. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:103–109.

With the advent of the big data era, information systems have exhibited some new features, including boundary obfuscation, system virtualization, unstructured and diversification of data types, and low coupling among function and data. These features not only lead to a big difference between big data technology (DT) and information technology (IT), but also promote the upgrading and evolution of network security technology. In response to these changes, in this paper we compare the characteristics between IT era and DT era, and then propose four DT security principles: privacy, integrity, traceability, and controllability, as well as active and dynamic defense strategy based on "propagation prediction, audit prediction, dynamic management and control". We further discuss the security challenges faced by DT and the corresponding assurance strategies. On this basis, the big data security technologies can be divided into four levels: elimination, continuation, improvement, and innovation. These technologies are analyzed, combed and explained according to six categories: access control, identification and authentication, data encryption, data privacy, intrusion prevention, security audit and disaster recovery. The results will support the evolution of security technologies in the DT era, the construction of big data platforms, the designation of security assurance strategies, and security technology choices suitable for big data.

2019-07-01
Arabsorkhi, A., Ghaffari, F..  2018.  Security Metrics: Principles and Security Assessment Methods. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :305–310.

Nowadays, Information Technology is one of the important parts of human life and also of organizations. Organizations face problems such as IT problems. To solve these problems, they have to improve their security sections. Thus there is a need for security assessments within organizations to ensure security conditions. The use of security standards and general metric can be useful for measuring the safety of an organization; however, it should be noted that the general metric which are applied to businesses in general cannot be effective in this particular situation. Thus it's important to select metric standards for different businesses to improve both cost and organizational security. The selection of suitable security measures lies in the use of an efficient way to identify them. Due to the numerous complexities of these metric and the extent to which they are defined, in this paper that is based on comparative study and the benchmarking method, taxonomy for security measures is considered to be helpful for a business to choose metric tailored to their needs and conditions.

2019-05-08
Mylrea, M., Gourisetti, S. N. G., Larimer, C., Noonan, C..  2018.  Insider Threat Cybersecurity Framework Webtool Methodology: Defending Against Complex Cyber-Physical Threats. 2018 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :207–216.

This paper demonstrates how the Insider Threat Cybersecurity Framework (ITCF) web tool and methodology help provide a more dynamic, defense-in-depth security posture against insider cyber and cyber-physical threats. ITCF includes over 30 cybersecurity best practices to help organizations identify, protect, detect, respond and recover to sophisticated insider threats and vulnerabilities. The paper tests the efficacy of this approach and helps validate and verify ITCF's capabilities and features through various insider attacks use-cases. Two case-studies were explored to determine how organizations can leverage ITCF to increase their overall security posture against insider attacks. The paper also highlights how ITCF facilitates implementation of the goals outlined in two Presidential Executive Orders to improve the security of classified information and help owners and operators secure critical infrastructure. In realization of these goals, ITCF: provides an easy to use rapid assessment tool to perform an insider threat self-assessment; determines the current insider threat cybersecurity posture; defines investment-based goals to achieve a target state; connects the cybersecurity posture with business processes, functions, and continuity; and finally, helps develop plans to answer critical organizational cybersecurity questions. In this paper, the webtool and its core capabilities are tested by performing an extensive comparative assessment over two different high-profile insider threat incidents. 

2019-01-21
Ayoade, G., Chandra, S., Khan, L., Hamlen, K., Thuraisingham, B..  2018.  Automated Threat Report Classification over Multi-Source Data. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :236–245.

With an increase in targeted attacks such as advanced persistent threats (APTs), enterprise system defenders require comprehensive frameworks that allow them to collaborate and evaluate their defense systems against such attacks. MITRE has developed a framework which includes a database of different kill-chains, tactics, techniques, and procedures that attackers employ to perform these attacks. In this work, we leverage natural language processing techniques to extract attacker actions from threat report documents generated by different organizations and automatically classify them into standardized tactics and techniques, while providing relevant mitigation advisories for each attack. A naïve method to achieve this is by training a machine learning model to predict labels that associate the reports with relevant categories. In practice, however, sufficient labeled data for model training is not always readily available, so that training and test data come from different sources, resulting in bias. A naïve model would typically underperform in such a situation. We address this major challenge by incorporating an importance weighting scheme called bias correction that efficiently utilizes available labeled data, given threat reports, whose categories are to be automatically predicted. We empirically evaluated our approach on 18,257 real-world threat reports generated between year 2000 and 2018 from various computer security organizations to demonstrate its superiority by comparing its performance with an existing approach.

2018-09-12
Weintraub, E..  2017.  Estimating Target Distribution in security assessment models. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :82–87.

Organizations are exposed to various cyber-attacks. When a component is exploited, the overall computed damage is impacted by the number of components the network includes. This work is focuses on estimating the Target Distribution characteristic of an attacked network. According existing security assessment models, Target Distribution is assessed by using ordinal values based on users' intuitive knowledge. This work is aimed at defining a formula which enables measuring quantitatively the attacked components' distribution. The proposed formula is based on the real-time configuration of the system. Using the proposed measure, firms can quantify damages, allocate appropriate budgets to actual real risks and build their configuration while taking in consideration the risks impacted by components' distribution. The formula is demonstrated as part of a security continuous monitoring system.

2018-07-06
Sun, R., Yuan, X., Lee, A., Bishop, M., Porter, D. E., Li, X., Gregio, A., Oliveira, D..  2017.  The dose makes the poison \#x2014; Leveraging uncertainty for effective malware detection. 2017 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing. :123–130.

Malware has become sophisticated and organizations don't have a Plan B when standard lines of defense fail. These failures have devastating consequences for organizations, such as sensitive information being exfiltrated. A promising avenue for improving the effectiveness of behavioral-based malware detectors is to combine fast (usually not highly accurate) traditional machine learning (ML) detectors with high-accuracy, but time-consuming, deep learning (DL) models. The main idea is to place software receiving borderline classifications by traditional ML methods in an environment where uncertainty is added, while software is analyzed by time-consuming DL models. The goal of uncertainty is to rate-limit actions of potential malware during deep analysis. In this paper, we describe Chameleon, a Linux-based framework that implements this uncertain environment. Chameleon offers two environments for its OS processes: standard - for software identified as benign by traditional ML detectors - and uncertain - for software that received borderline classifications analyzed by ML methods. The uncertain environment will bring obstacles to software execution through random perturbations applied probabilistically on selected system calls. We evaluated Chameleon with 113 applications from common benchmarks and 100 malware samples for Linux. Our results show that at threshold 10%, intrusive and non-intrusive strategies caused approximately 65% of malware to fail accomplishing their tasks, while approximately 30% of the analyzed benign software to meet with various levels of disruption (crashed or hampered). We also found that I/O-bound software was three times more affected by uncertainty than CPU-bound software.

2018-05-09
Livshitz, I., Lontsikh, P., Eliseev, S..  2017.  The optimization method of the integrated management system security audit. 2017 20th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT). :248–253.

Nowadays the application of integrated management systems (IMS) attracts the attention of top management from various organizations. However, there is an important problem of running the security audits in IMS and realization of complex checks of different ISO standards in full scale with the essential reducing of available resources.

2018-02-06
Berkowsky, J. A., Hayajneh, T..  2017.  Security Issues with Certificate Authorities. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :449–455.

The current state of the internet relies heavily on SSL/TLS and the certificate authority model. This model has systematic problems, both in its design as well as its implementation. There are problems with certificate revocation, certificate authority governance, breaches, poor security practices, single points of failure and with root stores. This paper begins with a general introduction to SSL/TLS and a description of the role of certificates, certificate authorities and root stores in the current model. This paper will then explore problems with the current model and describe work being done to help mitigate these problems.

Wang, Y., Rawal, B., Duan, Q..  2017.  Securing Big Data in the Cloud with Integrated Auditing. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :126–131.

In this paper, we review big data characteristics and security challenges in the cloud and visit different cloud domains and security regulations. We propose using integrated auditing for secure data storage and transaction logs, real-time compliance and security monitoring, regulatory compliance, data environment, identity and access management, infrastructure auditing, availability, privacy, legality, cyber threats, and granular auditing to achieve big data security. We apply a stochastic process model to conduct security analyses in availability and mean time to security failure. Potential future works are also discussed.