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2020-07-13
Kurbatov, Oleksandr, Shapoval, Oleksiy, Poluyanenko, Nikolay, Kuznetsova, Tetiana, Kravchenko, Pavel.  2019.  Decentralized Identification and Certification System. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :507–510.
This article describes an approach to identification and certification in decentralized environment. The protocol proposes a way of integration for blockchain technology and web-of-trust concept to create decentralized public key infrastructure with flexible management for user identificators. Besides changing the current public key infrastructure, this system can be used in the Internet of Things (IoT). Each individual IoT sensor must correctly communicate with other components of the system it's in. To provide safe interaction, components should exchange encrypted messages with ability to check their integrity and authenticity, which is presented by this scheme.
Inn, Arba’iah, Hassan, Rosilah, Mohd Aman, Azana Hafizah, Abdul Latiff, Liza.  2019.  Framework for Handover process using Visible Light Communications in 5G. 2019 Symposium on Future Telecommunication Technologies (SOFTT). 1:1–4.
Internet of Things (IoT) revolution in 5th Generation (5G) will dynamically support all user, devices and customer worldwide where these devices, mechanical and digital machines will be connected and are able to communicate and transfer data over the network. In industries, the evolution of these technologies, known as Industrial IoT (IIoT) will enable machines to be connected and communicate where else, Internet of Everything (IoE) makes the connection more relevant between all smart devices, machines and also people with a huge data, high speed and high security. The growth of these technologies has made Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum resources for wireless communication to be more saturated. In order to solve this problem, new wireless communication technologies are proposed to meet the demand and also to enhance the performance of the system and overcome the existing bandwidth limitations. Studies done shows that Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi), based on Visible Light Communications (VLC) is one of the most promising technology in future which is based on optical wireless communication. Initial study on the Li-Fi concept has focuses on achieving speed, bi-directional transmission concept and supports multiuser access. In this paper we propose a frame work focuses on the handover process for indoor environment by using the steerable Access Point (AP) and compare the output result with fix Access Point.
2020-07-10
Koloveas, Paris, Chantzios, Thanasis, Tryfonopoulos, Christos, Skiadopoulos, Spiros.  2019.  A Crawler Architecture for Harvesting the Clear, Social, and Dark Web for IoT-Related Cyber-Threat Intelligence. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:3—8.
The clear, social, and dark web have lately been identified as rich sources of valuable cyber-security information that -given the appropriate tools and methods-may be identified, crawled and subsequently leveraged to actionable cyber-threat intelligence. In this work, we focus on the information gathering task, and present a novel crawling architecture for transparently harvesting data from security websites in the clear web, security forums in the social web, and hacker forums/marketplaces in the dark web. The proposed architecture adopts a two-phase approach to data harvesting. Initially a machine learning-based crawler is used to direct the harvesting towards websites of interest, while in the second phase state-of-the-art statistical language modelling techniques are used to represent the harvested information in a latent low-dimensional feature space and rank it based on its potential relevance to the task at hand. The proposed architecture is realised using exclusively open-source tools, and a preliminary evaluation with crowdsourced results demonstrates its effectiveness.
2020-07-06
Nejatifar, Abbas, Hadavi, Mohammad Ali.  2019.  Threat Extraction in IoT-Based Systems Focusing on Smart Cities. 2019 16th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :92–98.
IoT-based services are widely increasing due to their advantages such as economy, automation, and comfort. Smart cities are among major applications of IoT-based systems. However, security and privacy threats are vital issues challenging the utilization of such services. Connectivity nature, variety of data technology, and volume of data maintained through these systems make their security analysis a difficult process. Threat modeling is one the best practices for security analysis, especially for complex systems. This paper proposes a threat extraction method for IoT-based systems. We elaborate on a smart city scenario with three services including lighting, car parking, and waste management. Investigating on these services, firstly, we identify thirty-two distinct threat types. Secondly, we distinguish threat root causes by associating a threat to constituent parts of the IoT-based system. In this way, threat instances can be extracted using the proposed derivation rules. Finally, we evaluate our method on a smart car parking scenario as well as on an E-Health system and identify more than 50 threat instances in each cases to show that the method can be easily generalized for other IoT-based systems whose constituent parts are known.
Farhadi, Majid, Bypour, Hamideh, Mortazavi, Reza.  2019.  An efficient secret sharing-based storage system for cloud-based IoTs. 2019 16th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :122–127.
Internet of Things is the newfound information architecture based on the Internet that develops interactions between objects and services in a secure and reliable environment. As the availability of many smart devices rises, secure and scalable mass storage systems for aggregate data is required in IoTs applications. In this paper, we propose a new method for storing aggregate data in IoTs by use of ( t, n) -threshold secret sharing scheme in the cloud storage. In this method, original data is divided into t blocks that each block is considered as a share. This method is scalable and traceable, i.e., new data can be inserted or part of original data can be deleted, without changing shares, also cloud service providers' fault in sending invalid shares are detectable.
2020-07-03
Fitwi, Alem, Chen, Yu, Zhu, Sencun.  2019.  A Lightweight Blockchain-Based Privacy Protection for Smart Surveillance at the Edge. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :552—555.

Witnessing the increasingly pervasive deployment of security video surveillance systems(VSS), more and more individuals have become concerned with the issues of privacy violations. While the majority of the public have a favorable view of surveillance in terms of crime deterrence, individuals do not accept the invasive monitoring of their private life. To date, however, there is not a lightweight and secure privacy-preserving solution for video surveillance systems. The recent success of blockchain (BC) technologies and their applications in the Internet of Things (IoT) shed a light on this challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a Lightweight, Blockchain-based Privacy protection (Lib-Pri) scheme for surveillance cameras at the edge. It enables the VSS to perform surveillance without compromising the privacy of people captured in the videos. The Lib-Pri system transforms the deployed VSS into a system that functions as a federated blockchain network capable of carrying out integrity checking, blurring keys management, feature sharing, and video access sanctioning. The policy-based enforcement of privacy measures is carried out at the edge devices for real-time video analytics without cluttering the network.

Danilchenko, Victor, Theobald, Matthew, Cohen, Daniel.  2019.  Bootstrapping Security Configuration for IoT Devices on Networks with TLS Inspection. 2019 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—7.
In the modern security-conscious world, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) proxies are increasingly often used on industrial and enterprise networks to perform TLS unwrapping on all outbound connections. However, enabling TLS unwrapping requires local devices to have the DPI proxy Certificate Authority certificates installed. While for conventional computing devices this is addressed via enterprise management, it's a difficult problem for Internet of Things ("IoT") devices which are generally not under enterprise management, and may not even be capable of it due to their resource-constrained nature. Thus, for typical IoT devices, being installed on a network with DPI requires either manual device configuration or custom DPI proxy configuration, both of which solutions have significant shortcomings. This poses a serious challenge to the deployment of IoT devices on DPI-enabled intranets. The authors propose a solution to this problem: a method of installing on IoT devices the CA certificates for DPI proxy CAs, as well as other security configuration ("security bootstrapping"). The proposed solution respects the DPI policies, while allowing the commissioning of IoT and IIoT devices without the need for additional manual configuration either at device scope or at network scope. This is accomplished by performing the bootstrap operation over unsecured connection, and downloading certificates using TLS validation at application level. The resulting solution is light-weight and secure, yet does not require validation of the DPI proxy's CA certificates in order to perform the security bootstrapping, thus avoiding the chicken-and-egg problem inherent in using TLS on DPI-enabled intranets.
Abbasi, Milad Haji, Majidi, Babak, Eshghi, Moahmmad, Abbasi, Ebrahim Haji.  2019.  Deep Visual Privacy Preserving for Internet of Robotic Things. 2019 5th Conference on Knowledge Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). :292—296.
In the past few years, visual information collection and transmission is increased significantly for various applications. Smart vehicles, service robotic platforms and surveillance cameras for the smart city applications are collecting a large amount of visual data. The preservation of the privacy of people presented in this data is an important factor in storage, processing, sharing and transmission of visual data across the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT). In this paper, a novel anonymisation method for information security and privacy preservation in visual data in sharing layer of the Web of Robotic Things (WoRT) is proposed. The proposed framework uses deep neural network based semantic segmentation to preserve the privacy in video data base of the access level of the applications and users. The data is anonymised to the applications with lower level access but the applications with higher legal access level can analyze and annotated the complete data. The experimental results show that the proposed method while giving the required access to the authorities for legal applications of smart city surveillance, is capable of preserving the privacy of the people presented in the data.
2020-06-29
Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
Wehbi, Khadijeh, Hong, Liang, Al-salah, Tulha, Bhutta, Adeel A.  2019.  A Survey on Machine Learning Based Detection on DDoS Attacks for IoT Systems. 2019 SoutheastCon. :1–6.
Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the way we live today, improving the quality of living standard and growing the world economy by having smart devices around us making decisions and performing our daily tasks and chores. However, securing the IoT system from malicious attacks is a very challenging task. Some of the most common malicious attacks are Denial of service (DoS), and Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attacks, which have been causing major security threats to all networks and specifically to limited resource IoT devices. As security will always be a primary factor for enabling most IoT applications, developing a comprehensive detection method that effectively defends against DDoS attacks and can provide 100% detection for DDoS attacks in IoT is a primary goal for the future of IoT. The development of such a method requires a deep understanding of the methods that have been used thus far in the detection of DDoS attacks in the IoT environment. In our survey, we try to emphasize some of the most recent Machine Learning (ML) approaches developed for the detection of DDoS attacks in IoT networks along with their advantage and disadvantages. Comparison between the performances of selected approaches is also provided.
2020-06-26
Wang, Manxi, Liu, Bingjie, Xu, Haitao.  2019.  Resource Allocation for Threat Defense in Cyber-security IoT system. 2019 28th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC). :1—3.
In this paper, we design a model for resource allocation in IoT system considering the cyber security, to achieve optimal resource allocation when defend the attack and threat. The resource allocation problem is constructed as a dynamic game, where the threat level is the state and the defend cost is the objective function. Open loop solution and feedback solutions are both given to the defender as the optimal control variables under different solutions situations. The optimal allocated resource and the optimal threat level for the defender is simulated through the numerical simulations.
Yan, Liang.  2019.  Dynamic Mulitiple Agent Based IoT Security Management System. 2019 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP). :48—51.
It is important to provide strong security for IoT devices with limited security related resources. We introduce a new dynamic security agent management framework, which dynamically chooses the best security agent to support security functions depending on the applications' security requirements of IoT devices in the system. This framework is designed to overcome the challenges including high computation costs, multiple security protocol compatibility, and efficient energy management in IoT system.
Puccetti, Armand.  2019.  The European H2020 project VESSEDIA (Verification Engineering of Safety and SEcurity critical Dynamic Industrial Applications). 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :588—591.
This paper presents an overview of the H2020 project VESSEDIA [9] aimed at verifying the security and safety of modern connected systems also called IoT. The originality relies in using Formal Methods inherited from high-criticality applications domains to analyze the source code at different levels of intensity, to gather possible faults and weaknesses. The analysis methods are mostly exhaustive an guarantee that, after analysis, the source code of the application is error-free. This paper is structured as follows: after an introductory section 1 giving some factual data, section 2 presents the aims and the problems addressed; section 3 describes the project's use-cases and section 4 describes the proposed approach for solving these problems and the results achieved until now; finally, section 5 discusses some remaining future work.
Samir, Nagham, Gamal, Yousef, El-Zeiny, Ahmed N., Mahmoud, Omar, Shawky, Ahmed, Saeed, AbdelRahman, Mostafa, Hassan.  2019.  Energy-Adaptive Lightweight Hardware Security Module using Partial Dynamic Reconfiguration for Energy Limited Internet of Things Applications. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1—4.
Data security is the main challenge in Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Security strength and the immunity to security attacks depend mainly on the available power budget. The power-security level trade-off is the main challenge for low power IoT applications, especially, energy limited IoT applications. In this paper, multiple encryption modes that provide different power consumption and security level values are hardware implemented. In other words, some modes provide high security levels at the expense of high power consumption and other modes provide low power consumption with low security level. Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) is utilized to adaptively configure the hardware security module based on the available power budget. For example, for a given power constraint, the DPR controller configures the security module with the security mode that meets the available power constraint. ZC702 evaluation board is utilized to implement the proposed encryption modes using DPR. A Lightweight Authenticated Cipher (ACORN) is the most suitable encryption mode for low power IoT applications as it consumes the minimum power and area among the selected candidates at the expense of low throughput. The whole DPR system is tested with a maximum dynamic power dissipation of 10.08 mW. The suggested DPR system saves about 59.9% of the utilized LUTs compared to the individual implementation of the selected encryption modes.
Karthika, P., Babu, R. Ganesh, Nedumaran, A..  2019.  Machine Learning Security Allocation in IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :474—478.

The progressed computational abilities of numerous asset compelled gadgets mobile phones have empowered different research zones including picture recovery from enormous information stores for various IoT applications. The real difficulties for picture recovery utilizing cell phones in an IoT situation are the computational intricacy and capacity. To manage enormous information in IoT condition for picture recovery a light-weighted profound learning base framework for vitality obliged gadgets. The framework initially recognizes and crop face areas from a picture utilizing Viola-Jones calculation with extra face classifier to take out the identification issue. Besides, the utilizes convolutional framework layers of a financially savvy pre-prepared CNN demonstrate with characterized highlights to speak to faces. Next, highlights of the huge information vault are listed to accomplish a quicker coordinating procedure for constant recovery. At long last, Euclidean separation is utilized to discover comparability among question and archive pictures. For exploratory assessment, we made a nearby facial pictures dataset it including equally single and gathering face pictures. In the dataset can be utilized by different specialists as a scale for examination with other ongoing facial picture recovery frameworks. The trial results demonstrate that our planned framework beats other cutting edge highlight extraction strategies as far as proficiency and recovery for IoT-helped vitality obliged stages.

Maria Verzegnassi, Enrico Giulio, Tountas, Konstantinos, Pados, Dimitris A., Cuomo, Francesca.  2019.  Data Conformity Evaluation: A Novel Approach for IoT Security. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :842—846.

We consider the problem of attack detection for IoT networks based only on passively collected network parameters. For the first time in the literature, we develop a blind attack detection method based on data conformity evaluation. Network parameters collected passively, are converted to their conformity values through iterative projections on refined L1-norm tensor subspaces. We demonstrate our algorithmic development in a case study for a simulated star topology network. Type of attack, affected devices, as well as, attack time frame can be easily identified.

Niedermaier, Matthias, Fischer, Florian, Merli, Dominik, Sigl, Georg.  2019.  Network Scanning and Mapping for IIoT Edge Node Device Security. 2019 International Conference on Applied Electronics (AE). :1—6.

The amount of connected devices in the industrial environment is growing continuously, due to the ongoing demands of new features like predictive maintenance. New business models require more data, collected by IIoT edge node sensors based on inexpensive and low performance Microcontroller Units (MCUs). A negative side effect of this rise of interconnections is the increased attack surface, enabled by a larger network with more network services. Attaching badly documented and cheap devices to industrial networks often without permission of the administrator even further increases the security risk. A decent method to monitor the network and detect “unwanted” devices is network scanning. Typically, this scanning procedure is executed by a computer or server in each sub-network. In this paper, we introduce network scanning and mapping as a building block to scan directly from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) edge node devices. This module scans the network in a pseudo-random periodic manner to discover devices and detect changes in the network structure. Furthermore, we validate our approach in an industrial testbed to show the feasibility of this approach.

Salman, Ahmad, El-Tawab, Samy.  2019.  Efficient Hardware/Software Co-Design of Elliptic-Curve Cryptography for the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Smart Applications, Communications and Networking (SmartNets). :1—6.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is connecting the world in a way humanity has never seen before. With applications in healthcare, agricultural, transportation, and more, IoT devices help in bridging the gap between the physical and the virtual worlds. These devices usually carry sensitive data which requires security and protection in transit and rest. However, the limited power and energy consumption make it harder and more challenging to implementing security protocols, especially Public-Key Cryptosystems (PKC). In this paper, we present a hardware/software co-design for Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC) PKC suitable for lightweight devices. We present the implementation results for our design on an edge node to be used for indoor localization in a healthcare facilities.

Pandey, Jai Gopal, Mitharwal, Chhavi, Karmakar, Abhijit.  2019.  An RNS Implementation of the Elliptic Curve Cryptography for IoT Security. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :66—72.

Public key cryptography plays a vital role in many information and communication systems for secure data transaction, authentication, identification, digital signature, and key management purpose. Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is a widely used public key cryptographic algorithm. In this paper, we propose a hardware-software codesign implementation of the ECC cipher. The algorithm is modelled in C language. Compute-intensive components are identified for their efficient hardware implementations. In the implementation, residue number system (RNS) with projective coordinates are utilized for performing the required arithmetic operations. To manage the hardware-software codeign in an integrated fashion Xilinx platform studio tool and Virtex-5 xc5vfx70t device based platform is utilized. An application of the implementation is demonstrated for encryption of text and its respective decryption over prime fields. The design is useful for providing an adequate level of security for IoTs.

Ahmad, Jawad, Tahir, Ahsen, Khan, Jan Sher, Khan, Muazzam A, Khan, Fadia Ali, Arshad, Habib, Zeeshan.  2019.  A Partial Ligt-weight Image Encryption Scheme. 2019 UK/ China Emerging Technologies (UCET). :1—3.

Due to greater network capacity and faster data speed, fifth generation (5G) technology is expected to provide a huge improvement in Internet of Things (IoTs) applications, Augmented & Virtual Reality (AR/VR) technologies, and Machine Type Communications (MTC). Consumer will be able to send/receive high quality multimedia data. For the protection of sensitive multimedia data, a large number of encryption algorithms are available, however, these encryption schemes does not provide light-weight encryption solution for real-time application requirements. This paper proposes a new multi-chaos computational efficient encryption for digital images. In the proposed scheme, plaintext image is transformed using Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT) and only one-fourth part of the transformed image is encrypted using light-weight Chebyshev and Intertwining maps. Both chaotic maps were chaotically coupled for the confusion and diffusion processes which further enhances the image security. Encryption/decryption speed and other security measures such as correlation coefficient, entropy, Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR), contrast, energy, homogeneity confirm the superiority of the proposed light-weight encryption scheme.

2020-06-22
Beheshti-Atashgah, Mohammad, Aref, Mohammd Reza, Bayat, Majid, Barari, Morteza.  2019.  ID-based Strong Designated Verifier Signature Scheme and its Applications in Internet of Things. 2019 27th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). :1486–1491.
Strong designated verifier signature scheme is a concept in which a user (signer) can issue a digital signature for a special receiver; i.e. signature is produced in such way that only intended verifier can check the validity of produced signature. Of course, this type of signature scheme should be such that no third party is able to validate the signature. In other words, the related designated verifier cannot assign the issued signature to another third party. This article proposes a new ID-based strong designated verifier signature scheme which has provable security in the ROM (Random Oracle Model) and BDH assumption. The proposed scheme satisfies the all security requirements of an ID-based strong designated verifier signature scheme. In addition, we propose some usage scenarios for the proposed schemes in different applications in the Internet of Things and Cloud Computing era.
2020-06-19
Haefner, Kyle, Ray, Indrakshi.  2019.  ComplexIoT: Behavior-Based Trust For IoT Networks. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :56—65.

This work takes a novel approach to classifying the behavior of devices by exploiting the single-purpose nature of IoT devices and analyzing the complexity and variance of their network traffic. We develop a formalized measurement of complexity for IoT devices, and use this measurement to precisely tune an anomaly detection algorithm for each device. We postulate that IoT devices with low complexity lead to a high confidence in their behavioral model and have a correspondingly more precise decision boundary on their predicted behavior. Conversely, complex general purpose devices have lower confidence and a more generalized decision boundary. We show that there is a positive correlation to our complexity measure and the number of outliers found by an anomaly detection algorithm. By tuning this decision boundary based on device complexity we are able to build a behavioral framework for each device that reduces false positive outliers. Finally, we propose an architecture that can use this tuned behavioral model to rank each flow on the network and calculate a trust score ranking of all traffic to and from a device which allows the network to autonomously make access control decisions on a per-flow basis.

Novak, Marek, Skryja, Petr.  2019.  Efficient Partial Firmware Update for IoT Devices with Lua Scripting Interface. 2019 29th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA). :1—4.

The paper introduces a method of efficient partial firmware update with several advantages compared to common methods. The amount of data to transfer for an update is reduced, the energetic efficiency is increased and as the method is designed for over the air update, the radio spectrum occupancy is decreased. Herein described approach uses Lua scripting interface to introduce updatable fragments of invokable native code. This requires a dedicated memory layout, which is herein introduced. This method allows not only to distribute patches for deployed systems, but also on demand add-ons. At the end, the security aspects of proposed firmware update system is discussed and its limitations are presented.

2020-06-15
Khadr, Monette H., Elgala, Hany, Ayyash, Moussa, Little, Thomas, Khreishah, Abdallah, Rahaim, Michael.  2018.  Security Aware Spatial Modulation (SA-SM). 2018 IEEE 39th Sarnoff Symposium. :1–6.
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques are currently the de facto approach for increasing the capacity and reliability of communication systems. Spatial modulation (SM) is presently one of the most eminent MIMO techniques. As, it combines the advantages of having higher spectral efficiency than repetition coding (RC) while overcoming the inter-channel interference (ICI) faced by spatial multiplexing (SMP). Moreover, SM reduces system complexity. In this paper, for the first time in literature, the use of MIMO techniques is explored in Internet-of-Things(IoT) deployments by introducing a novel technique called security aware spatial modulation (SA-SM).SA-SM provides a low complexity, secure and spectrally efficient technique that harvests the advantages of SM, while facing the arising security concerns of IoT systems. Using an undemanding modification at the receiver, SA-SM gives an extra degree of technology independent physical layer security. Our results show that SA-SM forces the bit-error-rate (BER) of an eavesdropper to not exceed the range of 10-2, which is below the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold. Hence, it eradicates the ability of an eavesdropper to properly decode the transmitted signal. Additionally, the efficiency of SA-SM is verified in both the radio and visible light ranges. Furthermore, SA-SM is capable of reducing the peak-to-average-power-ratio (PAPR) by 26.2%.
ALshukri, Dawoud, R, Vidhya Lavanya, P, Sumesh E, Krishnan, Pooja.  2019.  Intelligent Border Security Intrusion Detection using IoT and Embedded systems. 2019 4th MEC International Conference on Big Data and Smart City (ICBDSC). :1–3.
Border areas are generally considered as places where great deal of violence, intrusion and cohesion between several parties happens. This often led to danger for the life of employees, soldiers and common man working or living in border areas. Further geographical conditions like mountains, snow, forest, deserts, harsh weather and water bodies often lead to difficult access and monitoring of border areas. Proposed system uses thermal imaging camera (FLIR) for detection of various objects and infiltrators. FLIR is assigned an IP address and connected through local network to the control center. Software code captures video and subsequently the intrusion detection. A motor controlled spotlight with infrared and laser gun is used to illuminate under various conditions at the site. System also integrates sound sensor to detect specific sounds and motion sensors to sense suspicious movements. Based on the decision, a buzzer and electric current through fence for further protection can be initiated. Sensors are be integrated through IoT for an efficient control of large border area and connectivity between sites.