Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-02-08
Ioini, N. E., Pahl, C..  2018.  Trustworthy Orchestration of Container Based Edge Computing Using Permissioned Blockchain. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security. :147-154.
The need to process the verity, volume and velocity of data generated by today's Internet of Things (IoT) devices has pushed both academia and the industry to investigate new architectural alternatives to support the new challenges. As a result, Edge Computing (EC) has emerged to address these issues, by placing part of the cloud resources (e.g., computation, storage, logic) closer to the edge of the network, which allows faster and context dependent data analysis and storage. However, as EC infrastructures grow, different providers who do not necessarily trust each other need to collaborate in order serve different IoT devices. In this context, EC infrastructures, IoT devices and the data transiting the network all need to be subject to identity and provenance checks, in order to increase trust and accountability. Each device/data in the network needs to be identified and the provenance of its actions needs to be tracked. In this paper, we propose a blockchain container based architecture that implements the W3C-PROV Data Model, to track identities and provenance of all orchestration decisions of a business network. This architecture provides new forms of interaction between the different stakeholders, which supports trustworthy transactions and leads to a new decentralized interaction model for IoT based applications.
Ghirardello, K., Maple, C., Ng, D., Kearney, P..  2018.  Cyber Security of Smart Homes: Development of a Reference Architecture for Attack Surface Analysis. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT - 2018. :1-10.

Recent advances in pervasive computing have caused a rapid growth of the Smart Home market, where a number of otherwise mundane pieces of technology are capable of connecting to the Internet and interacting with other similar devices. However, with the lack of a commonly adopted set of guidelines, several IT companies are producing smart devices with their own proprietary standards, leading to highly heterogeneous Smart Home systems in which the interoperability of the present elements is not always implemented in the most straightforward manner. As such, understanding the cyber risk of these cyber-physical systems beyond the individual devices has become an almost intractable problem. This paper tackles this issue by introducing a Smart Home reference architecture which facilitates security analysis. Being composed by three viewpoints, it gives a high-level description of the various functions and components needed in a domestic IoT device and network. Furthermore, this document demonstrates how the architecture can be used to determine the various attack surfaces of a home automation system from which its key vulnerabilities can be determined.

2018-06-11
Andročec, D., Tomaš, B., Kišasondi, T..  2017.  Interoperability and lightweight security for simple IoT devices. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1285–1291.

The Semantic Web can be used to enable the interoperability of IoT devices and to annotate their functional and nonfunctional properties, including security and privacy. In this paper, we will show how to use the ontology and JSON-LD to annotate connectivity, security and privacy properties of IoT devices. Out of that, we will present our prototype for a lightweight, secure application level protocol wrapper that ensures communication consistency, secrecy and integrity for low cost IoT devices like the ESP8266 and Photon particle.

2018-03-19
Mehta, N. P., Sahai, A. K..  2017.  Internet of Things: Raging Devices and Standardization in Low-Powered Protocols. 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1–5.

This paper addresses the need for standard communication protocols for IoT devices with limited power and computational capabilities. The world is rapidly changing with the proliferation and deployment of IoT devices. This will bring in new communication challenges as these devices are connected to Internet and need to communicate with each other in real time. The paper provides an overview of IoT system architecture and the forthcoming challenges it will bring. There is an urging need to establish standards for communication in the IoT world. With the recent development of new protocols like CoAP, 6LowPAN, IEEE 802.15.4 and Thread in different layers of OSI model, additional challenges also present themselves. Performance and data management is becoming more critical than ever before due to the complexity of connecting raging number of IoT devices. The performance of the systems dealing with IoT devices will require appropriate capacity planning the associated development of data centers. Finally, the paper also presents some reasonable approaches to address the above issues in the IoT world.

2018-02-14
Naik, N., Jenkins, P..  2017.  Securing digital identities in the cloud by selecting an apposite Federated Identity Management from SAML, OAuth and OpenID Connect. 2017 11th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS). :163–174.
Access to computer systems and the information held on them, be it commercially or personally sensitive, is naturally, strictly controlled by both legal and technical security measures. One such method is digital identity, which is used to authenticate and authorize users to provide access to IT infrastructure to perform official, financial or sensitive operations within organisations. However, transmitting and sharing this sensitive information with other organisations over insecure channels always poses a significant security and privacy risk. An example of an effective solution to this problem is the Federated Identity Management (FIdM) standard adopted in the cloud environment. The FIdM standard is used to authenticate and authorize users across multiple organisations to obtain access to their networks and resources without transmitting sensitive information to other organisations. Using the same authentication and authorization details among multiple organisations in one federated group, it protects the identities and credentials of users in the group. This protection is a balance, mitigating security risk whilst maintaining a positive experience for users. Three of the most popular FIdM standards are Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), Open Authentication (OAuth), and OpenID Connect (OIDC). This paper presents an assessment of these standards considering their architectural design, working, security strength and security vulnerability, to cognise and ascertain effective usages to protect digital identities and credentials. Firstly, it explains the architectural design and working of these standards. Secondly, it proposes several assessment criteria and compares functionalities of these standards based on the proposed criteria. Finally, it presents a comprehensive analysis of their security vulnerabilities to aid in selecting an apposite FIdM. This analysis of security vulnerabilities is of great significance because their improper or erroneous deployme- t may be exploited for attacks.
2018-02-02
You, J., Shangguan, J., Sun, Y., Wang, Y..  2017.  Improved trustworthiness judgment in open networks. 2017 International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–2.

The collaborative recommendation mechanism is beneficial for the subject in an open network to find efficiently enough referrers who directly interacted with the object and obtain their trust data. The uncertainty analysis to the collected trust data selects the reliable trust data of trustworthy referrers, and then calculates the statistical trust value on certain reliability for any object. After that the subject can judge its trustworthiness and further make a decision about interaction based on the given threshold. The feasibility of this method is verified by three experiments which are designed to validate the model's ability to fight against malicious service, the exaggeration and slander attack. The interactive success rate is significantly improved by using the new model, and the malicious entities are distinguished more effectively than the comparative model.

2017-12-12
Jiang, L., Kuhn, W., Yue, P..  2017.  An interoperable approach for Sensor Web provenance. 2017 6th International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics. :1–6.

The Sensor Web is evolving into a complex information space, where large volumes of sensor observation data are often consumed by complex applications. Provenance has become an important issue in the Sensor Web, since it allows applications to answer “what”, “when”, “where”, “who”, “why”, and “how” queries related to observations and consumption processes, which helps determine the usability and reliability of data products. This paper investigates characteristics and requirements of provenance in the Sensor Web and proposes an interoperable approach to building a provenance model for the Sensor Web. Our provenance model extends the W3C PROV Data Model with Sensor Web domain vocabularies. It is developed using Semantic Web technologies and thus allows provenance information of sensor observations to be exposed in the Web of Data using the Linked Data approach. A use case illustrates the applicability of the approach.

Suh, Y. K., Ma, J..  2017.  SuperMan: A Novel System for Storing and Retrieving Scientific-Simulation Provenance for Efficient Job Executions on Computing Clusters. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W). :283–288.

Compute-intensive simulations typically charge substantial workloads on an online simulation platform backed by limited computing clusters and storage resources. Some (or most) of the simulations initiated by users may accompany input parameters/files that have been already provided by other (or same) users in the past. Unfortunately, these duplicate simulations may aggravate the performance of the platform by drastic consumption of the limited resources shared by a number of users on the platform. To minimize or avoid conducting repeated simulations, we present a novel system, called SUPERMAN (SimUlation ProvEnance Recycling MANager) that can record simulation provenances and recycle the results of past simulations. This system presents a great opportunity to not only reutilize existing results but also perform various analytics helpful for those who are not familiar with the platform. The system also offers interoperability across other systems by collecting the provenances in a standardized format. In our simulated experiments we found that over half of past computing jobs could be answered without actual executions by our system.

2017-11-20
Pisharody, S., Chowdhary, A., Huang, Dijiang.  2016.  Security policy checking in distributed SDN based clouds. 2016 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :19–27.

Separation of network control from devices in Software Defined Network (SDN) allows for centralized implementation and management of security policies in a cloud computing environment. The ease of programmability also makes SDN a great platform implementation of various initiatives that involve application deployment, dynamic topology changes, and decentralized network management in a multi-tenant data center environment. Dynamic change of network topology, or host reconfiguration in such networks might require corresponding changes to the flow rules in the SDN based cloud environment. Verifying adherence of these new flow policies in the environment to the organizational security policies and ensuring a conflict free environment is especially challenging. In this paper, we extend the work on rule conflicts from a traditional environment to an SDN environment, introducing a new classification to describe conflicts stemming from cross-layer conflicts. Our framework ensures that in any SDN based cloud, flow rules do not have conflicts at any layer; thereby ensuring that changes to the environment do not lead to unintended consequences. We demonstrate the correctness, feasibility and scalability of our framework through a proof-of-concept prototype.

2017-11-13
Patti, E., Syrri, A. L. A., Jahn, M., Mancarella, P., Acquaviva, A., Macii, E..  2016.  Distributed Software Infrastructure for General Purpose Services in Smart Grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 7:1156–1163.

In this paper, the design of an event-driven middleware for general purpose services in smart grid (SG) is presented. The main purpose is to provide a peer-to-peer distributed software infrastructure to allow the access of new multiple and authorized actors to SGs information in order to provide new services. To achieve this, the proposed middleware has been designed to be: 1) event-based; 2) reliable; 3) secure from malicious information and communication technology attacks; and 4) to enable hardware independent interoperability between heterogeneous technologies. To demonstrate practical deployment, a numerical case study applied to the whole U.K. distribution network is presented, and the capabilities of the proposed infrastructure are discussed.

2017-03-08
Varma, P..  2015.  Building an Open Identity Platform for India. 2015 Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :3–3.

Summary form only given. Aadhaar, India's Unique Identity Project, has become the largest biometric identity system in the world, already covering more than 920 million people. Building such a massive system required significant design thinking, aligning to the core strategy, and building a technology platform that is scalable to meet the project's objective. Entire technology architecture behind Aadhaar is based on principles of openness, linear scalability, strong security, and most importantly vendor neutrality. All application components are built using open source components and open standards. Aadhaar system currently runs across two of the data centers within India managed by UIDAI and handles 1 million enrollments a day and at the peak doing about 900 trillion biometric matches a day. Current system has about 8 PB (8000 Terabytes) of raw data. Aadhaar Authentication service, which requires sub-second response time, is already live and can handle more than 100 million authentications a day. In this talk, the speaker, who has been the Chief Architect of Aadhaar since inception, shares his experience of building the system.

2017-02-27
Abd, S. K., Salih, R. T., Al-Haddad, S. A. R., Hashim, F., Abdullah, A. B. H., Yussof, S..  2015.  Cloud computing security risks with authorization access for secure Multi-Tenancy based on AAAS protocol. TENCON 2015 - 2015 IEEE Region 10 Conference. :1–5.

Many cloud security complexities can be concerned as a result of its open system architecture. One of these complexities is multi-tenancy security issue. This paper discusses and addresses the most common public cloud security complexities focusing on Multi-Tenancy security issue. Multi-tenancy is one of the most important security challenges faced by public cloud services providers. Therefore, this paper presents a secure multi-tenancy architecture using authorization model Based on AAAS protocol. By utilizing cloud infrastructure, access control can be provided to various cloud information and services by our suggested authorization system. Each business can offer several cloud services. These cloud services can cooperate with other services which can be related to the same organization or different one. Moreover, these cooperation agreements are supported by our suggested system.

2017-02-21
M. Machado, J. W. Byers.  2015.  "Linux XIA: an interoperable meta network architecture to crowdsource the future internet". 2015 ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS). :147-158.

With the growing number of proposed clean-slate redesigns of the Internet, the need for a medium that enables all stakeholders to participate in the realization, evaluation, and selection of these designs is increasing. We believe that the missing catalyst is a meta network architecture that welcomes most, if not all, clean-state designs on a level playing field, lowers deployment barriers, and leaves the final evaluation to the broader community. This paper presents Linux XIA, a native implementation of XIA in the Linux kernel, as a candidate. We first describe Linux XIA in terms of its architectural realizations and algorithmic contributions. We then demonstrate how to port several distinct and unrelated network architectures onto Linux XIA. Finally, we provide a hybrid evaluation of Linux XIA at three levels of abstraction in terms of its ability to: evolve and foster interoperation of new architectures, embed disparate architectures inside the implementation's framework, and maintain a comparable forwarding performance to that of the legacy TCP/IP implementation. Given this evaluation, we substantiate a previously unsupported claim of XIA: that it readily supports and enables network evolution, collaboration, and interoperability - traits we view as central to the success of any future Internet architecture.

2015-05-05
Chenine, M., Ullberg, J., Nordstrom, L., Wu, Y., Ericsson, G.N..  2014.  A Framework for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems Interoperability and Cybersecurity Analysis. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on. 29:633-641.

Wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are the next-generation operational-management systems for electric power systems. The main purpose of such systems is to provide high resolution real-time situational awareness in order to improve the operation of the power system by detecting and responding to fast evolving phenomenon in power systems. From an information and communication technology (ICT) perspective, the nonfunctional qualities of these systems are increasingly becoming important and there is a need to evaluate and analyze the factors that impact these nonfunctional qualities. Enterprise architecture methods, which capture properties of ICT systems in architecture models and use these models as a basis for analysis and decision making, are a promising approach to meet these challenges. This paper presents a quantitative architecture analysis method for the study of WAMC ICT architectures focusing primarily on the interoperability and cybersecurity aspects.
 

2015-05-04
Cherkaoui, A., Bossuet, L., Seitz, L., Selander, G., Borgaonkar, R..  2014.  New paradigms for access control in constrained environments. Reconfigurable and Communication-Centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC), 2014 9th International Symposium on. :1-4.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is here, more than 10 billion units are already connected and five times more devices are expected to be deployed in the next five years. Technological standarization and the management and fostering of rapid innovation by governments are among the main challenges of the IoT. However, security and privacy are the key to make the IoT reliable and trusted. Security mechanisms for the IoT should provide features such as scalability, interoperability and lightness. This paper addresses authentication and access control in the frame of the IoT. It presents Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF), which can provide cheap, secure, tamper-proof secret keys to authentify constrained M2M devices. To be successfully used in the IoT context, this technology needs to be embedded in a standardized identity and access management framework. On the other hand, Embedded Subscriber Identity Module (eSIM) can provide cellular connectivity with scalability, interoperability and standard compliant security protocols. The paper discusses an authorization scheme for a constrained resource server taking advantage of PUF and eSIM features. Concrete IoT uses cases are discussed (SCADA and building automation).

Friedman, A., Hu, V.C..  2014.  Presentation 9. Attribute assurance for attribute based access control. IT Professional Conference (IT Pro), 2014. :1-3.

In recent years, Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) has evolved as the preferred logical access control methodology in the Department of Defense and Intelligence Community, as well as many other agencies across the federal government. Gartner recently predicted that “by 2020, 70% of enterprises will use attribute-based access control (ABAC) as the dominant mechanism to protect critical assets, up from less that 5% today.” A definition and introduction to ABAC can be found in NIST Special Publication 800-162, Guide to Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) Definition and Considerations and Intelligence Community Policy Guidance (ICPG) 500.2, Attribute-Based Authorization and Access Management. Within ABAC, attributes are used to make critical access control decisions, yet standards for attribute assurance have just started to be researched and documented. This presentation outlines factors influencing attributes that an authoritative body must address when standardizing attribute assurance and proposes some notional implementation suggestions for consideration. Attribute Assurance brings a level of confidence to attributes that is similar to levels of assurance for authentication (e.g., guidelines specified in NIST SP 800-63 and OMB M-04-04). There are three principal areas of interest when considering factors related to Attribute Assurance. Accuracy establishes the policy and technical underpinnings for semantically and syntactically correct descriptions of Subjects, Objects, or Environmental conditions. Interoperability considers different standards and protocols used for secure sharing of attributes between systems in order to avoid compromising the integrity and confidentiality of the attributes or exposing vulnerabilities in provider or relying systems or entities. Availability ensures that the update and retrieval of attributes satisfy the application to which the ABAC system is applied. In addition, the security and backup capability of attribute repositories need to be considered. Similar to a Level of Assurance (LOA), a Level of Attribute Assurance (LOAA) assures a relying party that the attribute value received from an Attribute Provider (AP) is accurately associated with the subject, resource, or environmental condition to which it applies. An Attribute Provider (AP) is any person or system that provides subject, object (or resource), or environmental attributes to relying parties regardless of transmission method. The AP may be the original, authoritative source (e.g., an Applicant). The AP may also receive information from an authoritative source for repacking or store-and-forward (e.g., an employee database) to relying parties or they may derive the attributes from formulas (e.g., a credit score). Regardless of the source of the AP's attributes, the same standards should apply to determining the LOAA. As ABAC is implemented throughout government, attribute assurance will be a critical, limiting factor in its acceptance. With this presentation, we hope to encourage dialog between attribute relying parties, attribute providers, and federal agencies that will be defining standards for ABAC in the immediate future.
 

2015-04-30
Bovet, G., Hennebert, J..  2014.  Distributed Semantic Discovery for Web-of-Things Enabled Smart Buildings. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

Nowadays, our surrounding environment is more and more scattered with various types of sensors. Due to their intrinsic properties and representation formats, they form small islands isolated from each other. In order to increase interoperability and release their full capabilities, we propose to represent devices descriptions including data and service invocation with a common model allowing to compose mashups of heterogeneous sensors. Pushing this paradigm further, we also propose to augment service descriptions with a discovery protocol easing automatic assimilation of knowledge. In this work, we describe the architecture supporting what can be called a Semantic Sensor Web-of-Things. As proof of concept, we apply our proposal to the domain of smart buildings, composing a novel ontology covering heterogeneous sensing, actuation and service invocation. Our architecture also emphasizes on the energetic aspect and is optimized for constrained environments.

Shafagh, H., Hithnawi, A..  2014.  Poster Abstract: Security Comes First, a Public-key Cryptography Framework for the Internet of Things. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :135-136.

Novel Internet services are emerging around an increasing number of sensors and actuators in our surroundings, commonly referred to as smart devices. Smart devices, which form the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT), enable alternative forms of user experience by means of automation, convenience, and efficiency. At the same time new security and safety issues arise, given the Internet-connectivity and the interaction possibility of smart devices with human's proximate living space. Hence, security is a fundamental requirement of the IoT design. In order to remain interoperable with the existing infrastructure, we postulate a security framework compatible to standard IP-based security solutions, yet optimized to meet the constraints of the IoT ecosystem. In this ongoing work, we first identify necessary components of an interoperable secure End-to-End communication while incorporating Public-key Cryptography (PKC). To this end, we tackle involved computational and communication overheads. The required components on the hardware side are the affordable hardware acceleration engines for cryptographic operations and on the software side header compression and long-lasting secure sessions. In future work, we focus on integration of these components into a framework and the evaluation of an early prototype of this framework.

2015-04-29
Shafagh, H., Hithnawi, A..  2014.  Poster Abstract: Security Comes First, a Public-key Cryptography Framework for the Internet of Things. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :135-136.

Novel Internet services are emerging around an increasing number of sensors and actuators in our surroundings, commonly referred to as smart devices. Smart devices, which form the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT), enable alternative forms of user experience by means of automation, convenience, and efficiency. At the same time new security and safety issues arise, given the Internet-connectivity and the interaction possibility of smart devices with human's proximate living space. Hence, security is a fundamental requirement of the IoT design. In order to remain interoperable with the existing infrastructure, we postulate a security framework compatible to standard IP-based security solutions, yet optimized to meet the constraints of the IoT ecosystem. In this ongoing work, we first identify necessary components of an interoperable secure End-to-End communication while incorporating Public-key Cryptography (PKC). To this end, we tackle involved computational and communication overheads. The required components on the hardware side are the affordable hardware acceleration engines for cryptographic operations and on the software side header compression and long-lasting secure sessions. In future work, we focus on integration of these components into a framework and the evaluation of an early prototype of this framework.