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2021-11-30
Akhras, Raphaelle, El-Hajj, Wassim, Majdalani, Michel, Hajj, Hazem, Jabr, Rabih, Shaban, Khaled.  2020.  Securing Smart Grid Communication Using Ethereum Smart Contracts. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1672–1678.
Smart grids are being continually adopted as a replacement of the traditional power grid systems to ensure safe, efficient, and cost-effective power distribution. The smart grid is a heterogeneous communication network made up of various devices such as smart meters, automation, and emerging technologies interacting with each other. As a result, the smart grid inherits most of the security vulnerabilities of cyber systems, putting the smart grid at risk of cyber-attacks. To secure the communication between smart grid entities, namely the smart meters and the utility, we propose in this paper a communication infrastructure built on top of a blockchain network, specifically Ethereum. All two-way communication between the smart meters and the utility is assumed to be transactions governed by smart contracts. Smart contracts are designed in such a way to ensure that each smart meter is authentic and each smart meter reading is reported securely and privately. We present a simulation of a sample smart grid and report all the costs incurred from building such a grid. The simulations illustrate the feasibility and security of the proposed architecture. They also point to weaknesses that must be addressed, such as scalability and cost.
2021-11-29
N, Sivaselvan, Bhat K, Vivekananda, Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan.  2020.  Blockchain-Based Scheme for Authentication and Capability-Based Access Control in IoT Environment. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0323–0330.
Authentication and access control techniques are fundamental security elements to restrict access to critical resources in IoT environment. In the current state-of-the-art approaches in the literature, the architectures do not address the security features of authentication and access control together. Besides, they don't completely fulfill the key Internet-of-Things (IoT) features such as usability, scalability, interoperability and security. In this paper, we introduce a novel blockchain-based architecture for authentication and capability-based access control for IoT environment. A capability is a token which contains the access rights authorized to the device holding it. The architecture uses blockchain technology to carry out all the operations in the scheme. It does not embed blockchain technology into the resource-constrained IoT devices for the purpose of authentication and access control of the devices. However, the IoT devices and blockchain are connected by means of interfaces through which the essential communications are established. The authenticity of such interfaces are verified before any communication is made. Consequently, the architecture satisfies usability, scalability, interoperability and security features. We carried out security evaluation for the scheme. It exhibits strong resistance to threats like spoofing, tampering, repudiation, information disclosure, and Denial-of-Service (DoS). We also developed a proof of concept implementation where cost and storage overhead of blockchain transactions are studied.
AlShiab, Ismael, Leivadeas, Aris, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2021.  Virtual Sensing Networks and Dynamic RPL-Based Routing for IoT Sensing Services. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
IoT applications are quickly evolving in scope and objectives while their focus is being shifted toward supporting dynamic users’ requirements. IoT users initiate applications and expect quick and reliable deployment without worrying about the underlying complexities of the required sensing and routing resources. On the other hand, IoT sensing nodes, sinks, and gateways are heterogeneous, have limited resources, and require significant cost and installation time. Sensing network-level virtualization through virtual Sensing Networks (VSNs) could play an important role in enabling the formation of virtual groups that link the needed IoT sensing and routing resources. These VSNs can be initiated on-demand with the goal to satisfy different IoT applications’ requirements. In this context, we present a joint algorithm for IoT Sensing Resource Allocation with Dynamic Resource-Based Routing (SRADRR). The SRADRR algorithm builds on the current distinguished empowerment of sensing networks using recent standards like RPL and 6LowPAN. The proposed algorithm suggests employing the RPL standard concepts to create DODAG routing trees that dynamically adapt according to the available sensing resources and the requirements of the running and arriving applications. Our results and implementation of the SRADRR reveal promising enhancements in the overall applications deployment rate.
Paul, Arya, Pillai, Anju S.  2021.  A Review on RPL Objective Function Improvements for IoT Applications. 2021 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication, Embedded and Secure Systems (ACCESS). :80–85.
The standard routing technique that was developed for satisfying low power IoT application needs is RPL which is a protocol in compliance with 6LoWPAN specification. RPL was created for addressing the issues and challenges of constrained and lossy network routing. However, RPL does not accomplish efficiency with respect to power and reliability altogether which are definitely needed in IoT applications. RPL runs on routing metrics and objective function which determines the optimal path in routing. This paper focuses on contributing a comprehensive survey on the improved objective functions proposed by several researchers for RPL. In addition, the paper concentrates on highlighting the strengths and shortcomings of the different approaches in designing the objective function. The approaches built on Fuzzy logic are found to be more efficient and the relevant works related to these are compared. Furthermore, we present the insights drawn from the survey and summarize the challenges which can be effectively utilized for future works.
Taghanaki, Saeid Rafiei, Arzandeh, Shohreh Behnam, Bohlooli, Ali.  2021.  A Decentralized Method for Detecting Clone ID Attacks on the Internet of Things. 2021 5th International Conference on Internet of Things and Applications (IoT). :1–6.
One of the attacks in the RPL protocol is the Clone ID attack, that the attacker clones the node's ID in the network. In this research, a Clone ID detection system is designed for the Internet of Things (IoT), implemented in Contiki operating system, and evaluated using the Cooja emulator. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method has desirable performance in terms of energy consumption overhead, true positive rate, and detection speed. The overhead cost of the proposed method is low enough that it can be deployed in limited-resource nodes. The proposed method in each node has two phases, which are the steps of gathering information and attack detection. In the proposed scheme, each node detects this type of attack using control packets received from its neighbors and their information such as IP, rank, Path ETX, and RSSI, as well as the use of a routing table. The design of this system will contribute to the security of the IoT network.
Kareem, Mohammed Aman, Tayeb, Shahab.  2021.  ML-based NIDS to secure RPL from Routing Attacks. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :1000–1006.
Low power and lossy networks (LLNs) devices resource-constrained nature make it difficult to implement security mechanisms to defend against RPL routing attacks. RPLs inbuilt security functions are not efficient in preventing a wide majority of routing attacks. RPLs optional security schemes can defend against external attacks, but cannot mitigate internal attacks. Moreover, RPL does not have any mechanism to verify the integrity of control messages used to keep topology updated and route the traffic. All these factors play a major role in increasing the RPLs threat level against routing attacks. In this paper, a comparative literature review of various researchers suggesting security mechanisms to mitigate security attacks aimed at RPL has been performed and methods have been contrasted.
2021-11-08
Muzammal, Syeda Mariam, Murugesan, Raja Kumar, Jhanjhi, Noor Zaman, Jung, Low Tang.  2020.  SMTrust: Proposing Trust-Based Secure Routing Protocol for RPL Attacks for IoT Applications. 2020 International Conference on Computational Intelligence (ICCI). :305–310.
With large scale generation and exchange of data between IoT devices and constrained IoT security to protect data communication, it becomes easy for attackers to compromise data routes. In IoT networks, IPv6 Routing Protocol is the de facto routing protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL offers limited security against several RPL-specific and WSN-inherited attacks in IoT applications. Additionally, IoT devices are limited in memory, processing, and power to operate properly using the traditional Internet and routing security solutions. Several mitigation schemes for the security of IoT networks and routing, have been proposed including Machine Learning-based, IDS-based, and Trust-based approaches. In existing trust-based methods, mobility of nodes is not considered at all or its insufficient for mobile sink nodes, specifically for security against RPL attacks. This research work proposes a conceptual design, named SMTrust, for security of routing protocol in IoT, considering the mobility-based trust metrics. The proposed solution intends to provide defense against popular RPL attacks, for example, Blackhole, Greyhole, Rank, Version Number attacks, etc. We believe that SMTrust shall provide better network performance for attacks detection accuracy, mobility and scalability as compared to existing trust models, such as, DCTM-RPL and SecTrust-RPL. The novelty of our solution is that it considers the mobility metrics of the sensor nodes as well as the sink nodes, which has not been addressed by the existing models. This consideration makes it suitable for mobile IoT environment. The proposed design of SMTrust, as secure routing protocol, when embedded in RPL, shall ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability among the sensor nodes during routing process in IoT communication and networks.
Martin, Robert Alan.  2020.  Assurance for CyberPhysical Systems: Addressing Supply Chain Challenges to Trustworthy Software-Enabled Things. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1–5.
Software is playing a pivotal role in most enterprises, whether they realize it or not, and with the proliferation of Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) and other CyberPhysical systems across our society and critical infrastructure and our collective love affair with automation, optimization, and ``smart'' devices, the role of these types of systems is only going to increase. This talk addresses the myriad of issues that underlie unsafe, insecure, and unreliable software and provides the insights of the Industrial Internet Consortium and other government and industry efforts on how to conquer them and pave the way to a marketplace of trustworthy software-enabled connected things. As the experience of several sectors has shown, the dependence on connected software needs to be met with a strong understanding of the risks to the overall trustworthiness of our software-based capabilities that we, our enterprises, and our world utilize. In many of these new connected systems issues of safety, reliability, and resilience rival or dominate concerns for security and privacy, the long-time focus of many in the IT world. Without a scalable and efficient method for managing these risks so our enterprises can continue to benefit from these advancements that powers our military, commercial industries, cities, and homes to new levels of efficiency, versatility, and cost effectiveness we face the potential for harm, death, and destructiveness. In such a marketplace, creating, exchanging, and integrating components that are trustworthy as well as entering into value-chain relationships with trustworthy partners and service suppliers will be common if we can provide a method for explicitly defining what is meant by the word trustworthy. The approach being pursued by these groups for applying Software Assurance to these systems and their Supply Chains by leveraging Structured Assurance Cases (the focus of this paper), Software Bill of Materials, and secure development practices applied to the evolving Agile and DevSecOps methodologies, is to explicitly identify the detailed requirements ``about what we need to know about something for it to be worthy of our trust'' and to do that in a way that we can convey that basis of trust to others that: can scale; is consistent within different workflows; is flexible to differing sets of hazards and environments; and is applicable to all sectors, domains, and industries.
Martin, Robert Alan.  2020.  Visibility Amp; Control: Addressing Supply Chain Challenges to Trustworthy Software-Enabled Things. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1–4.
Software is playing a pivotal role in most enterprises, whether they realize it or not, and with the proliferation of Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) and other cyber/physical systems across our society and critical infrastructure and our collective love affair with automation, optimization, and ``smart'' devices, the role of these types of systems is only going to increase. This talk addresses the myriad of issues that underlie unsafe, insecure, and unreliable software and provides the insights of the Industrial Internet Consortium and other government and industry efforts on how to conquer them and pave the way to a marketplace of trustworthy software-enabled connected things.As the experience of several sectors has shown, the dependence on connected software needs to be met with a strong understanding of the risks to the overall trustworthiness of our software-based capabilities that we, our enterprises, and our world utilize. In many of these new connected systems issues of safety, reliability, and resilience rival or dominate concerns for security and privacy, the long-time focus of many in the IT world. Without a scalable and efficient method for managing these risks so our enterprises can continue to benefit from these advancements that powers our military, commercial industries, cities, and homes to new levels of efficiency, versatility, and cost effectiveness we face the potential for harm, death, and destructiveness.In such a marketplace, creating, exchanging, and integrating components that are trustworthy as well as entering into value-chain relationships with trustworthy partners and service suppliers will be common if we can provide a method for explicitly defining what is meant by the word trustworthy. The approach being pursued by these groups for applying Software Assurance to these systems and their Supply Chains by leveraging Structured Assurance Cases, Software Bill of Materials (the focus of this paper), and secure development practices applied to the evolving Agile and DevSecOps methodologies, is to explicitly identify the detailed requirements ``about what we need to know about something for it to be worthy of our trust'' and to do that in a way that we can convey that basis of trust to others that: can scale; is consistent within different workflows; is flexible to differing sets of hazards and environments; and is applicable to all sectors, domains, and industries.
2021-10-12
Chang, Kai Chih, Nokhbeh Zaeem, Razieh, Barber, K. Suzanne.  2020.  Is Your Phone You? How Privacy Policies of Mobile Apps Allow the Use of Your Personally Identifiable Information 2020 Second IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :256–262.
People continue to store their sensitive information in their smart-phone applications. Users seldom read an app's privacy policy to see how their information is being collected, used, and shared. In this paper, using a reference list of over 600 Personally Identifiable Information (PII) attributes, we investigate the privacy policies of 100 popular health and fitness mobile applications in both Android and iOS app markets to find the set of personal information these apps collect, use and share. The reference list of PII was independently built from a longitudinal study at The University of Texas investigating thousands of identity theft and fraud cases where PII attributes and associated value and risks were empirically quantified. This research leverages the reference PII list to identify and analyze the value of personal information collected by the mobile apps and the risk of disclosing this information. We found that the set of PII collected by these mobile apps covers 35% of the entire reference set of PII and, due to dependencies between PII attributes, these mobile apps have a likelihood of indirectly impacting 70% of the reference PII if breached. For a specific app, we discovered the monetary loss could reach \$1M if the set of sensitive data it collects is breached. We finally utilize Bayesian inference to measure risks of a set of PII gathered by apps: the probability that fraudsters can discover, impersonate and cause harm to the user by misusing only the PII the mobile apps collected.
Onu, Emmanuel, Mireku Kwakye, Michael, Barker, Ken.  2020.  Contextual Privacy Policy Modeling in IoT. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :94–102.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has been one of the biggest revelations of the last decade. These cyber-physical systems seamlessly integrate and improve the activities in our daily lives. Hence, creating a wide application for it in several domains, such as smart buildings and cities. However, the integration of IoT also comes with privacy challenges. The privacy challenges result from the ability of these devices to pervasively collect personal data about individuals through sensors in ways that could be unknown to them. A number of research efforts have evaluated privacy policy awareness and enforcement as key components for addressing these privacy challenges. This paper provides a framework for understanding contextualized privacy policy within the IoT domain. This will enable IoT privacy researchers to better understand IoT privacy policies and their modeling.
2021-10-04
Ghorashi, Seyed Ramin, Zia, Tanveer, Jiang, Yinhao.  2020.  Optimisation of Lightweight Klein Encryption Algorithm With 3 S-box. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) have offered great opportunities for the growth of smart objects in the last decade. Smart devices are deployed in many fields such as smart cities, healthcare and agriculture. One of the applications of IoT is Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that require inexpensive and space-economic design for remote sensing and communication capabilities. This, unfortunately, lead to their inherent security vulnerabilities. Lightweight cryptography schemes are designed to counter many attacks in low-powered devices such as the IoT and WSN. These schemes can provide support for data encryption and key management while maintaining some level of efficiency. Most of these block ciphers provide good security. However, due to the complex cryptographic scheme's efficiency and optimisation is an issue. In this work, we focus on a new lightweight encryption scheme called the Klein block cipher. The algorithms of Klein block cipher are analysed for performance and security optimisations. A new algorithm which consists of 3-layer substitute box is proposed to reduce the need for resource consumption but maintain the security.
Abbas Hamdani, Syed Wasif, Waheed Khan, Abdul, Iltaf, Naima, Iqbal, Waseem.  2020.  DTMSim-IoT: A Distributed Trust Management Simulator for IoT Networks. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :491–498.
In recent years, several trust management frame-works and models have been proposed for the Internet of Things (IoT). Focusing primarily on distributed trust management schemes; testing and validation of these models is still a challenging task. It requires the implementation of the proposed trust model for verification and validation of expected outcomes. Nevertheless, a stand-alone and standard IoT network simulator for testing of distributed trust management scheme is not yet available. In this paper, a .NET-based Distributed Trust Management Simulator for IoT Networks (DTMSim-IoT) is presented which enables the researcher to implement any static/dynamic trust management model to compute the trust value of a node. The trust computation will be calculated based on the direct-observation and trust value is updated after every transaction. Transaction history and logs of each event are maintained which can be viewed and exported as .csv file for future use. In addition to that, the simulator can also draw a graph based on the .csv file. Moreover, the simulator also offers to incorporate the feature of identification and mitigation of the On-Off Attack (OOA) in the IoT domain. Furthermore, after identifying any malicious activity by any node in the networks, the malevolent node is added to the malicious list and disseminated in the network to prevent potential On-Off attacks.
Mohiuddin, Irfan, Almogren, Ahmad.  2020.  Security Challenges and Strategies for the IoT in Cloud Computing. 2020 11th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS). :367–372.
The Internet of Things is progressively turning into a pervasive computing service, needing enormous volumes of data storage and processing. However, due to the distinctive properties of resource constraints, self-organization, and short-range communication in Internet of Things (IoT), it always adopts to cloud for outsourced storage and computation. This integration of IoT with cloud has a row of unfamiliar security challenges for the data at rest. Cloud computing delivers highly scalable and flexible computing and storage resources on pay-per-use policy. Cloud computing services for computation and storage are getting increasingly popular and many organizations are now moving their data from in-house data centers to the Cloud Storage Providers (CSPs). Time varying workload and data intensive IoT applications are vulnerable to encounter challenges while using cloud computing services. Additionally, the encryption techniques and third-party auditors to maintain data integrity are still in their developing stage and therefore the data at rest is still a concern for IoT applications. In this paper, we perform an analysis study to investigate the challenges and strategies adapted by Cloud Computing to facilitate a safe transition of IoT applications to the Cloud.
2021-09-30
Pamukov, Marin, Poulkov, Vladimir, Shterev, Vasil.  2020.  NSNN Algorithm Performance with Different Neural Network Architectures. 2020 43rd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :280–284.
Internet of Things (IoT) development and the addition of billions of computationally limited devices prohibit the use of classical security measures such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). In this paper, we study the influence of the implementation of different feed-forward type of Neural Networks (NNs) on the detection Rate of the Negative Selection Neural Network (NSNN) algorithm. Feed-forward and cascade forward NN structures with different number of neurons and different number of hidden layers are tested. For training and testing the NSNN algorithm the labeled KDD NSL dataset is applied. The detection rates provided by the algorithm with several NN structures to determine the optimal solution are calculated and compared. The results show how these different feed-forward based NN architectures impact the performance of the NSNN algorithm.
2021-09-16
Prodanoff, Zornitza Genova, Penkunas, Andrew, Kreidl, Patrick.  2020.  Anomaly Detection in RFID Networks Using Bayesian Blocks and DBSCAN. 2020 SoutheastCon. :1–7.
The use of modeling techniques such as Knuth's Rule or Bayesian Blocks for the purposes of real-time traffic characterization in RFID networks has been proposed already. This study examines the applicability of using Voronoi polygon maps or alternatively, DBSCAN clustering, as initial density estimation techniques when computing 2-Dimentional Bayesian Blocks models of RFID traffic. Our results are useful for the purposes of extending the constant-piecewise adaptation of Bayesian Blocks into 2D piecewise models for the purposes of more precise detection of anomalies in RFID traffic based on multiple log features such as command type, location, UID values, security support, etc. Automatic anomaly detection of RFID networks is an essential first step in the implementation of intrusion detection as well as a timely response to equipment malfunction such as tag hardware failure.
Rachini, Ali S., Khatoun, R..  2020.  Distributed Key Management Authentication Algorithm in Internet of Things (IOT). 2020 Sixth International Conference on Mobile And Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–5.
Radio frequency identification system (RFID) is a wireless technology based on radio waves. These radio waves transmit data from the tag to a reader, which then transmits the information to a server. RFID tags have several advantages, they can be used in merchandise, to track vehicles, and even patients. Connecting RFID tags to internet terminal or server it called Internet of Things (IoT). Many people have shown interest in connected objects or the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is composed of many complementary elements each having their own specificities. The RFID is often seen as a prerequisite for the IoT. The main challenge of RFID is the security issues. Connecting RFID with IoT poses security threats and challenges which are needed to be discussed properly before deployment. In this paper, we proposed a new distributed encryption algorithm to be used in the IoT structure in order to reduce the security risks that are confronted in RFID technology.
Asci, Cihan, Wang, Wei, Sonkusale, Sameer.  2020.  Security Monitoring System Using Magnetically-Activated RFID Tags. 2020 IEEE SENSORS. :1–4.
Existing methods for home security monitoring depend on expensive custom battery-powered solutions. In this article, we present a battery-free solution that leverages any off-the-shelf passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tag for real-time entry detection. Sensor consists of a printed RFID antenna on paper, coupled to a magnetic reed switch and is affixed on the door. Opening of the door triggers the reed switch causing RFID signal transmission detected by any off-the-shelf passive RFID reader. This paper shows simulation and experimental results for such magnetically-actuated RFID (or magRFID) opening sensor.
2021-09-01
Hussain, Iqra, Pandey, Nitin, Singh, Ajay Vikram, Negi, Mukesh Chandra, Rana, Ajay.  2020.  Presenting IoT Security based on Cryptographic Practices in Data Link Layer in Power Generation Sector. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :1085—1088.
With increasing improvements in different areas, Internet control has been making prominent impacts in almost all areas of technology that has resulted in reasonable advances in every discrete field and therefore the industries too are proceeding to the field of IoT (Internet of Things), in which the communication among heterogeneous equipments is via Internet broadly. So imparting these advances of technology in the Power Station Plant sectors i.e. the power plants will be remotely controlled additional to remote monitoring, with no corporal place as a factor for controlling or monitoring. But imparting this technology the security factor needs to be considered as a basic and such methods need to be put into practice that the communication in such networks or control systems is defended against any third party interventions while the data is being transferred from one device to the other device through the internet (Unrestricted Channel). The paper puts forward exercising RSA,DES and AES encrypting schemes for the purpose of data encryption at the Data Link Layer i.e. before it is transmitted to the other device through Internet and as a result of this the security constraints are maintained. The records put to use have been supplied by NTPC, Dadri, India plus simulation part was executed employing MATLAB.
2021-08-31
Amjath, M.I.M., Senthooran, V..  2020.  Secure Communication Using Steganography in IoT Environment. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computing (ICAC). 1:114—119.
IoT is an emerging technology in modern world of communication. As the usage of IoT devices is increasing in day to day life, the secure data communication in IoT environment is the major challenge. Especially, small sized Single-Board Computers (SBCs) or Microcontrollers devices are widely used to transfer data with another in IoT. Due to the less processing power and storage capabilities, the data acquired from these devices must be transferred very securely in order to avoid some ethical issues. There are many cryptography approaches are applied to transfer data between IoT devices, but there are obvious chances to suspect encrypted messages by eavesdroppers. To add more secure data transfer, steganography mechanism is used to avoid the chances of suspicion as another layer of security. Based on the capabilities of IoT devices, low complexity images are used to hide the data with different hiding algorithms. In this research study, the secret data is encoded through QR code and embedded in low complexity cover images by applying image to image hiding fashion. The encoded image is sent to the receiving device via the network. The receiving device extracts the QR code from image using secret key then decoded the original data. The performance measure of the system is evaluated by the image quality parameters mainly Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Coefficient (NC) and Security with maintaining the quality of contemporary IoT system. Thus, the proposed method hides the precious information within an image using the properties of QR code and sending it without any suspicion to attacker and competes with the existing methods in terms of providing more secure communication between Microcontroller devices in IoT environment.
Bartol, Janez, Souvent, Andrej, Suljanović, Nermin, Zajc, Matej.  2020.  Secure data exchange between IoT endpoints for energy balancing using distributed ledger. 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe). :56—60.
This paper investigates a secure data exchange between many small distributed consumers/prosumers and the aggregator in the process of energy balancing. It addresses the challenges of ensuring data exchange in a simple, scalable, and affordable way. The communication platform for data exchange is using Ethereum Blockchain technology. It provides a distributed ledger database across a distributed network, supports simple connectivity for new stakeholders, and enables many small entities to contribute with their flexible energy to the system balancing. The architecture of a simulation/emulation environment provides a direct connection of a relational database to the Ethereum network, thus enabling dynamic data management. In addition, it extends security of the environment with security mechanisms of relational databases. Proof-of-concept setup with the simulation of system balancing processes, confirms the suitability of the solution for secure data exchange in the market, operation, and measurement area. For the most intensive and space-consuming measurement data exchange, we have investigated data aggregation to ensure performance optimisation of required computation and space usage.
2021-08-18
Al-Aali, Yousuf, Boussakta, Said.  2020.  Lightweight block ciphers for resource-constrained devices. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1—6.
Lightweight cryptography is a new branch of cryptography focused on providing security to resource-constraint devices such as wireless sensor networks (WSN), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFIDs) and other embedded systems. The factors considered in lightweight cryptography are mainly circuit area, memory requirement, processing time, latency, power, and energy consumption. This paper presents a discussion on common lightweight block ciphers in terms of different performance parameters, strength, design trends, limitations, and applications including the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) round 1 and 2 candidates. Analysis of these lightweight algorithms has offered an insight into this newly emerging field of cryptography.
Sravya, G., Kumar, Manchalla. O.V.P., Sudarsana Reddy, Y., Jamal, K., Mannem, Kiran.  2020.  The Ideal Block Ciphers - Correlation of AES and PRESENT in Cryptography. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1107—1113.
In this digital era, the usage of technology has increased rapidly and led to the deployment of more innovative technologies for storing and transferring the generated data. The most important aspect of the emerging communication technologies is to ensure the safety and security of the generated huge amount of data. Hence, cryptography is considered as a pathway that can securely transfer and save the data. Cryptography comprises of ciphers that act like an algorithm, where the data is encrypted at the source and decrypted at the destination. This paper comprises of two ciphers namely PRESENT and AES ciphers. In the real-time applications, AES is no more relevant especially for segmenting the organizations that leverage RFID, Sensors and IoT devices. In order to overcome the strategic issues faced by these organization, PRESENT ciphers work appropriately with its super lightweight block figure, which has the equivalent significance to both security and equipment arrangements. This paper compares the AES (Advance encryption standard) symmetric block cipher with PRESENT symmetric block cipher to leverage in the industries mentioned earlier, where the huge consumption of resources becomes a significant factor. For the comparison of different ciphers, the results of area, timing analysis and the waveforms are taken into consideration.
2021-08-12
Jung, Junyoung, Cho, Jinsung, Lee, Ben.  2020.  A Secure Platform for IoT Devices based on ARM Platform Security Architecture. 2020 14th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication (IMCOM). :1—4.
Recent IoT services are being used in various fields such as smart homes, smart factories, smart cars and industrial systems. These various IoT services are implemented through hyper-connected IoT devices, and accordingly, security requirements of these devices are being highlighted. In order to satisfy the security requirements of IoT devices, various studies have been conducted such as HSM, Security SoC, and TrustZone. In particular, ARM proposed Platform Security Architecture (PSA), which is a security architecture that provide execution isolation to safely manage and protect the computing resources of low- end IoT devices. PSA can ensure confidentiality and integrity of IoT devices based on its structural features, but conversely, it has the problem of increasing development difficulty in using the security functions of PSA. To solve this problem, this paper analyzes the security requirements of an IoT platform and proposes secure platform based on PSA. To evaluate the proposed secure platform, a PoC implementation is provided based on hardware prototype consisting of FPGA. Our experiments with the PoC implementation verify that the proposed secure platform offers not only high security but also convenience of application development for IoT devices.
Karie, Nickson M., Sahri, Nor Masri, Haskell-Dowland, Paul.  2020.  IoT Threat Detection Advances, Challenges and Future Directions. 2020 Workshop on Emerging Technologies for Security in IoT (ETSecIoT). :22—29.
It is predicted that, the number of connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices will rise to 38.6 billion by 2025 and an estimated 50 billion by 2030. The increased deployment of IoT devices into diverse areas of our life has provided us with significant benefits such as improved quality of life and task automation. However, each time a new IoT device is deployed, new and unique security threats emerge or are introduced into the environment under which the device must operate. Instantaneous detection and mitigation of every security threat introduced by different IoT devices deployed can be very challenging. This is because many of the IoT devices are manufactured with no consideration of their security implications. In this paper therefore, we review existing literature and present IoT threat detection research advances with a focus on the various IoT security challenges as well as the current developments towards combating cyber security threats in IoT networks. However, this paper also highlights several future research directions in the IoT domain.