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Evans, David, Calvo, Daniel, Arroyo, Adrian, Manilla, Alejandro, Gómez, David.  2019.  End-to-end security assessment framework for connected vehicles. 2019 22nd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). :1–6.
To increase security and to offer user experiences according to the requirements of a hyper-connected world, modern vehicles are integrating complex electronic systems, being transformed into systems of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). While a great diversity of heterogeneous hardware and software components must work together and control in real-time crucial functionalities, cybersecurity for the automotive sector is still in its infancy. This paper provides an analysis of the most common vulnerabilities and risks of connected vehicles, using a real example based on industrial and market-ready technologies. Several components have been implemented to inject and simulate multiple attacks, which enable security services and mitigation actions to be developed and validated.
Bolla, R., Carrega, A., Repetto, M..  2019.  An abstraction layer for cybersecurity context. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :214—218.

The growing complexity and diversification of cyber-attacks are largely reflected in the increasing sophistication of security appliances, which are often too cumbersome to be run in virtual services and IoT devices. Hence, the design of cyber-security frameworks is today looking at more cooperative models, which collect security-related data from a large set of heterogeneous sources for centralized analysis and correlation.In this paper, we outline a flexible abstraction layer for access to security context. It is conceived to program and gather data from lightweight inspection and enforcement hooks deployed in cloud applications and IoT devices. We also provide a preliminary description of its implementation, by reviewing the main software components and their role.

Hettiarachchi, Charitha, Do, Hyunsook.  2019.  A Systematic Requirements and Risks-Based Test Case Prioritization Using a Fuzzy Expert System. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :374–385.

The use of risk information can help software engineers identify software components that are likely vulnerable or require extra attention when testing. Some studies have shown that the requirements risk-based approaches can be effective in improving the effectiveness of regression testing techniques. However, the risk estimation processes used in such approaches can be subjective, time-consuming, and costly. In this research, we introduce a fuzzy expert system that emulates human thinking to address the subjectivity related issues in the risk estimation process in a systematic and an efficient way and thus further improve the effectiveness of test case prioritization. Further, the required data for our approach was gathered by employing a semi-automated process that made the risk estimation process less subjective. The empirical results indicate that the new prioritization approach can improve the rate of fault detection over several existing test case prioritization techniques, while reducing threats to subjective risk estimation.

Teusner, R., Matthies, C., Giese, P..  2017.  Should I Bug You? Identifying Domain Experts in Software Projects Using Code Complexity Metrics 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :418–425.
In any sufficiently complex software system there are experts, having a deeper understanding of parts of the system than others. However, it is not always clear who these experts are and which particular parts of the system they can provide help with. We propose a framework to elicit the expertise of developers and recommend experts by analyzing complexity measures over time. Furthermore, teams can detect those parts of the software for which currently no, or only few experts exist and take preventive actions to keep the collective code knowledge and ownership high. We employed the developed approach at a medium-sized company. The results were evaluated with a survey, comparing the perceived and the computed expertise of developers. We show that aggregated code metrics can be used to identify experts for different software components. The identified experts were rated as acceptable candidates by developers in over 90% of all cases.
Paul-Pena, D., Krishnamurthy, P., Karri, R., Khorrami, F..  2017.  Process-aware side channel monitoring for embedded control system security. 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :1–6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are interconnections of heterogeneous hardware and software components (e.g., sensors, actuators, physical systems/processes, computational nodes and controllers, and communication subsystems). Increasing network connectivity of CPS computational nodes facilitates maintenance and on-demand reprogrammability and reduces operator workload. However, such increasing connectivity also raises the potential for cyber-attacks that attempt unauthorized modifications of run-time parameters or control logic in the computational nodes to hamper process stability or performance. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of real-time monitoring using digital and analog side channels. While analog side channels might not typically provide sufficient granularity to observe each iteration of a periodic loop in the code in the CPS device, the temporal averaging inherent to side channel sensory modalities enables observation of persistent changes to the contents of a computational loop through their resulting effect on the level of activity of the device. Changes to code can be detected by observing readings from side channel sensors over a period of time. Experimental studies are performed on an ARM-based single board computer.

Jilcott, S..  2015.  Securing the supply chain for commodity IT devices by automated scenario generation. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–6.

Almost all commodity IT devices include firmware and software components from non-US suppliers, potentially introducing grave vulnerabilities to homeland security by enabling cyber-attacks via flaws injected into these devices through the supply chain. However, determining that a given device is free of any and all implementation flaws is computationally infeasible in the general case; hence a critical part of any vetting process is prioritizing what kinds of flaws are likely to enable potential adversary goals. We present Theseus, a four-year research project sponsored by the DARPA VET program. Theseus will provide technology to automatically map and explore the firmware/software (FW/SW) architecture of a commodity IT device and then generate attack scenarios for the device. From these device attack scenarios, Theseus then creates a prioritized checklist of FW/SW components to check for potential vulnerabilities. Theseus combines static program analysis, attack graph generation algorithms, and a Boolean satisfiability solver to automate the checklist generation workflow. We describe how Theseus exploits analogies between the commodity IT device problem and attack graph generation for networks. We also present a novel approach called Component Interaction Mapping to recover a formal model of a device's FW/SW architecture from which attack scenarios can be generated.