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2020-05-04
Zou, Zhenwan, Chen, Jia, Hou, Yingsa, Song, Panpan, He, Ling, Yang, Huiting, Wang, Bin.  2019.  Design and Implementation of a New Intelligent Substation Network Security Defense System. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:2709–2713.
In order to enhance the network security protection level of intelligent substation, this paper puts forward a model of intelligent substation network security defense system through the analysis of intelligent substation network security risk and protection demand, and using example proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the defense system. It is intelligent substation network security protection provides a new solution.
2020-04-24
Tuttle, Michael, Wicker, Braden, Poshtan, Majid, Callenes, Joseph.  2019.  Algorithmic Approaches to Characterizing Power Flow Cyber-Attack Vulnerabilities. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1—5.
As power grid control systems become increasingly automated and distributed, security has become a significant design concern. Systems increasingly expose new avenues, at a variety of levels, for attackers to exploit and enable widespread disruptions and/or surveillance. Much prior work has explored the implications of attack models focused on false data injection at the front-end of the control system (i.e. during state estimation) [1]. Instead, in this paper we focus on characterizing the inherent cyber-attack vulnerabilities with power flow. Power flow (and power flow constraints) are at the core of many applications critical to operation of power grids (e.g. state estimation, economic dispatch, contingency analysis, etc.). We propose two algorithmic approaches for characterizing the vulnerability of buses within power grids to cyber-attacks. Specifically, we focus on measuring the instability of power flow to attacks which manifest as either voltage or power related errors. Our results show that attacks manifesting as voltage errors are an order of magnitude more likely to cause instability than attacks manifesting as power related errors (and 5x more likely for state estimation as compared to power flow).
Jiang, He, Wang, Zhenhua, He, Haibo.  2019.  An Evolutionary Computation Approach for Smart Grid Cascading Failure Vulnerability Analysis. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :332—338.
The cyber-physical security of smart grid is of great importance since it directly concerns the normal operating of a system. Recently, researchers found that organized sequential attacks can incur large-scale cascading failure to the smart grid. In this paper, we focus on the line-switching sequential attack, where the attacker aims to trip transmission lines in a designed order to cause significant system failures. Our objective is to identify the critical line-switching attack sequence, which can be instructional for the protection of smart grid. For this purpose, we develop an evolutionary computation based vulnerability analysis framework, which employs particle swarm optimization to search the critical attack sequence. Simulation studies on two benchmark systems, i.e., IEEE 24 bus reliability test system and Washington 30 bus dynamic test system, are implemented to evaluate the performance of our proposed method. Simulation results show that our method can yield a better performance comparing with the reinforcement learning based approach proposed in other prior work.
2020-04-03
Garigipati, Nagababu, Krishna, Reddy V.  2019.  A Study on Data Security and Query privacy in Cloud. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :337—341.
A lot of organizations need effective resolutions to record and evaluate the existing enormous volume of information. Cloud computing as a facilitator offers scalable resources and noteworthy economic assistances as the decreased operational expenditures. This model increases a wide set of security and privacy problems that have to be taken into reflexion. Multi-occupancy, loss of control, and confidence are the key issues in cloud computing situations. This paper considers the present know-hows and a comprehensive assortment of both previous and high-tech tasks on cloud security and confidentiality. The paradigm shift that supplements the usage of cloud computing is progressively enabling augmentation to safety and privacy contemplations linked with the different facades of cloud computing like multi-tenancy, reliance, loss of control and responsibility. So, cloud platforms that deal with big data that have sensitive information are necessary to use technical methods and structural precautions to circumvent data defence failures that might lead to vast and costly harms.
2020-03-16
Karpenko, V.I., Vasilev, S.P., Boltunov, A.P., Voloshin, E.A., Voloshin, A. A..  2019.  Intelligent Consumers Device and Cybersecurity of Load Management in Microgrids. 2019 2nd International Youth Scientific and Technical Conference on Relay Protection and Automation (RPA). :1–10.
The digitalization of the electric power industry and the development of territories isolated from the unified energy system are priorities in the development of the energy sector. Thanks to innovative solutions and digital technologies, it becomes possible to make more effective managing and monitoring. Such solution is IoT platform with intelligent control system implemented by software.
Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis, Sarigiannidis, Panagiotis, Giannoulakis, Ioannis, Kafetzakis, Emmanouil, Panaousis, Emmanouil.  2019.  Attacking IEC-60870-5-104 SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:41–46.
The rapid evolution of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services transforms the conventional electrical grid into a new paradigm called Smart Grid (SG). Even though SG brings significant improvements, such as increased reliability and better energy management, it also introduces multiple security challenges. One of the main reasons for this is that SG combines a wide range of heterogeneous technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT) devices as well as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The latter are responsible for monitoring and controlling the automatic procedures of energy transmission and distribution. Nevertheless, the presence of these systems introduces multiple vulnerabilities because their protocols do not implement essential security mechanisms such as authentication and access control. In this paper, we focus our attention on the security issues of the IEC 60870-5-104 (IEC-104) protocol, which is widely utilized in the European energy sector. In particular, we provide a SCADA threat model based on a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) and emulate four different types of cyber attacks against IEC-104. Last, we used AlienVault's risk assessment model to evaluate the risk level that each of these cyber attacks introduces to our system to confirm our intuition about their severity.
2020-03-09
Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.

Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Richardson, Christopher, Race, Nicholas, Smith, Paul.  2016.  A Privacy Preserving Approach to Energy Theft Detection in Smart Grids. 2016 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–4.

A major challenge for utilities is energy theft, wherein malicious actors steal energy for financial gain. One such form of theft in the smart grid is the fraudulent amplification of energy generation measurements from DERs, such as photo-voltaics. It is important to detect this form of malicious activity, but in a way that ensures the privacy of customers. Not considering privacy aspects could result in a backlash from customers and a heavily curtailed deployment of services, for example. In this short paper, we present a novel privacy-preserving approach to the detection of manipulated DER generation measurements.

Knirsch, Fabian, Engel, Dominik, Frincu, Marc, Prasanna, Viktor.  2015.  Model-Based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities in the Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and - if feasible - an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

Farquharson, J., Wang, A., Howard, J..  2012.  Smart Grid Cyber Security and Substation Network Security. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). :1–5.

A successful Smart Grid system requires purpose-built security architecture which is explicitly designed to protect customer data confidentiality. In addition to the investment on electric power infrastructure for protecting the privacy of Smart Grid-related data, entities need to actively participate in the NIST interoperability framework process; establish policies and oversight structure for the enforcement of cyber security controls of the data through adoption of security best practices, personnel training, cyber vulnerability assessments, and consumer privacy audits.

2020-03-02
Sahu, Abhijeet, Huang, Hao, Davis, Katherine, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  SCORE: A Security-Oriented Cyber-Physical Optimal Response Engine. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

Automatic optimal response systems are essential for preserving power system resilience and ensuring faster recovery from emergency under cyber compromise. Numerous research works have developed such response engine for cyber and physical system recovery separately. In this paper, we propose a novel cyber-physical decision support system, SCORE, that computes optimal actions considering pure and hybrid cyber-physical states, using Markov Decision Process (MDP). Such an automatic decision making engine can assist power system operators and network administrators to make a faster response to prevent cascading failures and attack escalation respectively. The hybrid nature of the engine makes the reward and state transition model of the MDP unique. Value iteration and policy iteration techniques are used to compute the optimal actions. Tests are performed on three and five substation power systems to recover from attacks that compromise relays to cause transmission line overflow. The paper also analyses the impact of reward and state transition model on computation. Corresponding results verify the efficacy of the proposed engine.

2020-02-18
Lin, Gengshen, Dong, Mianxiong, Ota, Kaoru, Li, Jianhua, Yang, Wu, Wu, Jun.  2019.  Security Function Virtualization Based Moving Target Defense of SDN-Enabled Smart Grid. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Software-defined networking (SDN) allows the smart grid to be centrally controlled and managed by decoupling the control plane from the data plane, but it also expands attack surface for attackers. Existing studies about the security of SDN-enabled smart grid (SDSG) mainly focused on static methods such as access control and identity authentication, which is vulnerable to attackers that carefully probe the system. As the attacks become more variable and complex, there is an urgent need for dynamic defense methods. In this paper, we propose a security function virtualization (SFV) based moving target defense of SDSG which makes the attack surface constantly changing. First, we design a dynamic defense mechanism by migrating virtual security function (VSF) instances as the traffic state changes. The centralized SDN controller is re-designed for global status monitoring and migration management. Moreover, we formalize the VSF instances migration problem as an integer nonlinear programming problem with multiple constraints and design a pre-migration algorithm to prevent VSF instances' resources from being exhausted. Simulation results indicate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

2020-02-17
Liu, Xiaobao, Wu, Qinfang, Sun, Jinhua, Xu, Xia, Wen, Yifan.  2019.  Research on Self-Healing Technology for Faults of Intelligent Distribution Network Communication System. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1404–1408.
The intelligent power communication network is closely connected with the power system, and carries the data transmission and intelligent decision in a series of key services in the power system, which is an important guarantee for the smart power service. The self-healing control (SHC) of the distribution network monitors the data of each device and node in the distribution network in real time, simulates and analyzes the data, and predicts the hidden dangers in the normal operation of the distribution network. Control, control strategies such as correcting recovery and troubleshooting when abnormal or fault conditions occur, reducing human intervention, enabling the distribution network to change from abnormal operating state to normal operating state in time, preventing event expansion and reducing the impact of faults on the grid and users.
Zou, Zhenwan, Hou, Yingsa, Yang, Huiting, Li, Mingxuan, Wang, Bin, Guo, Qingrui.  2019.  Research and Implementation of Intelligent Substation Information Security Risk Assessment Tool. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :1306–1310.
In order to improve the information security level of intelligent substation, this paper proposes an intelligent substation information security assessment tool through the research and analysis of intelligent substation information security risk and information security assessment method, and proves that the tool can effectively detect it. It is of great significance to carry out research on industrial control systems, especially intelligent substation information security.
Moquin, S. J., Kim, SangYun, Blair, Nicholas, Farnell, Chris, Di, Jia, Mantooth, H. Alan.  2019.  Enhanced Uptime and Firmware Cybersecurity for Grid-Connected Power Electronics. 2019 IEEE CyberPELS (CyberPELS). :1–6.
A distributed energy resource prototype is used to show cybersecurity best practices. These best practices include straightforward security techniques, such as encrypted serial communication. The best practices include more sophisticated security techniques, such as a method to evaluate and respond to firmware integrity at run-time. The prototype uses embedded Linux, a hardware-assisted monitor, one or more digital signal processors, and grid-connected power electronics. Security features to protect communication, firmware, power flow, and hardware are developed. The firmware run-time integrity security is presently evaluated, and shown to maintain power electronics uptime during firmware updating. The firmware run-time security feature can be extended to allow software rejuvenation, multi-mission controls, and greater flexibility and security in controls.
Ullah, N., Ali, S. M., Khan, B., Mehmood, C. A., Anwar, S. M., Majid, M., Farid, U., Nawaz, M. A., Ullah, Z..  2019.  Energy Efficiency: Digital Signal Processing Interactions Within Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET). :1–6.
Smart Grid (SG) is regarded as complex electrical power system due to massive penetration of Renewable Energy Resources and Distribution Generations. The implementation of adjustable speed drives, advance power electronic devices, and electric arc furnaces are incorporated in SG (the transition from conventional power system). Moreover, SG is an advance, automated, controlled, efficient, digital, and intelligent system that ensures pertinent benefits, such as: (a) consumer empowerment, (b) advanced communication infrastructure, (c) user-friendly system, and (d) supports bi-directional power flow. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is key tool for SG deployment and provides key solutions to a vast array of complex SG challenges. This research provides a comprehensive study on DSP interactions within SG. The prominent challenges posed by conventional grid, such as: (a) monitoring and control, (b) Electric Vehicles infrastructure, (c) cyber data injection attack, (d) Demand Response management and (e) cyber data injection attack are thoroughly investigated in this research.
Ionita, Drd. Irene.  2019.  Cybersecurity concerns on real time monitoring in electrical transmission and distribution systems (SMART GRIDS). 2019 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC). :1–4.
The virtual world does not observe national borders, has no uniform legal system, and does not have a common perception of security and privacy issues. It is however, relatively homogenous in terms of technology.A cyberattack on an energy delivery system can have significant impacts on the availability of a system to perform critical functions as well as the integrity of the system and the confidentiality of sensitive information.
Hiller, Jens, Komanns, Karsten, Dahlmanns, Markus, Wehrle, Klaus.  2019.  Regaining Insight and Control on SMGW-based Secure Communication in Smart Grids. 2019 AEIT International Annual Conference (AEIT). :1–6.
Smart Grids require extensive communication to enable safe and stable energy supply in the age of decentralized and dynamic energy production and consumption. To protect the communication in this critical infrastructure, public authorities mandate smart meter gateways (SMGWs) to be in control of the communication security. To this end, the SMGW intercepts all inbound and outbound communication of its premise, e.g., a factory or smart home, and forwards it on secure channels that the SMGW established itself. However, using the SMGW as proxy, local devices can neither review the security of these remote connections established by the SMGW nor enforce higher security guarantees than established by the all in one configuration of the SMGW which does not allow for use case-specific security settings. We present mechanisms that enable local devices to regain this insight and control over the full connection, i.e., up to the final receiver, while retaining the SMGW's ability to ensure a suitable security level. Our evaluation shows modest computation and transmission overheads for this increased security in the critical smart grid infrastructure.
Ying, Huan, Ouyang, Xuan, Miao, Siwei, Cheng, Yushi.  2019.  Power Message Generation in Smart Grid via Generative Adversarial Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :790–793.
As the next generation of the power system, smart grid develops towards automated and intellectualized. Along with the benefits brought by smart grids, e.g., improved energy conversion rate, power utilization rate, and power supply quality, are the security challenges. One of the most important issues in smart grids is to ensure reliable communication between the secondary equipment. The state-of-art method to ensure smart grid security is to detect cyber attacks by deep learning. However, due to the small number of negative samples, the performance of the detection system is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that utilizes the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to generate abundant negative samples, which helps to improve the performance of the state-of-art detection system. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of the detection system by 4%.
Al-Eryani, Yasser, Baroudi, Uthman.  2019.  An Investigation on Detecting Bad Data Injection Attack in Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–4.
Security and consistency of smart grids is one of the main issues in the design and maintenance of highly controlled and monitored new power grids. Bad data injection attack could lead to disasters such as power system outage, or huge economical losses. In many attack scenarios, the attacker can come up with new attack strategies that couldn't be detected by the traditional bad data detection methods. Adaptive Partitioning State Estimation (APSE) method [3] has been proposed recently to combat such attacks. In this work, we evaluate and compare with a traditional method. The main idea of APSE is to increase the sensitivity of the chi-square test by partitioning the large grids into small ones and apply the test on each partition individually and repeat this procedure until the faulty node is located. Our simulation findings using MATPOWER program show that the method is not consistent where it is sensitive the systems size and the location of faulty nodes as well.
Li, Zhifeng, Li, Yintao, Lin, Peng.  2019.  The Security Evaluation of Big Data Research for Smart Grid. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1055–1059.
The technological development of the energy sector also produced complex data. In this study, the relationship between smart grid and big data approaches have been investigated. After analyzing which areas of the smart grid system use big data technologies and technologies, big data technologies for detecting smart grid attacks have received attention. Big data analytics can produce efficient solutions and it is especially important to choose which algorithms and metrics to use. For this reason, an application prototype has been proposed that uses a big data method to detect attacks on the smart grid. The algorithm with high accuracy was determined to be 92% for random forests and 87% for decision trees.
Paul, Shuva, Ni, Zhen.  2019.  A Strategic Analysis of Attacker-Defender Repeated Game in Smart Grid Security. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
Traditional power grid security schemes are being replaced by highly advanced and efficient smart security schemes due to the advancement in grid structure and inclusion of cyber control and monitoring tools. Smart attackers create physical, cyber, or cyber-physical attacks to gain the access of the power system and manipulate/override system status, measurements and commands. In this paper, we formulate the environment for the attacker-defender interaction in the smart power grid. We provide a strategic analysis of the attacker-defender strategic interaction using a game theoretic approach. We apply repeated game to formulate the problem, implement it in the power system, and investigate for optimal strategic behavior in terms of mixed strategies of the players. In order to define the utility or cost function for the game payoffs calculation, generation power is used. Attack-defense budget is also incorporated with the attacker-defender repeated game to reflect a more realistic scenario. The proposed game model is validated using IEEE 39 bus benchmark system. A comparison between the proposed game model and the all monitoring model is provided to validate the observations.
Kumar, Sanjeev, Kumar, Harsh, Gunnam, Ganesh Reddy.  2019.  Security Integrity of Data Collection from Smart Electric Meter under a Cyber Attack. 2019 2nd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :9–13.
Cyber security has been a top concern for electric power companies deploying smart meters and smart grid technology. Despite the well-known advantages of smart grid technology and the smart meters, it is not yet very clear how and to what extent, the Cyber attacks can hamper the operation of the smart meters, and remote data collections regarding the power usage from the customer sites. To understand these questions, we conducted experiments in a controlled lab environment of our cyber security lab to test a commercial grade smart meter. In this paper, we present results of our investigation for a commercial grade smart meter and measure the operation integrity of the smart meter under cyber-attack conditions.
Aranha, Helder, Masi, Massimiliano, Pavleska, Tanja, Sellitto, Giovanni Paolo.  2019.  Enabling Security-by-Design in Smart Grids: An Architecture-Based Approach. 2019 15th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). :177–179.
Energy Distribution Grids are considered critical infrastructure, hence the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have developed sophisticated engineering practices to improve their resilience. Over the last years, due to the "Smart Grid" evolution, this infrastructure has become a distributed system where prosumers (the consumers who produce and share surplus energy through the grid) can plug in distributed energy resources (DERs) and manage a bi-directional flow of data and power enabled by an advanced IT and control infrastructure. This introduces new challenges, as the prosumers possess neither the skills nor the knowledge to assess the risk or secure the environment from cyber-threats. We propose a simple and usable approach based on the Reference Model of Information Assurance & Security (RMIAS), to support the prosumers in the selection of cybesecurity measures. The purpose is to reduce the risk of being directly targeted and to establish collective responsibility among prosumers as grid gatekeepers. The framework moves from a simple risk analysis based on security goals to providing guidelines for the users for adoption of adequate security countermeasures. One of the greatest advantages of the approach is that it does not constrain the user to a specific threat model.