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2019-10-02
Zhang, Y., Eisele, S., Dubey, A., Laszka, A., Srivastava, A. K..  2019.  Cyber-Physical Simulation Platform for Security Assessment of Transactive Energy Systems. 2019 7th Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1–6.
Transactive energy systems (TES) are emerging as a transformative solution for the problems that distribution system operators face due to an increase in the use of distributed energy resources and rapid growth in scalability of managing active distribution system (ADS). On the one hand, these changes pose a decentralized power system control problem, requiring strategic control to maintain reliability and resiliency for the community and for the utility. On the other hand, they require robust financial markets while allowing participation from diverse prosumers. To support the computing and flexibility requirements of TES while preserving privacy and security, distributed software platforms are required. In this paper, we enable the study and analysis of security concerns by developing Transactive Energy Security Simulation Testbed (TESST), a TES testbed for simulating various cyber attacks. In this work, the testbed is used for TES simulation with centralized clearing market, highlighting weaknesses in a centralized system. Additionally, we present a blockchain enabled decentralized market solution supported by distributed computing for TES, which on one hand can alleviate some of the problems that we identify, but on the other hand, may introduce newer issues. Future study of these differing paradigms is necessary and will continue as we develop our security simulation testbed.
2019-09-11
Xi, W., Suo, S., Cai, T., Jian, G., Yao, H., Fan, L..  2019.  A Design and Implementation Method of IPSec Security Chip for Power Distribution Network System Based on National Cryptographic Algorithms. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :2307–2310.

The target of security protection of the power distribution automation system (the distribution system for short) is to ensure the security of communication between the distribution terminal (terminal for short) and the distribution master station (master system for short). The encryption and authentication gateway (VPN gateway for short) for distribution system enhances the network layer communication security between the terminal and the VPN gateway. The distribution application layer encryption authentication device (master cipher machine for short) ensures the confidentiality and integrity of data transmission in application layer, and realizes the identity authentication between the master station and the terminal. All these measures are used to prevent malicious damage and attack to the master system by forging terminal identity, replay attack and other illegal operations, in order to prevent the resulting distribution network system accidents. Based on the security protection scheme of the power distribution automation system, this paper carries out the development of multi-chip encapsulation, develops IPSec Protocols software within the security chip, and realizes dual encryption and authentication function in IP layer and application layer supporting the national cryptographic algorithm.

2019-07-01
Akhtar, T., Gupta, B. B., Yamaguchi, S..  2018.  Malware propagation effects on SCADA system and smart power grid. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–6.

Critical infrastructures have suffered from different kind of cyber attacks over the years. Many of these attacks are performed using malwares by exploiting the vulnerabilities of these resources. Smart power grid is one of the major victim which suffered from these attacks and its SCADA system are frequently targeted. In this paper we describe our proposed framework to analyze smart power grid, while its SCADA system is under attack by malware. Malware propagation and its effects on SCADA system is the focal point of our analysis. OMNeT++ simulator and openDSS is used for developing and analyzing the simulated smart power grid environment.

Zabetian-Hosseini, A., Mehrizi-Sani, A., Liu, C..  2018.  Cyberattack to Cyber-Physical Model of Wind Farm SCADA. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4929–4934.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in wind power penetration into the power system. As a result, the behavior of the power system has become more dependent on wind power behavior. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems responsible for monitoring and controlling wind farms often have vulnerabilities that make them susceptible to cyberattacks. These vulnerabilities allow attackers to exploit and intrude in the wind farm SCADA system. In this paper, a cyber-physical system (CPS) model for the information and communication technology (ICT) model of the wind farm SCADA system integrated with SCADA of the power system is proposed. Cybersecurity of this wind farm SCADA system is discussed. Proposed cyberattack scenarios on the system are modeled and the impact of these cyberattacks on the behavior of the power systems on the IEEE 9-bus modified system is investigated. Finally, an anomaly attack detection algorithm is proposed to stop the attack of tripping of all wind farms. Case studies validate the performance of the proposed CPS model of the test system and the attack detection algorithm.

Kolosok, I., Korkina, E., Mahnitko, A., Gavrilovs, A..  2018.  Supporting Cyber-Physical Security of Electric Power System by the State Estimation Technique. 2018 IEEE 59th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON). :1–6.

Security is one of the most important properties of electric power system (EPS). We consider the state estimation (SE) tool as a barrier to the corruption of data on current operating conditions of the EPS. An algorithm for a two-level SE on the basis of SCADA and WAMS measurements is effective in terms of detection of malicious attacks on energy system. The article suggests a methodology to identify cyberattacks on SCADA and WAMS.

2019-06-24
Oriero, E., Rahman, M. A..  2018.  Privacy Preserving Fine-Grained Data Distribution Aggregation for Smart Grid AMI Networks. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–9.

An advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows real-time fine-grained monitoring of the energy consumption data of individual consumers. Collected metering data can be used for a multitude of applications. For example, energy demand forecasting, based on the reported fine-grained consumption, can help manage the near future energy production. However, fine- grained metering data reporting can lead to privacy concerns. It is, therefore, imperative that the utility company receives the fine-grained data needed to perform the intended demand response service, without learning any sensitive information about individual consumers. In this paper, we propose an anonymous privacy preserving fine-grained data aggregation scheme for AMI networks. In this scheme, the utility company receives only the distribution of the energy consumption by the consumers at different time slots. We leverage a network tree topology structure in which each smart meter randomly reports its energy consumption data to its parent smart meter (according to the tree). The parent node updates the consumption distribution and forwards the data to the utility company. Our analysis results show that the proposed scheme can preserve the privacy and security of individual consumers while guaranteeing the demand response service.

2019-05-01
Borra, V. S., Debnath, K..  2018.  Dynamic programming for solving unit commitment and security problems in microgrid systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Innovative Research and Development (ICIRD). :1–6.

In order to meet the demand of electrical energy by consumers, utilities have to maintain the security of the system. This paper presents a design of the Microgrid Central Energy Management System (MCEMS). It will plan operation of the system one-day advance. The MCEMS will adjust itself during operation if a fault occurs anywhere in the generation system. The proposed approach uses Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm solves the Unit Commitment (UC) problem and at the same time enhances the security of power system. A case study is performed with ten subsystems. The DP is used to manage the operation of the subsystems and determines the UC on the situation demands. Faults are applied to the system and the DP corrects the UC problem with appropriate power sources to maintain reliability supply. The MATLAB software has been used to simulate the operation of the system.

Shen, W., Liu, Y., Wu, Q., Tian, Y., Liu, Y., Peng, H..  2018.  Application of Dynamic Security Technology Architecture for Advanced Directional Attacks in Power System Information Security. 2018 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON). :3042–3047.

In view of the increasingly severe network security situation of power information system, this paper draws on the experience of construction of security technology system at home and abroad, with the continuous monitoring and analysis as the core, covering the closed-loop management of defense, detection, response and prediction security as the starting point, Based on the existing defense-based static security protection architecture, a dynamic security technology architecture based on detection and response is established. Compared with the traditional PDR architecture, the architecture adds security threat prediction, strengthens behavior-based detection, and further explains the concept of dynamic defense, so that it can adapt to changes in the grid IT infrastructure and business application systems. A unified security strategy can be formed to deal with more secretive and professional advanced attacks in the future. The architecture emphasizes that network security is a cyclical confrontation process. Enterprise network security thinking should change from the past “emergency response” to “continuous response”, real-time dynamic analysis of security threats, and automatically adapt to changing networks and threat environments, and Constantly optimize its own security defense mechanism, thus effectively solving the problem of the comprehensive technology transformation and upgrading of the security technology system from the traditional passive defense to the active sensing, from the simple defense to the active confrontation, and from the independent protection to the intelligence-driven. At the same time, the paper also gives the technical evolution route of the architecture, which provides a planning basis and a landing method for the continuous fulfillment of the new requirements of the security of the power information system during the 13th Five-Year Plan period.

Konstantelos, I., Jamgotchian, G., Tindemans, S., Duchesne, P., Cole, S., Merckx, C., Strbac, G., Panciatici, P..  2018.  Implementation of a Massively Parallel Dynamic Security Assessment Platform for Large-Scale Grids. 2018 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–1.

This paper presents a computational platform for dynamic security assessment (DSA) of large electricity grids, developed as part of the iTesla project. It leverages High Performance Computing (HPC) to analyze large power systems, with many scenarios and possible contingencies, thus paving the way for pan-European operational stability analysis. The results of the DSA are summarized by decision trees of 11 stability indicators. The platform's workflow and parallel implementation architecture is described in detail, including the way commercial tools are integrated into a plug-in architecture. A case study of the French grid is presented, with over 8000 scenarios and 1980 contingencies. Performance data of the case study (using 10,000 parallel cores) is analyzed, including task timings and data flows. Finally, the generated decision trees are compared with test data to quantify the functional performance of the DSA platform.

2019-03-28
Wen, M., Yao, D., Li, B., Lu, R..  2018.  State Estimation Based Energy Theft Detection Scheme with Privacy Preservation in Smart Grid. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1-6.

The increasing deployment of smart meters at individual households has significantly improved people's experience in electricity bill payments and energy savings. It is, however, still challenging to guarantee the accurate detection of attacked meters' behaviors as well as the effective preservation of users'privacy information. In addition, rare existing research studies jointly consider both these two aspects. In this paper, we propose a Privacy-Preserving energy Theft Detection scheme (PPTD) to address the energy theft behaviors and information privacy issues in smart grid. Specifically, we use a recursive filter based on state estimation to estimate the user's energy consumption, and detect the abnormal data. During data transmission, we use the lightweight NTRU algorithm to encrypt the user's data to achieve privacy preservation. Security analysis demonstrates that in the PPTD scheme, only authorized units can transmit/receive data, and data privacy are also preserved. The performance evaluation results illustrate that our PPTD scheme can significantly reduce the communication and computation costs, and effectively detect abnormal users.

Bagri, D., Rathore, S. K..  2018.  Research Issues Based on Comparative Work Related to Data Security and Privacy Preservation in Smart Grid. 2018 4th International Conference on Computing Sciences (ICCS). :88-91.

With the advancement of Technology, the existing electric grids are shifting towards smart grid. The smart grids are meant to be effective in power management, secure and safe in communication and more importantly, it is favourable to the environment. The smart grid is having huge architecture it includes various stakeholders that encounter challenges in the name of authorisation and authentication. The smart grid has another important issue to deal with that is securing the communication from varieties of cyber-attacks. In this paper, we first discussed about the challenges in the smart grid data communication and later we surveyed the existing cryptographic algorithm and presented comparative work on certain factors for existing working cryptographic algorithms This work gives insight conclusion to improve the working scheme for data security and Privacy preservation of customer who is one of the stack holders. Finally, with the comparative work, we suggest a direction of future work on improvement of working algorithms for secure and safe data communication in a smart grid.

2019-03-25
Refaat, S. S., Mohamed, A., Kakosimos, P..  2018.  Self-Healing control strategy; Challenges and opportunities for distribution systems in smart grid. 2018 IEEE 12th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG 2018). :1–6.
Implementation of self-healing control system in smart grid is a persisting challenge. Self-Healing control strategy is the important guarantee to implement the smart grid. In addition, it is the support of achieving the secure operation, improving the reliability and security of distribution grid, and realizing the smart distribution grid. Although self-healing control system concept is presented in smart grid context, but the complexity of distribution network structure recommended to choose advanced control and protection system using a self-healing, this system must be able to heal any disturbance in the distribution system of smart grid to improve efficiency, resiliency, continuity, and reliability of the smart grid. This review focuses mostly on the key technology of self-healing control, gives an insight into the role of self-healing in distribution system advantages, study challenges and opportunities in the prospect of utilities. The main contribution of this paper is demonstrating proposed architecture, control strategy for self-healing control system includes fault detection, fault localization, faulted area isolation, and power restoration in the electrical distribution system.
Jaatun, M. G., Moe, M. E. Gaup, Nordbø, P. E..  2018.  Cyber Security Considerations for Self-healing Smart Grid Networks. 2018 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–7.
Fault Location, Isolation and System Restoration (FLISR) mechanisms allow for rapid restoration of power to customers that are not directly implicated by distribution network failures. However, depending on where the logic for the FLISR system is located, deployment may have security implications for the distribution network. This paper discusses alternative FLISR placements in terms of cyber security considerations, concluding that there is a case for both local and centralized FLISR solutions.
2019-03-22
Obert, J., Chavez, A., Johnson, J..  2018.  Behavioral Based Trust Metrics and the Smart Grid. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :1490-1493.

To ensure reliable and predictable service in the electrical grid it is important to gauge the level of trust present within critical components and substations. Although trust throughout a smart grid is temporal and dynamically varies according to measured states, it is possible to accurately formulate communications and service level strategies based on such trust measurements. Utilizing an effective set of machine learning and statistical methods, it is shown that establishment of trust levels between substations using behavioral pattern analysis is possible. It is also shown that the establishment of such trust can facilitate simple secure communications routing between substations.

2019-03-18
Demirci, S., Sagiroglu, S..  2018.  Software-Defined Networking for Improving Security in Smart Grid Systems. 2018 7th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA). :1021–1026.

This paper presents a review on how to benefit from software-defined networking (SDN) to enhance smart grid security. For this purpose, the attacks threatening traditional smart grid systems are classified according to availability, integrity, and confidentiality, which are the main cyber-security objectives. The traditional smart grid architecture is redefined with SDN and a conceptual model for SDN-based smart grid systems is proposed. SDN based solutions to the mentioned security threats are also classified and evaluated. Our conclusions suggest that SDN helps to improve smart grid security by providing real-time monitoring, programmability, wide-area security management, fast recovery from failures, distributed security and smart decision making based on big data analytics.

Albarakati, A., Moussa, B., Debbabi, M., Youssef, A., Agba, B. L., Kassouf, M..  2018.  OpenStack-Based Evaluation Framework for Smart Grid Cyber Security. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

The rapid evolution of the power grid into a smart one calls for innovative and compelling means to experiment with the upcoming expansions, and analyze their behavioral response under normal circumstances and when targeted by attacks. Such analysis is fundamental to setting up solid foundations for the smart grid. Smart grid Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) co-simulation environments serve as a key approach to answer questions on the systems components, functionality, security concerns along with analysis of the system outcome and expected behavior. In this paper, we introduce a HIL co-simulation framework capable of simulating the smart grid actions and responses to attacks targeting its power and communication components. Our testbed is equipped with a real-time power grid simulator, and an associated OpenStack-based communication network. Through the utilized communication network, we can emulate a multitude of attacks targeting the power system, and evaluating the grid response to those attacks. Moreover, we present different illustrative cyber attacks use cases, and analyze the smart grid behavior in the presence of those attacks.

2019-02-22
Guo, Y., Gong, Y., Njilla, L. L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  A Stochastic Game Approach to Cyber-Physical Security with Applications to Smart Grid. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :33-38.
This paper proposes a game-theoretic approach to analyze the interactions between an attacker and a defender in a cyber-physical system (CPS) and develops effective defense strategies. In a CPS, the attacker launches cyber attacks on a number of nodes in the cyber layer, trying to maximize the potential damage to the underlying physical system while the system operator seeks to defend several nodes in the cyber layer to minimize the physical damage. Given that CPS attacking and defending is often a continual process, a zero-sum Markov game is proposed in this paper to model these interactions subject to underlying uncertainties of real-world events and actions. A novel model is also proposed in this paper to characterize the interdependence between the cyber layer and the physical layer in a CPS and quantify the impact of the cyber attack on the physical damage in the proposed game. To find the Nash equilibrium of the Markov game, we design an efficient algorithm based on value iteration. The proposed general approach is then applied to study the wide-area monitoring and protection issue in smart grid. Extensive simulations are conducted based on real-world data, and results show the effectiveness of the defending strategies derived from the proposed approach.
2019-02-14
Chen, B., Lu, Z., Zhou, H..  2018.  Reliability Assessment of Distribution Network Considering Cyber Attacks. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1-6.
With the rapid development of the smart grid, a large number of intelligent sensors and meters have been introduced in distribution network, which will inevitably increase the integration of physical networks and cyber networks, and bring potential security threats to the operating system. In this paper, the functions of the information system on distribution network are described when cyber attacks appear at the intelligent electronic devices (lED) or at the distribution main station. The effect analysis of the distribution network under normal operating condition or in the fault recovery process is carried out, and the reliability assessment model of the distribution network considering cyber attacks is constructed. Finally, the IEEE-33-bus distribution system is taken as a test system to presented the evaluation process based on the proposed model.
2019-02-08
Bernardi, S., Trillo-Lado, R., Merseguer, J..  2018.  Detection of Integrity Attacks to Smart Grids Using Process Mining and Time-Evolving Graphs. 2018 14th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). :136-139.
In this paper, we present a work-in-progress approach to detect integrity attacks to Smart Grids by analyzing the readings from smart meters. Our approach is based on process mining and time-evolving graphs. In particular, process mining is used to discover graphs, from the dataset collecting the readings over a time period, that represent the behaviour of a customer. The time-evolving graphs are then compared in order to detect anomalous behavior of a customer. To evaluate the feasibility of our approach, we have conducted preliminary experiments by using the dataset provided by the Ireland's Commission for Energy Regulation (CER).
2019-01-21
Hasan, S., Ghafouri, A., Dubey, A., Karsai, G., Koutsoukos, X..  2018.  Vulnerability analysis of power systems based on cyber-attack and defense models. 2018 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
Reliable operation of power systems is a primary challenge for the system operators. With the advancement in technology and grid automation, power systems are becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The main goal of adversaries is to take advantage of these vulnerabilities and destabilize the system. This paper describes a game-theoretic approach to attacker / defender modeling in power systems. In our models, the attacker can strategically identify the subset of substations that maximize damage when compromised. However, the defender can identify the critical subset of substations to protect in order to minimize the damage when an attacker launches a cyber-attack. The algorithms for these models are applied to the standard IEEE-14, 39, and 57 bus examples to identify the critical set of substations given an attacker and a defender budget.
Nicolaou, N., Eliades, D. G., Panayiotou, C., Polycarpou, M. M..  2018.  Reducing Vulnerability to Cyber-Physical Attacks in Water Distribution Networks. 2018 International Workshop on Cyber-physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (CySWater). :16–19.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), such as Water Distribution Networks (WDNs), deploy digital devices to monitor and control the behavior of physical processes. These digital devices, however, are susceptible to cyber and physical attacks, that may alter their functionality, and therefore the integrity of their measurements/actions. In practice, industrial control systems utilize simple control laws, which rely on various sensor measurements and algorithms which are expected to operate normally. To reduce the impact of a potential failure, operators may deploy redundant components; this however may not be useful, e.g., when a cyber attack at a PLC component occurs. In this work, we address the problem of reducing vulnerability to cyber-physical attacks in water distribution networks. This is achieved by augmenting the graph which describes the information flow from sensors to actuators, by adding new connections and algorithms, to increase the number of redundant cyber components. These, in turn, increase the \textitcyber-physical security level, which is defined in the present paper as the number of malicious attacks a CPS may sustain before becoming unable to satisfy the control requirements. A proof-of-concept of the approach is demonstrated over a simple WDN, with intuition on how this can be used to increase the cyber-physical security level of the system.

2018-11-19
Jiang, Y., Hui, Q..  2017.  Kalman Filter with Diffusion Strategies for Detecting Power Grid False Data Injection Attacks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :254–259.
Electronic power grid is a distributed network used for transferring electricity and power from power plants to consumers. Based on sensor readings and control system signals, power grid states are measured and estimated. As a result, most conventional attacks, such as denial-of-service attacks and random attacks, could be found by using the Kalman filter. However, false data injection attacks are designed against state estimation models. Currently, distributed Kalman filtering is proved effective in sensor networks for detection and estimation problems. Since meters are distributed in smart power grids, distributed estimation models can be used. Thus in this paper, we propose a diffusion Kalman filter for the power grid to have a good performance in estimating models and to effectively detect false data injection attacks.
Sun, K., Esnaola, I., Perlaza, S. M., Poor, H. V..  2017.  Information-Theoretic Attacks in the Smart Grid. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). :455–460.
Gaussian random attacks that jointly minimize the amount of information obtained by the operator from the grid and the probability of attack detection are presented. The construction of the attack is posed as an optimization problem with a utility function that captures two effects: firstly, minimizing the mutual information between the measurements and the state variables; secondly, minimizing the probability of attack detection via the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the distribution of the measurements with an attack and the distribution of the measurements without an attack. Additionally, a lower bound on the utility function achieved by the attacks constructed with imperfect knowledge of the second order statistics of the state variables is obtained. The performance of the attack construction using the sample covariance matrix of the state variables is numerically evaluated. The above results are tested in the IEEE 30-Bus test system.
Nasr, E., Shahrour, I..  2017.  Evaluating Wireless Network Vulnerabilities and Attack Paths in Smart Grid Comprehensive Analysis and Implementation. 2017 Sensors Networks Smart and Emerging Technologies (SENSET). :1–4.
Quantifying vulnerability and security levels for smart grid diversified link of networks have been a challenging task for a long period of time. Security experts and network administrators used to act based on their proficiencies and practices to mitigate network attacks rather than objective metrics and models. This paper uses the Markov Chain Model [1] to evaluate quantitatively the vulnerabilities associated to the 802.11 Wi-Fi network in a smart grid. Administrator can now assess the level of severity of potential attacks based on determining the probability density of the successive states and thus, providing the corresponding security measures. This model is based on the observed vulnerabilities provided by the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) database explored by MITRE [2] to calculate the Markov processes (states) transitions probabilities and thus, deducing the vulnerability level of the entire attack paths in an attack graph. Cumulative probabilities referring to high vulnerability level in a specific attack path will lead the system administrator to apply appropriate security measures a priori to potential attacks occurrence.
Yin, H., Yin, Z., Yang, Y., Sun, J..  2018.  Research on the Node Information Security of WSN Based on Multi-Party Data Fusion Algorithm. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :400–405.
Smart grid is the cornerstone of the modern urban construction, leading the development trend of the urban power industry. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is widely used in smart power grid. It mainly covers two routing methods, the plane routing protocol and the clustering routing protocol. Since the plane routing protocol needs to maintain a large routing table and works with a poor scalability, it will increase the overall cost of the system in practical use. Therefore, in this paper, the clustering routing protocol is selected to achieve a better operation performance of the wireless sensor network. In order to enhance the reliability of the routing security, the data fusion technology is also utilized. Based on this method, the rationality of the topology structure of the smart grid and the security of the node information can be effectively improved.