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2020-06-01
Zhang, Tianchen, Zhang, Taimin, Ji, Xiaoyu, Xu, Wenyuan.  2019.  Cuckoo-RPL: Cuckoo Filter based RPL for Defending AMI Network from Blackhole Attacks. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :8920—8925.

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is a key component in the smart grid. Transmitting data robustly and reliably between the tremendous smart meters in the AMI is one of the most crucial tasks for providing various services in smart grid. Among the many efforts for designing practical routing protocols for the AMI, the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) proposed by the IETF ROLL working group is considered the most consolidated candidate. Resent research has shown cyber attacks such as blackhole attack and version number attack can seriously damage the performance of the network implementing RPL. The main reason that RPL is vulnerable to these kinds of attacks is the lack an authentication mechanism. In this paper, we study the impact of blackhole attacks on the performance of the AMI network and proposed a new blackhole attack that can bypass the existing defense mechanism. Then, we propose a cuckoo filter based RPL to defend the AMI network from blackhole attacks. We also give the security analysis of the proposed method.

2020-05-08
Boakye-Boateng, Kwasi, Lashkari, Arash Habibi.  2019.  Securing GOOSE: The Return of One-Time Pads. 2019 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1—8.

IEC 61850 is an international standard that is widely used in substation automation systems (SAS) in smart grids. During its development, security was not considered thus leaving SAS vulnerable to attacks from adversaries. IEC 62351 was developed to provide security recommendations for SAS against (distributed) denial-of-service, replay, alteration, spoofing and detection of devices attacks. However, real-time communications, which require protocols such as Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) to function efficiently, cannot implement these recommendations due to latency constraints. There has been researching that sought to improve the security of GOOSE messages, however, some cannot be practically implemented due to hardware requirements while others are theoretical, even though latency requirements were met. This research investigates the possibility of encrypting GOOSE messages with One- Time Pads (OTP), leveraging the fact that encryption/decryption processes require the random generation of OTPs and modulo addition (XOR), which could be a realistic approach to secure GOOSE while maintaining latency requirements. Results show that GOOSE messages can be encrypted with some future work required.

2020-04-24
Jiang, He, Wang, Zhenhua, He, Haibo.  2019.  An Evolutionary Computation Approach for Smart Grid Cascading Failure Vulnerability Analysis. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :332—338.
The cyber-physical security of smart grid is of great importance since it directly concerns the normal operating of a system. Recently, researchers found that organized sequential attacks can incur large-scale cascading failure to the smart grid. In this paper, we focus on the line-switching sequential attack, where the attacker aims to trip transmission lines in a designed order to cause significant system failures. Our objective is to identify the critical line-switching attack sequence, which can be instructional for the protection of smart grid. For this purpose, we develop an evolutionary computation based vulnerability analysis framework, which employs particle swarm optimization to search the critical attack sequence. Simulation studies on two benchmark systems, i.e., IEEE 24 bus reliability test system and Washington 30 bus dynamic test system, are implemented to evaluate the performance of our proposed method. Simulation results show that our method can yield a better performance comparing with the reinforcement learning based approach proposed in other prior work.
Pan, Huan, Lian, Honghui, Na, Chunning.  2019.  Vulnerability Analysis of Smart Grid under Community Attack Style. IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. 1:5971—5976.
The smart grid consists of two parts, one is the physical power grid, the other is the information network. In order to study the cascading failure, the vulnerability analysis of the smart grid is done under a kind of community attack style in this paper. Two types of information networks are considered, i.e. topology consistency and scale-free cyber networks, respectively. The concept of control center is presented and the controllable power nodes and observable power lines are defined. Minimum load reduction model(MLRM) is given and described as a linear programming problem. A index is introduced to assess the vulnerability. New England 39 nodes system is applied to simulate the cascading failure process to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MLRM where community the attack methods include attack the power lines among and in power communities.
2020-03-16
Ren, Wenyu, Yu, Tuo, Yardley, Timothy, Nahrstedt, Klara.  2019.  CAPTAR: Causal-Polytree-based Anomaly Reasoning for SCADA Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is the most commonly used industrial control system but is subject to a wide range of serious threats. Intrusion detection systems are deployed to promote the security of SCADA systems, but they continuously generate tremendous number of alerts without further comprehending them. There is a need for an efficient system to correlate alerts and discover attack strategies to provide explainable situational awareness to SCADA operators. In this paper, we present a causal-polytree-based anomaly reasoning framework for SCADA networks, named CAPTAR. CAPTAR takes the meta-alerts from our previous anomaly detection framework EDMAND, correlates the them using a naive Bayes classifier, and matches them to predefined causal polytrees. Utilizing Bayesian inference on the causal polytrees, CAPTAR can produces a high-level view of the security state of the protected SCADA network. Experiments on a prototype of CAPTAR proves its anomaly reasoning ability and its capabilities of satisfying the real-time reasoning requirement.
Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis, Sarigiannidis, Panagiotis, Giannoulakis, Ioannis, Kafetzakis, Emmanouil, Panaousis, Emmanouil.  2019.  Attacking IEC-60870-5-104 SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:41–46.
The rapid evolution of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services transforms the conventional electrical grid into a new paradigm called Smart Grid (SG). Even though SG brings significant improvements, such as increased reliability and better energy management, it also introduces multiple security challenges. One of the main reasons for this is that SG combines a wide range of heterogeneous technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT) devices as well as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The latter are responsible for monitoring and controlling the automatic procedures of energy transmission and distribution. Nevertheless, the presence of these systems introduces multiple vulnerabilities because their protocols do not implement essential security mechanisms such as authentication and access control. In this paper, we focus our attention on the security issues of the IEC 60870-5-104 (IEC-104) protocol, which is widely utilized in the European energy sector. In particular, we provide a SCADA threat model based on a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) and emulate four different types of cyber attacks against IEC-104. Last, we used AlienVault's risk assessment model to evaluate the risk level that each of these cyber attacks introduces to our system to confirm our intuition about their severity.
Eneh, Joy Nnenna, Onyekachi Orah, Harris, Emeka, Aka Benneth.  2019.  Improving the Reliability and Security of Active Distribution Networks Using SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica. :110–115.
The traditional electricity distribution system is rapidly shifting from the passive infrastructure to a more active infrastructure, giving rise to a smart grid. In this project an active electricity distribution network and its components have been studied. A 14-node SCADA-based active distribution network model has been proposed for managing this emerging network infrastructure to ensure reliability and protection of the network The proposed model was developed using matlab /simulink software and the fuzzy logic toolbox. Surge arresters and circuit breakers were modelled and deployed in the network at different locations for protection and isolation of fault conditions. From the reliability analysis of the proposed model, the failure rate and outage hours were reduced due to better response of the system to power fluctuations and fault conditions.
2020-03-09
Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.

Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Richardson, Christopher, Race, Nicholas, Smith, Paul.  2016.  A Privacy Preserving Approach to Energy Theft Detection in Smart Grids. 2016 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–4.

A major challenge for utilities is energy theft, wherein malicious actors steal energy for financial gain. One such form of theft in the smart grid is the fraudulent amplification of energy generation measurements from DERs, such as photo-voltaics. It is important to detect this form of malicious activity, but in a way that ensures the privacy of customers. Not considering privacy aspects could result in a backlash from customers and a heavily curtailed deployment of services, for example. In this short paper, we present a novel privacy-preserving approach to the detection of manipulated DER generation measurements.

Niu, Yukun, Tan, Xiaobin, Zhou, Zifei, Zheng, Jiangyu, Zhu, Jin.  2013.  Privacy Protection Scheme in Smart Grid Using Rechargeable Battery. Proceedings of the 32nd Chinese Control Conference. :8825–8830.

It can get the user's privacy and home energy use information by analyzing the user's electrical load information in smart grid, and this is an area of concern. A rechargeable battery may be used in the home network to protect user's privacy. In this paper, the battery can neither charge nor discharge, and the power of battery is adjustable, at the same time, we model the real user's electrical load information and the battery power information and the recorded electrical power of smart meters which are processed with discrete way. Then we put forward a heuristic algorithm which can make the rate of information leakage less than existing solutions. We use statistical methods to protect user's privacy, the theoretical analysis and the examples show that our solution makes the scene design more reasonable and is more effective than existing solutions to avoid the leakage of the privacy.

Neureiter, Christian, Eibl, Günther, Veichtlbauer, Armin, Engel, Dominik.  2013.  Towards a Framework for Engineering Smart-Grid-Specific Privacy Requirements. IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4803–4808.

Privacy has become a critical topic in the engineering of electric systems. This work proposes an approach for smart-grid-specific privacy requirements engineering by extending previous general privacy requirements engineering frameworks. The proposed extension goes one step further by focusing on privacy in the smart grid. An alignment of smart grid privacy requirements, dependability issues and privacy requirements engineering methods is presented. Starting from this alignment a Threat Tree Analysis is performed to obtain a first set of generic, high level privacy requirements. This set is formulated mostly on the data instead of the information level and provides the basis for further project-specific refinement.

Knirsch, Fabian, Engel, Dominik, Frincu, Marc, Prasanna, Viktor.  2015.  Model-Based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities in the Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and - if feasible - an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

Ionescu, Tudor B., Engelbrecht, Gerhard.  2016.  The Privacy Case: Matching Privacy-Protection Goals to Human and Organizational Privacy Concerns. 2016 Joint Workshop on Cyber- Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids (CPSR-SG). :1–6.

Processing smart grid data for analytics purposes brings about a series of privacy-related risks. In order to allow for the most suitable mitigation strategies, reasonable privacy risks need to be addressed by taking into consideration the perspective of each smart grid stakeholder separately. In this context, we use the notion of privacy concerns to reflect potential privacy risks from the perspective of different smart grid stakeholders. Privacy concerns help to derive privacy goals, which we represent using the goals structuring notation. Thus represented goals can more comprehensibly be addressed through technical and non-technical strategies and solutions. The thread of argumentation - from concerns to goals to strategies and solutions - is presented in form of a privacy case, which is analogous to the safety case used in the automotive domain. We provide an exemplar privacy case for the smart grid developed as part of the Aspern Smart City Research project.

Gope, Prosanta, Sikdar, Biplab.  2018.  An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Dynamic Pricing-Based Billing Scheme for Smart Grids. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–2.

This paper proposes a lightweight and privacy-preserving data aggregation scheme for dynamic electricity pricing based billing in smart grids using the concept of single-pass authenticated encryption (AE). Unlike existing literature that only considers static pricing, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to address privacy under dynamic pricing.

Fhom, Hervais Simo, Bayarou, Kpatcha M..  2011.  Towards a Holistic Privacy Engineering Approach for Smart Grid Systems. 2011IEEE 10th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :234–241.

Protecting energy consumers's data and privacy is a key factor for the further adoption and diffusion of smart grid technologies and applications. However, current smart grid initiatives and implementations around the globe tend to either focus on the need for technical security to the detriment of privacy or consider privacy as a feature to add after system design. This paper aims to contribute towards filling the gap between this fact and the accepted wisdom that privacy concerns should be addressed as early as possible (preferably when modeling system's requirements). We present a methodological framework for tackling privacy concerns throughout all phases of the smart grid system development process. We describe methods and guiding principles to help smart grid engineers to elicit and analyze privacy threats and requirements from the outset of the system development, and derive the best suitable countermeasures, i.e. privacy enhancing technologies (PETs), accordingly. The paper also provides a summary of modern PETs, and discusses their context of use and contributions with respect to the underlying privacy engineering challenges and the smart grid setting being considered.

Farquharson, J., Wang, A., Howard, J..  2012.  Smart Grid Cyber Security and Substation Network Security. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). :1–5.

A successful Smart Grid system requires purpose-built security architecture which is explicitly designed to protect customer data confidentiality. In addition to the investment on electric power infrastructure for protecting the privacy of Smart Grid-related data, entities need to actively participate in the NIST interoperability framework process; establish policies and oversight structure for the enforcement of cyber security controls of the data through adoption of security best practices, personnel training, cyber vulnerability assessments, and consumer privacy audits.

2020-03-02
Zhang, Yihan, Wu, Jiajing, Chen, Zhenhao, Huang, Yuxuan, Zheng, Zibin.  2019.  Sequential Node/Link Recovery Strategy of Power Grids Based on Q-Learning Approach. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

Cascading failure, which can be triggered by both physical and cyber attacks, is among the most critical threats to the security and resilience of power grids. In current literature, researchers investigate the issue of cascading failure on smart grids mainly from the attacker's perspective. From the perspective of a grid defender or operator, however, it is also an important issue to restore the smart grid suffering from cascading failure back to normal operation as soon as possible. In this paper, we consider cascading failure in conjunction with the restoration process involving repairing of the failed nodes/links in a sequential fashion. Based on a realistic power flow cascading failure model, we exploit a Q-learning approach to develop a practical and effective policy to identify the optimal way of sequential restorations for large-scale smart grids. Simulation results on three power grid test benchmarks demonstrate the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Zhan, Xiong, Guo, Hao, He, Xiaoyun, Liu, Zhoubin, Chen, Hongsong.  2019.  Authentication Algorithm and Techniques Under Edge Computing in Smart Grids. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :191–195.
Two-factor authentication has been widely used due to the vulnerabilities associated with the traditional password-based authentication. One-Time Password (OTP) plays an important role in authentication protocol. However, a variety of security problems have been challenging the security of OTP, and improvements are introduced to solve it. This paper reviews several schemes to implement and modify the OTP, a comparison among the popular OTP algorithms is presented. A smart grid architecture with edge computing is shown. The authentication techniques in the smart grid are analyzed.
2020-02-26
Vlachokostas, Alex, Prousalidis, John, Spathis, Dimosthenis, Nikitas, Mike, Kourmpelis, Theo, Dallas, Stefanos, Soghomonian, Zareh, Georgiou, Vassilis.  2019.  Ship-to-Grid Integration: Environmental Mitigation and Critical Infrastructure Resilience. 2019 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS). :542–547.

The United States and European Union have an increasing number of projects that are engaging end-use devices for improved grid capabilities. Areas such as building-to-grid and vehicle-to-grid are simple examples of these advanced capabilities. In this paper, we present an innovative concept study for a ship-to-grid integration. The goal of this study is to simulate a two-way power flow between ship(s) and the grid with GridLAB-D for the port of Kyllini in Greece, where a ship-to-shore interconnection was recently implemented. Extending this further, we explore: (a) the ability of ships to meet their load demand needs, while at berth, by being supplied with energy from the electric grid and thus powering off their diesel engines; and (b) the ability of ships to provide power to critical loads onshore. As a result, the ship-to-grid integration helps (a) mitigate environmental pollutants from the ships' diesel engines and (b) provide resilience to nearby communities during a power disruption due to natural disasters or man-made threats.

2020-02-18
Lin, Gengshen, Dong, Mianxiong, Ota, Kaoru, Li, Jianhua, Yang, Wu, Wu, Jun.  2019.  Security Function Virtualization Based Moving Target Defense of SDN-Enabled Smart Grid. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Software-defined networking (SDN) allows the smart grid to be centrally controlled and managed by decoupling the control plane from the data plane, but it also expands attack surface for attackers. Existing studies about the security of SDN-enabled smart grid (SDSG) mainly focused on static methods such as access control and identity authentication, which is vulnerable to attackers that carefully probe the system. As the attacks become more variable and complex, there is an urgent need for dynamic defense methods. In this paper, we propose a security function virtualization (SFV) based moving target defense of SDSG which makes the attack surface constantly changing. First, we design a dynamic defense mechanism by migrating virtual security function (VSF) instances as the traffic state changes. The centralized SDN controller is re-designed for global status monitoring and migration management. Moreover, we formalize the VSF instances migration problem as an integer nonlinear programming problem with multiple constraints and design a pre-migration algorithm to prevent VSF instances' resources from being exhausted. Simulation results indicate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

2020-02-17
Maykot, Arthur S., Aranha Neto, Edison A. C., Oliva, Neimar A..  2019.  Automation of Manual Switches in Distribution Networks Focused on Self-Healing: A Step toward Smart Grids. 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America). :1–4.
This work describes the self-healing systems and their benefits in the power distribution networks, with the objective of indicating which manual switch should become, as a matter of priority, automatic. The computational tool used is based on graph theory, genetic algorithms and multicriteria evaluation. There are benefits for consumers, that will benefit from a more reliable and stable system, and for the utility, that can reduce costs with team field and financial compensations payed to consumers in case of continuity indexes violation. Data from a real distribution network from the state of Sao Paulo will be used as a case study for the application of the methodology.
Ullah, N., Ali, S. M., Khan, B., Mehmood, C. A., Anwar, S. M., Majid, M., Farid, U., Nawaz, M. A., Ullah, Z..  2019.  Energy Efficiency: Digital Signal Processing Interactions Within Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET). :1–6.
Smart Grid (SG) is regarded as complex electrical power system due to massive penetration of Renewable Energy Resources and Distribution Generations. The implementation of adjustable speed drives, advance power electronic devices, and electric arc furnaces are incorporated in SG (the transition from conventional power system). Moreover, SG is an advance, automated, controlled, efficient, digital, and intelligent system that ensures pertinent benefits, such as: (a) consumer empowerment, (b) advanced communication infrastructure, (c) user-friendly system, and (d) supports bi-directional power flow. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is key tool for SG deployment and provides key solutions to a vast array of complex SG challenges. This research provides a comprehensive study on DSP interactions within SG. The prominent challenges posed by conventional grid, such as: (a) monitoring and control, (b) Electric Vehicles infrastructure, (c) cyber data injection attack, (d) Demand Response management and (e) cyber data injection attack are thoroughly investigated in this research.
Pérez García, Julio César, Ortiz Guerra, Erik, Barriquello, Carlos Henrique, Dalla Costa, Marco Antônio, Reguera, Vitalio Alfonso.  2019.  Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling for Physical Layer Security on Wireless Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America). :1–6.
Wireless networks offer great flexibility and ease of deployment for the rapid implementation of smart grids. However, these data network technologies are prone to security issues. Especially, the risk of eavesdropping attacks increases due to the inherent characteristics of the wireless medium. In this context, physical layer security can augment secrecy through appropriate coding and signal processing. In this paper we consider the use of faster-than-Nyquist signaling to introduce artificial noise in the wireless network segment of the smart grid; with the aim of reinforce the information security at the physical layer. The results show that the proposed scheme can significantly improves the secrecy rate of the channel. Guaranteeing, in coexistence with other security mechanisms and despite the presence of potential eavesdroppers, a reliable and secure flow of information for smart grids.
Ionita, Drd. Irene.  2019.  Cybersecurity concerns on real time monitoring in electrical transmission and distribution systems (SMART GRIDS). 2019 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC). :1–4.
The virtual world does not observe national borders, has no uniform legal system, and does not have a common perception of security and privacy issues. It is however, relatively homogenous in terms of technology.A cyberattack on an energy delivery system can have significant impacts on the availability of a system to perform critical functions as well as the integrity of the system and the confidentiality of sensitive information.