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Lin, Gengshen, Dong, Mianxiong, Ota, Kaoru, Li, Jianhua, Yang, Wu, Wu, Jun.  2019.  Security Function Virtualization Based Moving Target Defense of SDN-Enabled Smart Grid. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Software-defined networking (SDN) allows the smart grid to be centrally controlled and managed by decoupling the control plane from the data plane, but it also expands attack surface for attackers. Existing studies about the security of SDN-enabled smart grid (SDSG) mainly focused on static methods such as access control and identity authentication, which is vulnerable to attackers that carefully probe the system. As the attacks become more variable and complex, there is an urgent need for dynamic defense methods. In this paper, we propose a security function virtualization (SFV) based moving target defense of SDSG which makes the attack surface constantly changing. First, we design a dynamic defense mechanism by migrating virtual security function (VSF) instances as the traffic state changes. The centralized SDN controller is re-designed for global status monitoring and migration management. Moreover, we formalize the VSF instances migration problem as an integer nonlinear programming problem with multiple constraints and design a pre-migration algorithm to prevent VSF instances' resources from being exhausted. Simulation results indicate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Yasrebi, P., Monfared, S., Bannazadeh, H., Leon-Garcia, A..  2015.  Security function virtualization in software defined infrastructure. 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM). :778–781.

In this paper we present an approach to implement security as a Virtualized Network Function (VNF) that is implemented within a Software-Defined Infrastructure (SDI). We present a scalable, flexible, and seamless design for a Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) system for network intrusion detection and prevention. We discuss how our design introduces significant reductions in both capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX). As proof of concept, we describe an implementation for a modular security solution that uses the SAVI SDI testbed to first detect and then block an attack or to re-direct it to a honey-pot for further analysis. We discuss our testing methodology and provide measurement results for the test cases where an application faces various security attacks.