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2021-09-30
Cao, Yaofu, Li, Xiaomeng, Zhang, Shulin, Li, Yang, Chen, Liang, He, Yunrui.  2020.  Design of network security situation awareness analysis module for electric power dispatching and control system. 2020 2nd International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Application (ITCA). :716–720.
The current network security situation of the electric power dispatching and control system is becoming more and more severe. On the basis of the original network security management platform, to increase the collection of network security data information and improve the network security analysis ability, this article proposes the electric power dispatching and control system network security situation awareness analysis module. The perception layer accesses multi-source heterogeneous data sources. Upwards through the top layer, data standardization will be introduced, who realizes data support for security situation analysis, and forms an association mapping with situation awareness elements such as health situation, attack situation, behavior situation, and operation situation. The overall effect is achieving the construction goals of "full control of equipment status, source of security attacks can be traced, operational risks are identifiable, and abnormal behaviors can be found.".
2021-09-16
Singh, Vivek Kumar, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  A Novel Architecture for Attack-Resilient Wide-Area Protection and Control System in Smart Grid. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :41–47.
Wide-area protection and control (WAPAC) systems are widely applied in the energy management system (EMS) that rely on a wide-area communication network to maintain system stability, security, and reliability. As technology and grid infrastructure evolve to develop more advanced WAPAC applications, however, so do the attack surfaces in the grid infrastructure. This paper presents an attack-resilient system (ARS) for the WAPAC cybersecurity by seamlessly integrating the network intrusion detection system (NIDS) with intrusion mitigation and prevention system (IMPS). In particular, the proposed NIDS utilizes signature and behavior-based rules to detect attack reconnaissance, communication failure, and data integrity attacks. Further, the proposed IMPS applies state transition-based mitigation and prevention strategies to quickly restore the normal grid operation after cyberattacks. As a proof of concept, we validate the proposed generic architecture of ARS by performing experimental case study for wide-area protection scheme (WAPS), one of the critical WAPAC applications, and evaluate the proposed NIDS and IMPS components of ARS in a cyber-physical testbed environment. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting and mitigating different classes of cyberattacks while supporting an alert visualization dashboard to provide an accurate situational awareness in real-time.
Rieger, Craig, Kolias, Constantinos, Ulrich, Jacob, McJunkin, Timothy R..  2020.  A Cyber Resilient Design for Control Systems. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :18–25.
The following topics are dealt with: security of data; distributed power generation; power engineering computing; power grids; power system security; computer network security; voltage control; risk management; power system measurement; critical infrastructures.
2021-09-09
Zarubskiy, Vladimir G., Bondarchuk, Aleksandr S., Bondarchuk, Ksenija A..  2020.  Evaluation of the Computational Complexity of Implementation of the Process of Adaptation of High-Reliable Control Systems. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :964–967.
The development of control systems of increased reliability is highly relevant due to their widespread introduction in various sectors of human activity, including those where failure of the control system can lead to serious or catastrophic consequences. The increase of the reliability of control systems is directly related with the reliability of control computers (so called intellectual centers) since the computer technology is the basis of modern control systems. One of the possible solutions to the development of highly reliable control computers is the practical implementation of the provisions of the theory of structural stability, which involves the practical solution of two main tasks - this is the task of functional adaptation and the preceding task of functional diagnostics. This article deals with the issues on the assessment of computational complexity of the implementation of the adaptation process of structural and sustainable control computer. The criteria of computational complexity are the characteristics of additionally attracted resources, such as the temporal characteristics of the adaptation process and the characteristics of the involved amount of memory resources of the control computer involved in the implementation of the adaptation process algorithms.
2021-09-07
Sanjeetha, R., Srivastava, Shikhar, Kanavalli, Anita, Pattanaik, Ashutosh, Gupta, Anshul.  2020.  Mitigation of Combined DDoS Attack on SDN Controller and Primary Server in Software Defined Networks Using a Priority on Traffic Variation. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1–5.
A Distributed Denial of Service ( DDoS ) attack is usually instigated on a primary server that provides important services in a network. However such DDoS attacks can be identified and mitigated by the controller in a Software Defined Network (SDN). If the intruder further performs an attack on the controller along with the server, the attack becomes successful.In this paper, we show how such a combined DDoS attack can be instigated on a controller as well as a primary server. The DDoS attack on the primary server is instigated by compromising few hosts to send packets with spoofed IP addresses and the attack on the controller is instigated by compromising few switches to send flow table requests repeatedly to the controller. With the help of an emulator called mininet, we show the severity of this attack on the performance of the network. We further propose a common technique that can be used to mitigate this kind of attack by observing the variation of destination IP addresses and setting different priorities to switches and handling the flow table requests accordingly by the controller.
Sasahara, Hampei, Sarıta\c s, Serkan, Sandberg, Henrik.  2020.  Asymptotic Security of Control Systems by Covert Reaction: Repeated Signaling Game with Undisclosed Belief. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :3243–3248.
This study investigates the relationship between resilience of control systems to attacks and the information available to malicious attackers. Specifically, it is shown that control systems are guaranteed to be secure in an asymptotic manner by rendering reactions against potentially harmful actions covert. The behaviors of the attacker and the defender are analyzed through a repeated signaling game with an undisclosed belief under covert reactions. In the typical setting of signaling games, reactions conducted by the defender are supposed to be public information and the measurability enables the attacker to accurately trace transitions of the defender's belief on existence of a malicious attacker. In contrast, the belief in the game considered in this paper is undisclosed and hence common equilibrium concepts can no longer be employed for the analysis. To surmount this difficulty, a novel framework for decision of reasonable strategies of the players in the game is introduced. Based on the presented framework, it is revealed that any reasonable strategy chosen by a rational malicious attacker converges to the benign behavior as long as the reactions performed by the defender are unobservable to the attacker. The result provides an explicit relationship between resilience and information, which indicates the importance of covertness of reactions for designing secure control systems.
2021-09-01
Hussain, Iqra, Pandey, Nitin, Singh, Ajay Vikram, Negi, Mukesh Chandra, Rana, Ajay.  2020.  Presenting IoT Security based on Cryptographic Practices in Data Link Layer in Power Generation Sector. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :1085—1088.
With increasing improvements in different areas, Internet control has been making prominent impacts in almost all areas of technology that has resulted in reasonable advances in every discrete field and therefore the industries too are proceeding to the field of IoT (Internet of Things), in which the communication among heterogeneous equipments is via Internet broadly. So imparting these advances of technology in the Power Station Plant sectors i.e. the power plants will be remotely controlled additional to remote monitoring, with no corporal place as a factor for controlling or monitoring. But imparting this technology the security factor needs to be considered as a basic and such methods need to be put into practice that the communication in such networks or control systems is defended against any third party interventions while the data is being transferred from one device to the other device through the internet (Unrestricted Channel). The paper puts forward exercising RSA,DES and AES encrypting schemes for the purpose of data encryption at the Data Link Layer i.e. before it is transmitted to the other device through Internet and as a result of this the security constraints are maintained. The records put to use have been supplied by NTPC, Dadri, India plus simulation part was executed employing MATLAB.
2021-08-11
Chen, Siyuan, Jung, Jinwook, Song, Peilin, Chakrabarty, Krishnendu, Nam, Gi-Joon.  2020.  BISTLock: Efficient IP Piracy Protection using BIST. 2020 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1—5.
The globalization of IC manufacturing has increased the likelihood for IP providers to suffer financial and reputational loss from IP piracy. Logic locking prevents IP piracy by corrupting the functionality of an IP unless a correct secret key is inserted. However, existing logic-locking techniques can impose significant area overhead and performance impact (delay and power) on designs. In this work, we propose BISTLock, a logic-locking technique that utilizes built-in self-test (BIST) to isolate functional inputs when the circuit is locked. We also propose a set of security metrics and use the proposed metrics to quantify BISTLock's security strength for an open-source AES core. Our experimental results demonstrate that BISTLock is easy to implement and introduces an average of 0.74% area and no power or delay overhead across the set of benchmarks used for evaluation.
2021-08-03
Ragchaa, Byambajav, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin, Chu, Honghao.  2020.  A Multi-Channel 12 bit, 100Ksps 0.35um CMOS ADC IP core for Security SoC. 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference on Solid-State Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT). :1—3.
This paper presents a multi-channel, 12 bit, ADC IP core with programmable gain amplifier which is implemented as part of novel Security SoC. The measurement results show that effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC IP core reaches 8 bits, SNDR of 47.14dB and SFDR of 56.55dB at 100Ksps sampling rate. The input voltage range is 0V to 3.3V, active die area of 700um*620um in 0.35um CMOS process, and the ADC consumes 22mW in all channel auto-scan mode at 3.3V power supply.
2021-08-02
Liu, Weilun, Ge, Mengmeng, Kim, Dong Seong.  2020.  Integrated Proactive Defense for Software Defined Internet of Things under Multi-Target Attacks. 2020 20th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing (CCGRID). :767—774.
Due to the constrained resource and computational limitation of many Internet of Things (IoT) devices, conventional security protections, which require high computational overhead are not suitable to be deployed. Thus, vulnerable IoT devices could be easily exploited by attackers to break into networks. In this paper, we employ cyber deception and moving target defense (MTD) techniques to proactively change the network topology with both real and decoy nodes with the support of software-defined networking (SDN) technology and investigate the impact of single-target and multi-target attacks on the effectiveness of the integrated mechanism via a hierarchical graphical security model with security metrics. We also implement a web-based visualization interface to show topology changes with highlighted attack paths. Finally, the qualitative security analysis is performed for a small-scale and SDN-supported IoT network with different combinations of decoy types and levels of attack intelligence. Simulation results show the integrated defense mechanism can introduce longer mean-time-to-security-failure and larger attack impact under the multi-target attack, compared with the single-target attack model. In addition, adaptive shuffling has better performance than fixed interval shuffling in terms of a higher proportion of decoy paths, longer mean-time-to-security-failure and largely reduced defense cost.
2021-06-30
Asyaev, G. D., Antyasov, I. S..  2020.  Model for Providing Information Security of APCS Based on Predictive Maintenance Technology. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :287—290.
In article the basic criteria of quality of work of the automated control system of technological process (APCS) are considered, the analysis of critical moments and level of information safety of APCS is spent. The model of maintenance of information safety of APCS on the basis of technology of predictive maintenance with application of intellectual methods of data processing is offered. The model allows to generate the list of actions at detection of new kinds of the threats connected with destructive influences on object, proceeding from acceptability of predicted consequences of work of APCS. In article with use of the system analysis the complex model of the technical object of automation is developed, allowing to estimate consequences from realization of threats of information safety at various system levels of APCS.
2021-06-24
Ulrich, Jacob, Rieger, Craig, Grandio, Javier, Manic, Milos.  2020.  Cyber-Physical Architecture for Automated Responses (CyPhAAR) Using SDN in Adversarial OT Environments. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :55–63.
The ability to react to a malicious attack starts with high fidelity recognition, and with that, an agile response to the attack. The current Operational Technology (OT) systems for a critical infrastructure include an intrusion detection system (IDS), but the ability to adapt to an intrusion is a human initiated response. Orchestrators, which are coming of age in the financial sector and allow for levels of automated response, are not prevalent in the OT space. To evolve to such responses in the OT space, a tradeoff analysis is first needed. This tradeoff analysis should evaluate the mitigation benefits of responses versus the physical affects that result. Providing an informed and automated response decision. This paper presents a formulation of a novel tradeoff analysis and its use in advancing a cyber-physical architecture for automated responses (CyPhAAR).
2021-05-25
Fauser, Moritz, Zhang, Ping.  2020.  Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems to Covert Attacks by Exploiting an Improved Encryption Scheme. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :5489—5494.
In recent years, the integration of encryption schemes into cyber-physical systems (CPS) has attracted much attention to improve the confidentiality of sensor signals and control input signals sent over the network. However, in principle an adversary can still modify the sensor signals and the control input signals, even though he does not know the concrete values of the signals. In this paper, we shall first show that a standard encryption scheme can not prevent some sophisticated attacks such as covert attacks, which remain invisible in the CPS with encrypted communication and a conventional diagnosis system. To cope with this problem, an improved encryption scheme is proposed to mask the communication and to cancel the influence of the attack signal out of the system. The basic idea is to swap the plaintext and the generated random value in the somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme to prevent a direct access of the adversary to the transmitted plaintext. It will be shown that the CPS with the improved encryption scheme is resilient to covert attacks. The proposed encryption scheme and the CPS structure are finally illustrated through the well-established quadruple-tank process.
2021-05-13
Sheptunov, Sergey A., Sukhanova, Natalia V..  2020.  The Problems of Design and Application of Switching Neural Networks in Creation of Artificial Intelligence. 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :428–431.
The new switching architecture of the neural networks was proposed. The switching neural networks consist of the neurons and the switchers. The goal is to reduce expenses on the artificial neural network design and training. For realization of complex models, algorithms and methods of management the neural networks of the big size are required. The number of the interconnection links “everyone with everyone” grows with the number of neurons. The training of big neural networks requires the resources of supercomputers. Time of training of neural networks also depends on the number of neurons in the network. Switching neural networks are divided into fragments connected by the switchers. Training of switcher neuron network is provided by fragments. On the basis of switching neural networks the devices of associative memory were designed with the number of neurons comparable to the human brain.
2021-05-05
Ulrich, Jacob, McJunkin, Timothy, Rieger, Craig, Runyon, Michael.  2020.  Scalable, Physical Effects Measurable Microgrid for Cyber Resilience Analysis (SPEMMCRA). 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :194—201.

The ability to advance the state of the art in automated cybersecurity protections for industrial control systems (ICS) has as a prerequisite of understanding the trade-off space. That is, to enable a cyber feedback loop in a control system environment you must first consider both the security mitigation available, the benefits and the impacts to the control system functionality when the mitigation is used. More damaging impacts could be precipitated that the mitigation was intended to rectify. This paper details networked ICS that controls a simulation of the frequency response represented with the swing equation. The microgrid loads and base generation can be balanced through the control of an emulated battery and power inverter. The simulated plant, which is implemented in Raspberry Pi computers, provides an inexpensive platform to realize the physical effects of cyber attacks to show the trade-offs of available mitigating actions. This network design can include a commercial ICS controller and simple plant or emulated plant to introduce real world implementation of feedback controls, and provides a scalable, physical effects measurable microgrid for cyber resilience analysis (SPEMMCRA).

2021-04-29
Farahmandian, S., Hoang, D. B..  2020.  A Policy-based Interaction Protocol between Software Defined Security Controller and Virtual Security Functions. 2020 4th Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). :1—8.

Cloud, Software-Defined Networking (SDN), and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technologies have introduced a new era of cybersecurity threats and challenges. To protect cloud infrastructure, in our earlier work, we proposed Software Defined Security Service (SDS2) to tackle security challenges centered around a new policy-based interaction model. The security architecture consists of three main components: a Security Controller, Virtual Security Functions (VSF), and a Sec-Manage Protocol. However, the security architecture requires an agile and specific protocol to transfer interaction parameters and security messages between its components where OpenFlow considers mainly as network routing protocol. So, The Sec-Manage protocol has been designed specifically for obtaining policy-based interaction parameters among cloud entities between the security controller and its VSFs. This paper focuses on the design and the implementation of the Sec-Manage protocol and demonstrates its use in setting, monitoring, and conveying relevant policy-based interaction security parameters.

2021-04-27
Wang, Y., Guo, S., Wu, J., Wang, H. H..  2020.  Construction of Audit Internal Control System Based on Online Big Data Mining and Decentralized Model. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :623–626.
Construction of the audit internal control system based on the online big data mining and decentralized model is done in this paper. How to integrate the novel technologies to internal control is the attracting task. IT audit is built on the information system and is independent of the information system itself. Application of the IT audit in enterprises can provide a guarantee for the security of the information system that can give an objective evaluation of the investment. This paper integrates the online big data mining and decentralized model to construct an efficient system. Association discovery is also called a data link. It uses similarity functions, such as the Euclidean distance, edit distance, cosine distance, Jeckard function, etc., to establish association relationships between data entities. These parameters are considered for comprehensive analysis.
2021-04-08
Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
2021-03-29
Xu, Z., Easwaran, A..  2020.  A Game-Theoretic Approach to Secure Estimation and Control for Cyber-Physical Systems with a Digital Twin. 2020 ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :20–29.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) play an increasingly significant role in many critical applications. These valuable applications attract various sophisticated attacks. This paper considers a stealthy estimation attack, which aims to modify the state estimation of the CPSs. The intelligent attackers can learn defense strategies and use clandestine attack strategies to avoid detection. To address the issue, we design a Chi-square detector in a Digital Twin (DT), which is an online digital model of the physical system. We use a Signaling Game with Evidence (SGE) to find the optimal attack and defense strategies. Our analytical results show that the proposed defense strategies can mitigate the impact of the attack on the physical estimation and guarantee the stability of the CPSs. Finally, we use an illustrative application to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework.
2021-03-09
H, R. M., Shrinivasa, R, C., M, D. R., J, A. N., S, K. R. N..  2020.  Biometric Authentication for Safety Lockers Using Cardiac Vectors. 2020 International Conference on Power, Energy, Control and Transmission Systems (ICPECTS). :1—5.

Security has become the vital component of today's technology. People wish to safeguard their valuable items in bank lockers. With growing technology most of the banks have replaced the manual lockers by digital lockers. Even though there are numerous biometric approaches, these are not robust. In this work we propose a new approach for personal biometric identification based on features extracted from ECG.

2021-03-01
Khoukhi, L., Khatoun, R..  2020.  Safe Traffic Adaptation Model in Wireless Mesh Networks. 2020 4th Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). :1–4.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are dynamically self-organized and self-configured technology ensuring efficient connection to Internet. Such networks suffer from many issues, like lack of performance efficiency when huge amount of traffic are injected inside the networks. To deal with such issues, we propose in this paper an adapted fuzzy framework; by monitoring the rate of change in queue length in addition to the current length of the queue, we are able to provide a measure of future queue state. Furthermore, by using explicit rate messages we can make node sources more responsive to unexpected changes in the network traffic load. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed model.
2021-02-23
Mendiboure, L., Chalouf, M. A., Krief, F..  2020.  A Scalable Blockchain-based Approach for Authentication and Access Control in Software Defined Vehicular Networks. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—11.
Software Defined Vehicular Networking (SDVN) could be the future of the vehicular networks, enabling interoperability between heterogeneous networks and mobility management. Thus, the deployment of large SDVN is considered. However, SDVN is facing major security issues, in particular, authentication and access control issues. Indeed, an unauthorized SDN controller could modify the behavior of switches (packet redirection, packet drops) and an unauthorized switch could disrupt the operation of the network (reconnaissance attack, malicious feedback). Due to the SDVN features (decentralization, mobility) and the SDVN requirements (flexibility, scalability), the Blockchain technology appears to be an efficient way to solve these authentication and access control issues. Therefore, many Blockchain-based approaches have already been proposed. However, two key challenges have not been addressed: authentication and access control for SDN controllers and high scalability for the underlying Blockchain network. That is why in this paper we propose an innovative and scalable architecture, based on a set of interconnected Blockchain sub-networks. Moreover, an efficient access control mechanism and a cross-sub-networks authentication/revocation mechanism are proposed for all SDVN devices (vehicles, roadside equipment, SDN controllers). To demonstrate the benefits of our approach, its performances are compared with existing solutions in terms of throughput, latency, CPU usage and read/write access to the Blockchain ledger. In addition, we determine an optimal number of Blockchain sub-networks according to different parameters such as the number of certificates to store and the number of requests to process.
Aydeger, A., Saputro, N., Akkaya, K..  2020.  Cloud-based Deception against Network Reconnaissance Attacks using SDN and NFV. 2020 IEEE 45th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :279—285.

An attacker's success crucially depends on the reconnaissance phase of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, which is the first step to gather intelligence. Although several solutions have been proposed against network reconnaissance attacks, they fail to address the needs of legitimate users' requests. Thus, we propose a cloud-based deception framework which aims to confuse the attacker with reconnaissance replies while allowing legitimate uses. The deception is based on for-warding the reconnaissance packets to a cloud infrastructure through tunneling and SDN so that the returned IP addresses to the attacker will not be genuine. For handling legitimate requests, we create a reflected virtual topology in the cloud to match any changes in the original physical network to the cloud topology using SDN. Through experimentations on GENI platform, we show that our framework can provide reconnaissance responses with negligible delays to the network clients while also reducing the management costs significantly.

Yu, M., He, T., McDaniel, P., Burke, Q. K..  2020.  Flow Table Security in SDN: Adversarial Reconnaissance and Intelligent Attacks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1519—1528.

The performance-driven design of SDN architectures leaves many security vulnerabilities, a notable one being the communication bottleneck between the controller and the switches. Functioning as a cache between the controller and the switches, the flow table mitigates this bottleneck by caching flow rules received from the controller at each switch, but is very limited in size due to the high cost and power consumption of the underlying storage medium. It thus presents an easy target for attacks. Observing that many existing defenses are based on simplistic attack models, we develop a model of intelligent attacks that exploit specific cache-like behaviors of the flow table to infer its internal configuration and state, and then design attack parameters accordingly. Our evaluations show that such attacks can accurately expose the internal parameters of the target flow table and cause measurable damage with the minimum effort.

2021-02-16
Mace, J. C., Czekster, R. Melo, Morisset, C., Maple, C..  2020.  Smart Building Risk Assessment Case Study: Challenges, Deficiencies and Recommendations. 2020 16th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). :59—64.
Inter-networked control systems make smart buildings increasingly efficient but can lead to severe operational disruptions and infrastructure damage. It is vital the security state of smart buildings is properly assessed so that thorough and cost effective risk management can be established. This paper uniquely reports on an actual risk assessment performed in 2018 on one of the world's most densely monitored, state-of-the-art, smart buildings. From our observations, we suggest that current practice may be inadequate due to a number of challenges and deficiencies, including the lack of a recognised smart building risk assessment methodology. As a result, the security posture of many smart buildings may not be as robust as their risk assessments suggest. Crucially, we highlight a number of key recommendations for a more comprehensive risk assessment process for smart buildings. As a whole, we believe this practical experience report will be of interest to a range of smart building stakeholders.