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Hu, Xiaoyan, Li, Yuanxin.  2021.  Event-Triggered Adaptive Fuzzy Asymptotic Tracking Control for Single Link Robot Manipulator with Prescribed Performance. 2021 International Conference on Security, Pattern Analysis, and Cybernetics(SPAC). :144—149.
In this paper, the adaptive event-triggered asymptotic tracking control with guaranteed performance for a single link robot manipulator (SLRM) system driven by the brush DC motor is studied. Fuzzy logic systems (FLS) is used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. By introducing a finite time performance function (FTPF), the tracking error of the system can converge to the compact set of the origin in finite time. In addition, by introducing the smooth function and some positive integral functions, combined with the boundary estimation method and adaptive backstepping technique, the asymptotic tracking control of the system is realized. Meanwhile, event-triggered mechanism is introduced to reduce the network resources of the system. Finally, a practical example is given to prove the effectiveness of the theoretical research.
Doynikova, Elena V., Fedorchenko, Andrei V., Novikova, Evgenia S., U shakov, Igor A., Krasov, Andrey V..  2021.  Security Decision Support in the Control Systems based on Graph Models. 2021 IV International Conference on Control in Technical Systems (CTS). :224—227.
An effective response against information security violations in the technical systems remains relevant challenge nowadays, when their number, complexity, and the level of possible losses are growing. The violation can be caused by the set of the intruder's consistent actions. In the area of countermeasure selection for a proactive and reactive response against security violations, there are a large number of techniques. The techniques based on graph models seem to be promising. These models allow representing the set of actions caused the violation. Their advantages include the ability to forecast violations for timely decision-making on the countermeasures, as well as the ability to analyze and consider the coverage of countermeasures in terms of steps caused the violation. The paper proposes and describes a decision support method for responding against information security violations in the technical systems based on the graph models, as well as the developed models, including the countermeasure model and the graph representing the set of actions caused the information security violation.
Zhang, Fan, Bu, Bing.  2021.  A Cyber Security Risk Assessment Methodology for CBTC Systems Based on Complex Network Theory and Attack Graph. 2021 7th Annual International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers (ICNISC). :15—20.
Cyber security risk assessment is very important to quantify the security level of communication-based train control (CBTC) systems. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to assess the cyber security risk of CBTC systems that integrates complex network theory and attack graph method. On one hand, in order to determine the impact of malicious attacks on train control, we analyze the connectivity of movement authority (MA) paths based on the working state of nodes, the connectivity of edges. On the other hand, attack graph is introduced to quantify the probabilities of potential attacks that combine multiple vulnerabilities in the cyber world of CBTC. Experiments show that our methodology can assess the security risks of CBTC systems and improve the security level after implementing reinforcement schemes.
Bahrami, Mohammad, Jafarnejadsani, Hamidreza.  2021.  Privacy-Preserving Stealthy Attack Detection in Multi-Agent Control Systems. 2021 60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :4194—4199.
This paper develops a glocal (global-local) attack detection framework to detect stealthy cyber-physical attacks, namely covert attack and zero-dynamics attack, against a class of multi-agent control systems seeking average consensus. The detection structure consists of a global (central) observer and local observers for the multi-agent system partitioned into clusters. The proposed structure addresses the scalability of the approach and the privacy preservation of the multi-agent system’s state information. The former is addressed by using decentralized local observers, and the latter is achieved by imposing unobservability conditions at the global level. Also, the communication graph model is subject to topology switching, triggered by local observers, allowing for the detection of stealthy attacks by the global observer. Theoretical conditions are derived for detectability of the stealthy attacks using the proposed detection framework. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to validate the theoretical findings.
Chowdhury, Sayak Ray, Zhou, Xingyu, Shroff, Ness.  2021.  Adaptive Control of Differentially Private Linear Quadratic Systems. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :485—490.
In this paper we study the problem of regret minimization in reinforcement learning (RL) under differential privacy constraints. This work is motivated by the wide range of RL applications for providing personalized service, where privacy concerns are becoming paramount. In contrast to previous works, we take the first step towards non-tabular RL settings, while providing a rigorous privacy guarantee. In particular, we consider the adaptive control of differentially private linear quadratic (LQ) systems. We develop the first private RL algorithm, Private-OFU-RL which is able to attain a sub-linear regret while guaranteeing privacy protection. More importantly, the additional cost due to privacy is only on the order of \$\textbackslashtextbackslashfrac\textbackslashtextbackslashln(1/\textbackslashtextbackslashdelta)ˆ1/4\textbackslashtextbackslashvarepsilonˆ1/2\$ given privacy parameters \$\textbackslashtextbackslashvarepsilon, \textbackslashtextbackslashdelta \textbackslashtextgreater 0\$. Through this process, we also provide a general procedure for adaptive control of LQ systems under changing regularizers, which not only generalizes previous non-private controls, but also serves as the basis for general private controls.
Gajanur, Nanditha, Greidanus, Mateo, Seo, Gab-Su, Mazumder, Sudip K., Ali Abbaszada, Mohammad.  2021.  Impact of Blockchain Delay on Grid-Tied Solar Inverter Performance. 2021 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG). :1—7.
This paper investigates the impact of the delay resulting from a blockchain, a promising security measure, for a hierarchical control system of inverters connected to the grid. The blockchain communication network is designed at the secondary control layer for resilience against cyberattacks. To represent the latency in the communication channel, a model is developed based on the complexity of the blockchain framework. Taking this model into account, this work evaluates the plant’s performance subject to communication delays, introduced by the blockchain, among the hierarchical control agents. In addition, this article considers an optimal model-based control strategy that performs the system’s internal control loop. The work shows that the blockchain’s delay size influences the convergence of the power supplied by the inverter to the reference at the point of common coupling. In the results section, real-time simulations on OPAL-RT are performed to test the resilience of two parallel inverters with increasing blockchain complexity.
Zhao, Junyi, Tang, Tao, Bu, Bing, Li, Qichang.  2021.  A Three-dimension Resilience State Space-based Approach to Resilience Assessment of CBTC system. 2021 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC). :3673—3678.
Traditional passive defense methods cannot resist the constantly updated and evolving cyber attacks. The concept of resilience is introducing to measure the ability of the system to maintain its function under attack. It matters in evaluating the security of modern industrial systems. This paper presents a 3D Resilience State Space method to assess Communication-based train control (CBTC) system resilience under malware attack. We model the spread of malware as two functions: the communicability function \$f\$(x) and the susceptibility function 9 (x). We describe the characteristics of these two function in the CBTC complex network by using the percolation theory. Then we use a perturbation formalism to analyze the impact of malware attack on information flow and use it as an indicator of the cyber layer state. The CBTC cyber-physical system resilience metric formalizes as the system state transitions in three-dimensional state space. The three dimensions respectively represent the cyber layer state, the physical layer state, and the transmission layer state. The simulation results reveal that the proposed framework can effectively assess the resilience of the CBTC system. And the anti-malware programs can prevent the spread of malware and improve CBTC system resilience.
Razack, Aquib Junaid, Ajith, Vysyakh, Gupta, Rajiv.  2021.  A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach to Traffic Signal Control. 2021 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech). :1–7.
Traffic Signal Control using Reinforcement Learning has been proved to have potential in alleviating traffic congestion in urban areas. Although research has been conducted in this field, it is still an open challenge to find an effective but low-cost solution to this problem. This paper presents multiple deep reinforcement learning-based traffic signal control systems that can help regulate the flow of traffic at intersections and then compares the results. The proposed systems are coupled with SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility), an agent-based simulator that provides a realistic environment to explore the outcomes of the models.
Hounsinou, Sena, Stidd, Mark, Ezeobi, Uchenna, Olufowobi, Habeeb, Nasri, Mitra, Bloom, Gedare.  2021.  Vulnerability of Controller Area Network to Schedule-Based Attacks. 2021 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS). :495–507.
The secure functioning of automotive systems is vital to the safety of their passengers and other roadway users. One of the critical functions for safety is the controller area network (CAN), which interconnects the safety-critical electronic control units (ECUs) in the majority of ground vehicles. Unfortunately CAN is known to be vulnerable to several attacks. One such attack is the bus-off attack, which can be used to cause a victim ECU to disconnect itself from the CAN bus and, subsequently, for an attacker to masquerade as that ECU. A limitation of the bus-off attack is that it requires the attacker to achieve tight synchronization between the transmission of the victim and the attacker's injected message. In this paper, we introduce a schedule-based attack framework for the CAN bus-off attack that uses the real-time schedule of the CAN bus to predict more attack opportunities than previously known. We describe a ranking method for an attacker to select and optimize its attack injections with respect to criteria such as attack success rate, bus perturbation, or attack latency. The results show that vulnerabilities of the CAN bus can be enhanced by schedule-based attacks.
Khadarvali, S., Madhusudhan, V., Kiranmayi, R..  2021.  Load Frequency Control of Two Area System with Security Attack and Game Theory Based Defender Action Using ALO Tuned Integral Controller. 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Applications (ICCICA). :1—5.

Cyber-attacks in electrical power system causes serious damages causing breakdown of few equipment to shutdown of the complete power system. Game theory is used as a tool to detect the cyber-attack in the power system recently. Interaction between the attackers and the defenders which is the inherent nature of the game theory is exploited to detect the cyber-attack in the power system. This paper implements the cyber-attack detection on a two-area power system controlled using the Load Frequency controller. Ant Lion Optimization is used to tune the integral controller applied in the Load Frequency Controller. Cyber-attacks that include constant injection, bias injection, overcompensation, and negative compensation are tested on the Game theory-based attack detection algorithm proposed. It is considered that the smart meters are attacked with the attacks by manipulating the original data in the power system. MATLAB based implementation is developed and observed that the defender action is satisfactory in the two-area system considered. Tuning of integral controller in the Load Frequency controller in the two-area system is also observed to be effective.

Jero, Samuel, Furgala, Juliana, Pan, Runyu, Gadepalli, Phani Kishore, Clifford, Alexandra, Ye, Bite, Khazan, Roger, Ward, Bryan C., Parmer, Gabriel, Skowyra, Richard.  2021.  Practical Principle of Least Privilege for Secure Embedded Systems. 2021 IEEE 27th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). :1—13.

Many embedded systems have evolved from simple bare-metal control systems to highly complex network-connected systems. These systems increasingly demand rich and feature-full operating-systems (OS) functionalities. Furthermore, the network connectedness offers attack vectors that require stronger security designs. To that end, this paper defines a prototypical RTOS API called Patina that provides services common in featurerich OSes (e.g., Linux) but absent in more trustworthy μ -kernel based systems. Examples of such services include communication channels, timers, event management, and synchronization. Two Patina implementations are presented, one on Composite and the other on seL4, each of which is designed based on the Principle of Least Privilege (PoLP) to increase system security. This paper describes how each of these μ -kernels affect the PoLP based design, as well as discusses security and performance tradeoffs in the two implementations. Results of comprehensive evaluations demonstrate that the performance of the PoLP based implementation of Patina offers comparable or superior performance to Linux, while offering heightened isolation.

Nariezhnii, Oleksii, Grinenko, Tetiana.  2021.  Method for Increasing the Accuracy of the Synchronization of Generation Random Sequences Using Control and Correction Stations. 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S&T). :309—314.
This article describes the process of synchronizing the generation of random sequences by a quantum random number generator (QRNG) that can be used as secret keys for known cryptographic transformations. The subject of the research is a method for synchronizing the generation of random QRNG sequences based on L1 (C/A) signals of the global positioning system (GPS) using control correcting information received from control correcting stations.
Guo, Xingchang, Liu, Ningchun, Hou, Xindi, Gao, Shuai, Zhou, Huachun.  2021.  An Efficient NDN Routing Mechanism Design in P4 Environment. 2021 2nd Information Communication Technologies Conference (ICTC). :28—33.
Name Data Networking (NDN) is a clean-slate network redesign that uses content names for routing and addressing. Facing the fact that TCP/IP is deeply entrenched in the current Internet architecture, NDN has made slow progress in industrial promotion. Meanwhile, new architectures represented by SDN, P4, etc., provide a flexible and programmable approach to network research. As a result, a centralized NDN routing mechanism is needed in the scenario for network integration between NDN and TCP/IP. Combining the NLSR protocol and the P4 environment, we introduce an efficient NDN routing mechanism that offers extensible NDN routing services (e.g., resources-location management and routing calculation) which can be programmed in the control plane. More precisely, the proposed mechanism allows the programmable switches to transmit NLSR packets to the control plane with the extended data plane. The NDN routing services are provided by control plane application which framework bases on resource-location mapping to achieve part of the NLSR mechanism. Experimental results show that the proposed mechanism can reduce the number of routing packets significantly, and introduce a slight overhead in the controller compared with NLSR simulation.
Bures, Tomas, Gerostathopoulos, Ilias, Hnětynka, Petr, Seifermann, Stephan, Walter, Maximilian, Heinrich, Robert.  2021.  Aspect-Oriented Adaptation of Access Control Rules. 2021 47th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA). :363–370.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) and IoT systems are nowadays commonly designed as self-adaptive, endowing them with the ability to dynamically reconFigure to reflect their changing environment. This adaptation concerns also the security, as one of the most important properties of these systems. Though the state of the art on adaptivity in terms of security related to these systems can often deal well with fully anticipated situations in the environment, it becomes a challenge to deal with situations that are not or only partially anticipated. This uncertainty is however omnipresent in these systems due to humans in the loop, open-endedness and only partial understanding of the processes happening in the environment. In this paper, we partially address this challenge by featuring an approach for tackling access control in face of partially unanticipated situations. We base our solution on special kind of aspects that build on existing access control system and create a second level of adaptation that addresses the partially unanticipated situations by modifying access control rules. The approach is based on our previous work where we have analyzed and classified uncertainty in security and trust in such systems and have outlined the idea of access-control related situational patterns. The aspects that we present in this paper serve as means for application-specific specialization of the situational patterns. We showcase our approach on a simplified but real-life example in the domain of Industry 4.0 that comes from one of our industrial projects.
Garrocho, Charles Tim Batista, Oliveira, Karine Nogueira, Sena, David José, da Cunha Cavalcanti, Carlos Frederico Marcelo, Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto Rabelo.  2021.  BACE: Blockchain-based Access Control at the Edge for Industrial Control Devices of Industry 4.0. 2021 XI Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC). :1–8.
The Industrial Internet of Things is expected to attract significant investments for Industry 4.0. In this new environment, the blockchain has immediate potential in industrial applications, providing unchanging, traceable and auditable access control. However, recent work and present in blockchain literature are based on a cloud infrastructure that requires significant investments. Furthermore, due to the placement and distance of the cloud infrastructure to industrial control devices, such approaches present a communication latency that can compromise the strict deadlines for accessing and communicating with this device. In this context, this article presents a blockchain-based access control architecture, which is deployed directly to edge devices positioned close to devices that need access control. Performance assessments of the proposed approach were carried out in practice in an industrial mining environment. The results of this assessment demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal and its performance compared to cloud-based approaches.
Atluri, Venkata, Horne, Jeff.  2021.  A Machine Learning based Threat Intelligence Framework for Industrial Control System Network Traffic Indicators of Compromise. SoutheastCon 2021. :1–5.
Cyber-attacks on our Nation's Critical Infrastructure are growing. In this research, a Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) framework is proposed, developed, and tested. The results of the research, using 5 different simulated attacks on a dataset from an Industrial Control System (ICS) testbed, are presented with the extracted IOCs. The Bagging Decision Trees model showed the highest performance of testing accuracy (94.24%), precision (0.95), recall (0.93), and F1-score (0.94) among the 9 different machine learning models studied.
Pyatnitsky, Ilya A., Sokolov, Alexander N..  2021.  Determination of the Optimal Ratio of Normal to Anomalous Points in the Problem of Detecting Anomalies in the Work of Industrial Control Systems. 2021 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :0478–0480.
Algorithms for unsupervised anomaly detection have proven their effectiveness and flexibility, however, first it is necessary to calculate with what ratio a certain class begins to be considered anomalous by the autoencoder. For this reason, we propose to conduct a study of the efficiency of autoencoders depending on the ratio of anomalous and non-anomalous classes. The emergence of high-speed networks in electric power systems creates a tight interaction of cyberinfrastructure with the physical infrastructure and makes the power system susceptible to cyber penetration and attacks. To address this problem, this paper proposes an innovative approach to develop a specification-based intrusion detection framework that leverages available information provided by components in a contemporary power system. An autoencoder is used to encode the causal relations among the available information to create patterns with temporal state transitions, which are used as features in the proposed intrusion detection. This allows the proposed method to detect anomalies and cyber attacks.
Jie, Chen.  2021.  Information Security Risk Assessment of Industrial Control System Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithms. 2021 13th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :423–426.
In order to solve the problem of quantitative assessment of information security risks in industrial control systems, this paper proposes a method of information security risk assessment for industrial control systems based on modular hybrid genetic algorithm. Combining with the characteristics of industrial control systems, the use of hybrid genetic algorithm evidence theory to identify, evaluate and assess assets and threats, and ultimately come to the order of the size of the impact of security threats on the specific industrial control system information security. This method can provide basis for making decisions to reduce information security risks in the control system from qualitative and quantitative aspects.
AlMedires, Motaz, AlMaiah, Mohammed.  2021.  Cybersecurity in Industrial Control System (ICS). 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :640–647.
The paper gives an overview of the ICS security and focuses on Control Systems. Use of internet had security challenges which led to the development of ICS which is designed to be dependable and safe. PCS, DCS and SCADA all are subsets of ICS. The paper gives a description of the developments in the ICS security and covers the most interesting work done by researchers. The paper also provides research information about the parameters on which a remotely executed cyber-attack depends.
Kong, Hongshan, Tang, Jun.  2021.  Agent-based security protection model of secret-related carrier intelligent management and control. 2021 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information Technology, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA). 2:301–304.
Secret-related carrier intelligent management and control system uses the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence to solve the transformation of secret-related carrier management and control from manual operation to automatic detection, precise monitoring, and intelligent decision-making, and use technical means to resolve security risks. However, the coexistence of multiple heterogeneous networks will lead to various network security problems in the secret carrier intelligent management and control. Aiming at the actual requirements of the intelligent management and control of secret-related carriers, this paper proposes a system structure including device domain, network domain, platform domain and user domain, and conducts a detailed system security analysis, and introduces intelligent agent technology, and proposes a distributed system. The hierarchical system structure of the secret-related carrier intelligent management and control security protection model has good robustness and portability.
Chattopadhyay, Abhiroop, Valdes, Alfonso, Sauer, Peter W., Nuqui, Reynaldo.  2021.  A Localized Cyber Threat Mitigation Approach For Wide Area Control of FACTS. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :264–269.
We propose a localized oscillation amplitude monitoring (OAM) method for the mitigation of cyber threats directed at the wide area control (WAC) system used to coordinate control of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) for power oscillation damping (POD) of active power flow on inter-area tie lines. The method involves monitoring the inter-area tie line active power oscillation amplitude over a sliding window. We use system instability - inferred from oscillation amplitudes growing instead of damping - as evidence of an indication of a malfunction in the WAC of FACTS, possibly indicative of a cyber attack. Monitoring the presence of such a growth allows us to determine whether any destabilizing behaviors appear after the WAC system engages to control the POD. If the WAC signal increases the oscillation amplitude over time, thereby diminishing the POD performance, the FACTS falls back to POD using local measurements. The proposed method does not require an expansive system-wide view of the network. We simulate replay, control integrity, and timing attacks for a test system and present results that demonstrate the performance of the OAM method for mitigation.
Chattopadhyay, Abhiroop, Valdes, Alfonso, Sauer, Peter W., Nuqui, Reynaldo.  2021.  A Cyber Threat Mitigation Approach For Wide Area Control of SVCs using Stability Monitoring. 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech. :1–6.
We propose a stability monitoring approach for the mitigation of cyber threats directed at the wide area control (WAC) system used for coordinated control of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) used for power oscillation damping (POD) of active power flow on inter-area tie lines. The approach involves monitoring the modes of the active power oscillation on an inter-area tie line using the Matrix Pencil (MP) method. We use the stability characteristics of the observed modes as a proxy for the presence of destabilizing cyber threats. We monitor the system modes to determine whether any destabilizing modes appear after the WAC system engages to control the POD. If the WAC signal exacerbates the POD performance, the FACTS falls back to POD using local measurements. The proposed approach does not require an expansive system-wide view of the network. We simulate replay, control integrity, and timing attacks for a test system and present results that demonstrate the performance of the SM approach for mitigation.
Bezzateev, S. V., Fomicheva, S. G., Zhemelev, G. A..  2021.  Agent-based ZeroLogon Vulnerability Detection. 2021 Wave Electronics and its Application in Information and Telecommunication Systems (WECONF). :1–5.
Intrusion detection systems installed on the information security devices that control the internal and external perimeter of the demilitarized zones are not able to detect the vulnerability of ZeroLogon after the successful penetration of the intruder into the zone. Component solution for ZeroLogon control is offered. The paper presents the research results of the capabilities for built-in Active Directory audit mechanisms and open source intrusion detection/prevention systems, which allow identification of the critical vulnerability CVE-2020-1472. These features can be used to improve the quality of cyber-physical systems management, to perform audits, as well as to check corporate domains for ZeroLogon vulnerabilities.
Yamanokuchi, Koki, Watanabe, Hiroki, Itoh, Jun-Ichi.  2021.  Universal Smart Power Module Concept with High-speed Controller for Simplification of Power Conversion System Design. 2021 IEEE 12th Energy Conversion Congress Exposition - Asia (ECCE-Asia). :2484–2489.
This paper proposes the modular power conversion systems based on an Universal Smart Power Module (USPM). In this concept, the Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) is improved the flexibility and the expandability by integrating a high-speed power electronics controller, input/output filters among each USPM to realize the simplification of the power electronics design. The original point of USPM is that each power module operates independently because a high-speed power electronics controller is implemented on each power module. The power modules of PEBB are typically configured by the main power circuits and the gate driver. Therefore, the controller has to be designed specifically according to various applications although the advantages of PEBB are high flexibility and user-friendly. The contribution of USPM is the simplification of the system design including power electronics controller. On the other hand, autonomous distributed systems require the control method to suppress the interference in each module. In this paper, the configuration of USPM, example of the USPM system, and detail of the control method are introduced.
Han, Weiheng, Cai, Weiwei, Zhang, Guangjia, Yu, Weiguo, Pan, Junjun, Xiang, Longyun, Ning, Tao.  2021.  Cyclic Verification Method of Security Control System Strategy Table Based on Constraint Conditions and Whole Process Dynamic Simulation. 2021 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (I CPS Asia). :698—703.

The correctness of security control system strategy is very important to ensure the stability of power system. Aiming at the problem that the current security control strategy verification method is not enough to match the increasingly complex large power grid, this paper proposes a cyclic verification method of security control system strategy table based on constraints and whole process dynamic simulation. Firstly, the method is improved based on the traditional security control strategy model to make the strategy model meet certain generalization ability; And on the basis of this model, the cyclic dynamic verification of the strategy table is realized based on the constraint conditions and the whole process dynamic simulation, which not only ensures the high accuracy of strategy verification for the security control strategy of complex large power grid, but also ensures that the power system is stable and controllable. Finally, based on a certain regional power system, the optimal verification of strategy table verification experiment is realized. The experimental results show that the average processing time of the proposed method is 10.32s, and it can effectively guarantee the controllability and stability of power grid.