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Gayathri, Bhimavarapu, Yammani, Chandrasekhar.  2019.  Multi-Attacking Strategy on Smart Grid with Incomplete Network Information. 2019 8th International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS). :1—5.

The chances of cyber-attacks have been increased because of incorporation of communication networks and information technology in power system. Main objective of the paper is to prove that attacker can launch the attack vector without the knowledge of complete network information and the injected false data can't be detected by power system operator. This paper also deals with analyzing the impact of multi-attacking strategy on the power system. This false data attacks incurs lot of damage to power system, as it misguides the power system operator. Here, we demonstrate the construction of attack vector and later we have demonstrated multiple attacking regions in IEEE 14 bus system. Impact of attack vector on the power system can be observed and it is proved that the attack cannot be detected by power system operator with the help of residue check method.

Yang, Huiting, Bai, Yunxiao, Zou, Zhenwan, Shi, Yuanyuan, Chen, Shuting, Ni, Chenxi.  2019.  Research on Security Self-defense of Power Information Network Based on Artificial Intelligence. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:1248—1251.
By studying the problems of network information security in power system, this paper proposes a self-defense research and solution for power information network based on artificial intelligence. At the same time, it proposes active defense new technologies such as vulnerability scanning, baseline scanning, network security attack and defense drills in power information network security, aiming at improving the security level of network information and ensuring the security of the information network in the power system.
Nakayama, Kiyoshi, Muralidhar, Nikhil, Jin, Chenrui, Sharma, Ratnesh.  2019.  Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems using Dynamic Invariants. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Machine Learning And Applications (ICMLA). :1023–1030.

Modern cyber-physical systems are increasingly complex and vulnerable to attacks like false data injection aimed at destabilizing and confusing the systems. We develop and evaluate an attack-detection framework aimed at learning a dynamic invariant network, data-driven temporal causal relationships between components of cyber-physical systems. We evaluate the relative performance in attack detection of the proposed model relative to traditional anomaly detection approaches. In this paper, we introduce Granger Causality based Kalman Filter with Adaptive Robust Thresholding (G-KART) as a framework for anomaly detection based on data-driven functional relationships between components in cyber-physical systems. In particular, we select power systems as a critical infrastructure with complex cyber-physical systems whose protection is an essential facet of national security. The system presented is capable of learning with or without network topology the task of detection of false data injection attacks in power systems. Kalman filters are used to learn and update the dynamic state of each component in the power system and in-turn monitor the component for malicious activity. The ego network for each node in the invariant graph is treated as an ensemble model of Kalman filters, each of which captures a subset of the node's interactions with other parts of the network. We finally also introduce an alerting mechanism to surface alerts about compromised nodes.

Jaiswal, Prajwal Kumar, Das, Sayari, Panigrahi, Bijaya Ketan.  2019.  PMU Based Data Driven Approach For Online Dynamic Security Assessment in Power Systems. 2019 20th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP). :1—7.

This paper presents a methodology for utilizing Phasor Measurement units (PMUs) for procuring real time synchronized measurements for assessing the security of the power system dynamically. The concept of wide-area dynamic security assessment considers transient instability in the proposed methodology. Intelligent framework based approach for online dynamic security assessment has been suggested wherein the database consisting of critical features associated with the system is generated for a wide range of contingencies, which is utilized to build the data mining model. This data mining model along with the synchronized phasor measurements is expected to assist the system operator in assessing the security of the system pertaining to a particular contingency, thereby also creating possibility of incorporating control and preventive measures in order to avoid any unforeseen instability in the system. The proposed technique has been implemented on IEEE 39 bus system for accurately indicating the security of the system and is found to be quite robust in the case of noise in the measurement data obtained from the PMUs.

Jaiswal, Supriya, Ballal, Makarand Sudhakar.  2019.  A Novel Online Technique for Fixing the Accountability of Harmonic Injector in Distribution Network. 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT). 1:1—7.

Harmonic distortions come into existence in the power system not only due to nonlinear loads of consumers but also due to custom power devices used by power utilities. These distortions are harmful to the power networks as these produce over heating of appliances, reduction in their life expectancy, increment in electricity bill, false tripping, etc. This paper presents an effective, simple and direct approach to identify the problematic cause either consumer load or utility source or both responsible for harmonics injection in the power system. This technique does not require mathematical model, historical data and expert knowledge. The online methodology is developed in the laboratory and tested for different polluted loads and source conditions. Experimental results are found satisfactory. This proposed technique has substantial potential to determine the problematic cause without any power interruption by plug and play operation just like CCTV.

Eneh, Joy Nnenna, Onyekachi Orah, Harris, Emeka, Aka Benneth.  2019.  Improving the Reliability and Security of Active Distribution Networks Using SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica. :110–115.
The traditional electricity distribution system is rapidly shifting from the passive infrastructure to a more active infrastructure, giving rise to a smart grid. In this project an active electricity distribution network and its components have been studied. A 14-node SCADA-based active distribution network model has been proposed for managing this emerging network infrastructure to ensure reliability and protection of the network The proposed model was developed using matlab /simulink software and the fuzzy logic toolbox. Surge arresters and circuit breakers were modelled and deployed in the network at different locations for protection and isolation of fault conditions. From the reliability analysis of the proposed model, the failure rate and outage hours were reduced due to better response of the system to power fluctuations and fault conditions.
Liu, Xiaobao, Wu, Qinfang, Sun, Jinhua, Xu, Xia, Wen, Yifan.  2019.  Research on Self-Healing Technology for Faults of Intelligent Distribution Network Communication System. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1404–1408.
The intelligent power communication network is closely connected with the power system, and carries the data transmission and intelligent decision in a series of key services in the power system, which is an important guarantee for the smart power service. The self-healing control (SHC) of the distribution network monitors the data of each device and node in the distribution network in real time, simulates and analyzes the data, and predicts the hidden dangers in the normal operation of the distribution network. Control, control strategies such as correcting recovery and troubleshooting when abnormal or fault conditions occur, reducing human intervention, enabling the distribution network to change from abnormal operating state to normal operating state in time, preventing event expansion and reducing the impact of faults on the grid and users.
Ying, Huan, Ouyang, Xuan, Miao, Siwei, Cheng, Yushi.  2019.  Power Message Generation in Smart Grid via Generative Adversarial Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :790–793.
As the next generation of the power system, smart grid develops towards automated and intellectualized. Along with the benefits brought by smart grids, e.g., improved energy conversion rate, power utilization rate, and power supply quality, are the security challenges. One of the most important issues in smart grids is to ensure reliable communication between the secondary equipment. The state-of-art method to ensure smart grid security is to detect cyber attacks by deep learning. However, due to the small number of negative samples, the performance of the detection system is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that utilizes the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to generate abundant negative samples, which helps to improve the performance of the state-of-art detection system. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of the detection system by 4%.
Paul, Shuva, Ni, Zhen.  2019.  A Strategic Analysis of Attacker-Defender Repeated Game in Smart Grid Security. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

Traditional power grid security schemes are being replaced by highly advanced and efficient smart security schemes due to the advancement in grid structure and inclusion of cyber control and monitoring tools. Smart attackers create physical, cyber, or cyber-physical attacks to gain the access of the power system and manipulate/override system status, measurements and commands. In this paper, we formulate the environment for the attacker-defender interaction in the smart power grid. We provide a strategic analysis of the attacker-defender strategic interaction using a game theoretic approach. We apply repeated game to formulate the problem, implement it in the power system, and investigate for optimal strategic behavior in terms of mixed strategies of the players. In order to define the utility or cost function for the game payoffs calculation, generation power is used. Attack-defense budget is also incorporated with the attacker-defender repeated game to reflect a more realistic scenario. The proposed game model is validated using IEEE 39 bus benchmark system. A comparison between the proposed game model and the all monitoring model is provided to validate the observations.

Niu, Xiangyu, Li, Jiangnan, Sun, Jinyuan, Tomsovic, Kevin.  2019.  Dynamic Detection of False Data Injection Attack in Smart Grid using Deep Learning. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–6.
Modern advances in sensor, computing, and communication technologies enable various smart grid applications. The heavy dependence on communication technology has highlighted the vulnerability of the electricity grid to false data injection (FDI) attacks that can bypass bad data detection mechanisms. Existing mitigation in the power system either focus on redundant measurements or protect a set of basic measurements. These methods make specific assumptions about FDI attacks, which are often restrictive and inadequate to deal with modern cyber threats. In the proposed approach, a deep learning based framework is used to detect injected data measurement. Our time-series anomaly detector adopts a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) network. To effectively estimate system variables, our approach observes both data measurements and network level features to jointly learn system states. The proposed system is tested on IEEE 39-bus system. Experimental analysis shows that the deep learning algorithm can identify anomalies which cannot be detected by traditional state estimation bad data detection.
Wu, Yanjuan, Wang, Haoyue, Yang, Li.  2019.  Research on Modeling Method of Visualized Plane Topology in Electric Power System. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7263–7268.

Aiming at the realization of power system visualization plane topology modeling, a development method of Microsoft Foundation Classes application framework based on Microsoft Visual Studio is proposed. The overall platform development is mainly composed of five modules: the primitive library module, the platform interface module, the model array file module, the topology array file module, and the algorithm module. The software developed by this method can realize the user-defined power system modeling, and can realize power system operation analysis by combining with algorithm. The proposed method has a short development cycle, compatibility and expandability. This method is applied to the development of a plane topology modeling platform for the distribution network system, which further demonstrates the feasibility of this method.

Zhang, Zhenyong, Wu, Junfeng, Yau, David, Cheng, Peng, Chen, Jiming.  2018.  Secure Kalman Filter State Estimation by Partially Homomorphic Encryption. 2018 ACM/IEEE 9th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :345–346.
Recently, the security of state estimation has been attracting significant research attention due to the need for trustworthy situation awareness in emerging (e.g., industrial) cyber-physical systems. In this paper, we investigate secure estimation based on Kalman filtering (SEKF) using partially homomorphically encrypted data. The encryption will enhance the confidentiality not only of data transmitted in the communication network, but also key system information required by the estimator. We use a multiplicative homomorphic encryption scheme, but with a modified decryption algorithm. SEKF is able to conceal comprehensive information (i.e., system parameters, measurements, and state estimates) aggregated at the sink node of the estimator, while retaining the effectiveness of normal Kalman filtering. Therefore, even if an attacker has gained unauthorized access to the estimator and associated communication channels, he will not be able to obtain sufficient knowledge of the system state to guide the attack, e.g., ensure its stealthiness. We present an implementation structure of the SEKF to reduce the communication overhead compared with traditional secure multiparty computation (SMC) methods. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the SEKF on an IEEE 9-bus power system.
Sun, Yunhe, Yang, Dongsheng, Meng, Lei, Gao, Xiaoting, Hu, Bo.  2018.  Universal Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Power Grid Based on Complex Networks. 2018 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :136-141.

Traditionally, power grid vulnerability assessment methods are separated to the study of nodes vulnerability and edges vulnerability, resulting in the evaluation results are not accurate. A framework for vulnerability assessment is still required for power grid. Thus, this paper proposes a universal method for vulnerability assessment of power grid by establishing a complex network model with uniform weight of nodes and edges. The concept of virtual edge is introduced into the distinct weighted complex network model of power system, and the selection function of edge weight and virtual edge weight are constructed based on electrical and physical parameters. In addition, in order to reflect the electrical characteristics of power grids more accurately, a weighted betweenness evaluation index with transmission efficiency is defined. Finally, the method has been demonstrated on the IEEE 39 buses system, and the results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Ying, Huan, Zhang, Yanmiao, Han, Lifang, Cheng, Yushi, Li, Jiyuan, Ji, Xiaoyu, Xu, Wenyuan.  2019.  Detecting Buffer-Overflow Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Devices via Automatic Static Analysis. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :813-817.

As a modern power transmission network, smart grid connects plenty of terminal devices. However, along with the growth of devices are the security threats. Different from the previous separated environment, an adversary nowadays can destroy the power system by attacking these devices. Therefore, it's critical to ensure the security and safety of terminal devices. To achieve this goal, detecting the pre-existing vulnerabilities of the device program and enhance the terminal security, are of great importance and necessity. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that detects existing buffer-overflow vulnerabilities of terminal devices via automatic static analysis (ASA). We utilize the static analysis to extract the device program information and build corresponding program models. By further matching the generated program model with pre-defined vulnerability patterns, we achieve vulnerability detection and error reporting. The evaluation results demonstrate that our method can effectively detect buffer-overflow vulnerabilities of smart terminals with a high accuracy and a low false positive rate.

Zabetian-Hosseini, A., Mehrizi-Sani, A., Liu, C..  2018.  Cyberattack to Cyber-Physical Model of Wind Farm SCADA. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4929–4934.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in wind power penetration into the power system. As a result, the behavior of the power system has become more dependent on wind power behavior. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems responsible for monitoring and controlling wind farms often have vulnerabilities that make them susceptible to cyberattacks. These vulnerabilities allow attackers to exploit and intrude in the wind farm SCADA system. In this paper, a cyber-physical system (CPS) model for the information and communication technology (ICT) model of the wind farm SCADA system integrated with SCADA of the power system is proposed. Cybersecurity of this wind farm SCADA system is discussed. Proposed cyberattack scenarios on the system are modeled and the impact of these cyberattacks on the behavior of the power systems on the IEEE 9-bus modified system is investigated. Finally, an anomaly attack detection algorithm is proposed to stop the attack of tripping of all wind farms. Case studies validate the performance of the proposed CPS model of the test system and the attack detection algorithm.

Terzi, D. S., Arslan, B., Sagiroglu, S..  2018.  Smart Grid Security Evaluation with a Big Data Use Case. 2018 IEEE 12th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG 2018). :1-6.

Technological developments in the energy sector while offering new business insights, also produces complex data. In this study, the relationship between smart grid and big data approaches have been investigated. After analyzing where the big data techniques and technologies are used in which areas of smart grid systems, the big data technologies used to detect attacks on smart grids have been focused on. Big data analytics produces efficient solutions, but it is more critical to choose which algorithm and metric. For this reason, an application prototype has been proposed using big data approaches to detect attacks on smart grids. The algorithms with high accuracy were determined as 92% with Random Forest and 87% with Decision Tree.

Albarakati, A., Moussa, B., Debbabi, M., Youssef, A., Agba, B. L., Kassouf, M..  2018.  OpenStack-Based Evaluation Framework for Smart Grid Cyber Security. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

The rapid evolution of the power grid into a smart one calls for innovative and compelling means to experiment with the upcoming expansions, and analyze their behavioral response under normal circumstances and when targeted by attacks. Such analysis is fundamental to setting up solid foundations for the smart grid. Smart grid Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) co-simulation environments serve as a key approach to answer questions on the systems components, functionality, security concerns along with analysis of the system outcome and expected behavior. In this paper, we introduce a HIL co-simulation framework capable of simulating the smart grid actions and responses to attacks targeting its power and communication components. Our testbed is equipped with a real-time power grid simulator, and an associated OpenStack-based communication network. Through the utilized communication network, we can emulate a multitude of attacks targeting the power system, and evaluating the grid response to those attacks. Moreover, we present different illustrative cyber attacks use cases, and analyze the smart grid behavior in the presence of those attacks.

Chen, L., Yue, D., Dou, C., Ge, H., Lu, J., Yang, X..  2017.  Cascading Failure Initially from Power Grid in Interdependent Networks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1–5.

The previous consideration of power grid focuses on the power system itself, however, the recent work is aiming at both power grid and communication network, this coupling networks are firstly called as interdependent networks. Prior study on modeling interdependent networks always extracts main features from real networks, the model of network A and network B are completely symmetrical, both degree distribution in intranetwork and support pattern in inter-network, but in reality this circumstance is hard to attain. In this paper, we deliberately set both networks with same topology in order to specialized research the support pattern between networks. In terms of initial failure from power grid or communication network, we find the remaining survival fraction is greatly disparate, and the failure initially from power grid is more harmful than failure initially from communication network, which all show the vulnerability of interdependency and meantime guide us to pay more attention to the protection measures for power grid.

Tsujii, Y., Kawakita, K. E., Kumagai, M., Kikuchi, A., Watanabe, M..  2017.  State Estimation Error Detection System for Online Dynamic Security Assessment. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

Online Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) is a dynamical system widely used for assessing and analyzing an electrical power system. The outcomes of DSA are used in many aspects of the operation of power system, from monitoring the system to determining remedial action schemes (e.g. the amount of generators to be shed at the event of a fault). Measurement from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and state estimation (SE) results are the inputs for online-DSA, however, the SE error, caused by sudden change in power flow or low convergence rate, could be unnoticed and skew the outcome. Therefore, generator shedding scheme cannot achieve optimum but must have some margin because we don't know how SE error caused by these problems will impact power system stability control. As a method for solving the problem, we developed SE error detection system (EDS), which is enabled by detecting the SE error that will impact power system transient stability. The method is comparing a threshold value and an index calculated by the difference between SE results and PMU observation data, using the distance from the fault point and the power flow value. Using the index, the reliability of the SE results can be verified. As a result, online-DSA can use the SE results while avoiding the bad SE results, assuring the outcome of the DSA assessment and analysis, such as the amount of generator shedding in order to prevent the power system's instability.

Gavgani, M. H., Eftekharnejad, S..  2017.  A Graph Model for Enhancing Situational Awareness in Power Systems. 2017 19th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP). :1–6.

As societies are becoming more dependent on the power grids, the security issues and blackout threats are more emphasized. This paper proposes a new graph model for online visualization and assessment of power grid security. The proposed model integrates topology and power flow information to estimate and visualize interdependencies between the lines in the form of line dependency graph (LDG) and immediate threats graph (ITG). These models enable the system operator to predict the impact of line outage and identify the most vulnerable and critical links in the power system. Line Vulnerability Index (LVI) and Line Criticality Index (LCI) are introduced as two indices extracted from LDG to aid the operator in decision making and contingency selection. This package can be useful in enhancing situational awareness in power grid operation by visualization and estimation of system threats. The proposed approach is tested for security analysis of IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems and the results are discussed.

Wei, Li, Hongyu, Liu, Xiaoliang, Zhang.  2016.  A network data security analysis method based on DPI technology. 2016 7th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :973–976.

In view of the high demand for the security of visiting data in power system, a network data security analysis method based on DPI technology was put forward in this paper, to solve the problem of security gateway judge the legality of the network data. Considering the legitimacy of the data involves data protocol and data contents, this article will filters the data from protocol matching and content detection. Using deep packet inspection (DPI) technology to screen the protocol. Using protocol analysis to detect the contents of data. This paper implements the function that allowing secure data through the gateway and blocking threat data. The example proves that the method is more effective guarantee the safety of visiting data.

Guo, Q., Fan, J., Li, N..  2015.  The achieve of power manager application honey-pot based on sandbox. 2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT). :2523–2527.

Honeypot is a common method of attack capture, can maximize the reduction of cyber-attacks. However, its limited application layer simulation makes it impossible to use effectively in power system. Through research on sandboxing technology, this article implements the simulated power manager applications by packaging real power manager applications, in order to expand the honeypot applied range.

Kjølle, G. H., Gjerde, O..  2015.  Vulnerability analysis related to extraordinary events in power systems. 2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech. :1–6.

A novel approach is developed for analyzing power system vulnerability related to extraordinary events. Vulnerability analyses are necessary for identification of barriers to prevent such events and as a basis for the emergency preparedness. Identification of cause and effect relationships to reveal vulnerabilities related to extraordinary events is a complex and difficult task. In the proposed approach, the analysis starts by identifying the critical consequences. Then the critical contingencies and operating states, and which external threats and causes that may result in such severe consequences, are identified. This is opposed to the traditional risk and vulnerability analysis which starts by analyzing threats and what can happen as a chain of events. The vulnerability analysis methodology is tested and demonstrated on real systems.

Fan, H., Ji, X. y, Chen, S..  2015.  A hybrid algorithm for reactive power optimization based on bi-level programming. International Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2015). :1–4.

This paper established a bi-level programming model for reactive power optimization, considering the feature of the grid voltage-reactive power control. The targets of upper-level and lower-level are minimization of grid loss and voltage deviation, respectively. According to the differences of two level, such as different variables, different solution space, primal-dual interior point algorithm is suggested to be used in upper-level, which takes continuous variables in account such as active power source and reactive power source. Upper-level model guaranteed the sufficient of the reactive power in power system. And then in lower-level the discrete variables such as taps are optimized by random forests algorithm (RFA), which regulate the voltage in a feasible range. Finally, a case study illustrated the speediness and robustness of this method.

Del Rosso, A., Liang Min, Chaoyang Jing.  2014.  High performance computation tools for real-time security assessment. PES General Meeting | Conference Exposition, 2014 IEEE. :1-1.

This paper presents an overview of the research project “High-Performance Hybrid Simulation/Measurement-Based Tools for Proactive Operator Decision-Support”, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy grant DE-OE0000628. The objective of this project is to develop software tools to provide enhanced real-time situational awareness to support the decision making and system control actions of transmission operators. The integrated tool will combine high-performance dynamic simulation with synchrophasor measurement data to assess in real time system dynamic performance and operation security risk. The project includes: (i) The development of high-performance dynamic simulation software; (ii) the development of new computationally effective measurement-based tools to estimate operating margins of a power system in real time using measurement data from synchrophasors and SCADA; (iii) the development a hybrid framework integrating measurement-based and simulation-based approaches, and (iv) the use of cutting-edge visualization technology to display various system quantities and to visually process the results of the hybrid measurement-base/simulation-based security-assessment tool. Parallelization and high performance computing are utilized to enable ultrafast transient stability analysis that can be used in a real-time environment to quickly perform “what-if” simulations involving system dynamics phenomena. EPRI's Extended Transient Midterm Simulation Program (ETMSP) is modified and enhanced for this work. The contingency analysis is scaled for large-scale contingency analysis using MPI-based parallelization. Simulations of thousands of contingencies on a high performance computing machine are performed, and results show that parallelization over contingencies with MPI provides good scalability and computational gains. Different ways to reduce the I/O bottleneck have been also exprored. Thread-parallelization of the sparse linear solve is explored also through use of the SuperLU_MT library. Based on performance profiling results for the implicit method, the majority of CPU time is spent on the integration steps. Hence, in order to further improve the ETMSP performance, a variable time step control scheme for the original trapezoidal integration method has been developed and implemented. The Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor-corrector method was introduced and designed for ETMSP. Test results show superior performance with this method.