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2021-12-02
Wang, Zhiwen, Hu, Jiqiang, Sun, Hongtao.  2020.  False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grid Using Gaussian Mixture Model. 2020 16th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV). :830–837.
The application of network technology and high-tech equipment in power systems has increased the degree of grid intelligence, and malicious attacks on smart grids have also increased year by year. The wrong data injection attack launched by the attacker will destroy the integrity of the data by changing the data of the sensor and controller, which will lead to the wrong decision of the control system and even paralyze the power transmission network. This paper uses the measured values of smart grid sensors as samples, analyzes the attack vectors maliciously injected by attackers and the statistical characteristics of system data, and proposes a false data injection attack detection strategy. It is considered that the measured values of sensors have spatial distribution characteristics, the Gaussian mixture model of grid node feature vectors is obtained by training sample values, the test measurement values are input into the Gaussian mixture model, and the knowledge of clustering is used to detect whether the power grid is malicious data attacks. The power supplies of IEEE-18 and IEEE-30 simulation systems was tested, and the influence of the system statistical measurement characteristics on the detection accuracy was analyzed. The results show that the proposed strategy has better detection performance than the support vector machine method.
Martovytskyi, Vitalii, Ruban, Igor, Lahutin, Hennadiy, Ilina, Irina, Rykun, Volodymyr, Diachenko, Vladyslav.  2020.  Method of Detecting FDI Attacks on Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Problems of Infocommunications. Science and Technology (PIC S T). :132–136.
Nowadays energy systems in many countries improve and develop being based on the concept of deep integration of energy as well as infocomm grids. Thus, energy grids find the possibility to analyze the state of the whole system in real time, to predict the processes in it, to have interactive cooperation with the clients and to run the appliance. Such concept has been named Smart Grid. This work highlights the concept of Smart Grid, possible vectors of attacks and identification of attack of false data injection (FDI) into the flow of measuring received from the sensors. Identification is based on the use of spatial and temporal correlations in Smart Grids.
Gai, Na, Xue, Kaiping, He, Peixuan, Zhu, Bin, Liu, Jianqing, He, Debiao.  2020.  An Efficient Data Aggregation Scheme with Local Differential Privacy in Smart Grid. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :73–80.
Smart grid achieves reliable, efficient and flexible grid data processing by integrating traditional power grid with information and communication technology. The control center can evaluate the supply and demand of the power grid through aggregated data of users, and then dynamically adjust the power supply, price of the power, etc. However, since the grid data collected from users may disclose the user's electricity using habits and daily activities, the privacy concern has become a critical issue. Most of the existing privacy-preserving data collection schemes for smart grid adopt homomorphic encryption or randomization techniques which are either impractical because of the high computation overhead or unrealistic for requiring the trusted third party. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving smart grid data aggregation scheme satisfying local differential privacy (LDP) based on randomized response. Our scheme can achieve efficient and practical estimation of the statistics of power supply and demand while preserving any individual participant's privacy. The performance analysis shows that our scheme is efficient in terms of computation and communication overhead.
Piatkowska, Ewa, Gavriluta, Catalin, Smith, Paul, Andrén, Filip Pröstl.  2020.  Online Reasoning about the Root Causes of Software Rollout Failures in the Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
An essential ingredient of the smart grid is software-based services. Increasingly, software is used to support control strategies and services that are critical to the grid's operation. Therefore, its correct operation is essential. For various reasons, software and its configuration needs to be updated. This update process represents a significant overhead for smart grid operators and failures can result in financial losses and grid instabilities. In this paper, we present a framework for determining the root causes of software rollout failures in the smart grid. It uses distributed sensors that indicate potential issues, such as anomalous grid states and cyber-attacks, and a causal inference engine based on a formalism called evidential networks. The aim of the framework is to support an adaptive approach to software rollouts, ensuring that a campaign completes in a timely and secure manner. The framework is evaluated for a software rollout use-case in a low voltage distribution grid. Experimental results indicate it can successfully discriminate between different root causes of failure, supporting an adaptive rollout strategy.
Rao, Poojith U., Sodhi, Balwinder, Sodhi, Ranjana.  2020.  Cyber Security Enhancement of Smart Grids Via Machine Learning - A Review. 2020 21st National Power Systems Conference (NPSC). :1–6.
The evolution of power system as a smart grid (SG) not only has enhanced the monitoring and control capabilities of the power grid, but also raised its security concerns and vulnerabilities. With a boom in Internet of Things (IoT), a lot a sensors are being deployed across the grid. This has resulted in huge amount of data available for processing and analysis. Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms are being widely used to extract useful information from this data. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive literature survey of different ML and DL techniques that have been used in the smart grid cyber security area. The survey summarizes different type of cyber threats which today's SGs are prone to, followed by various ML and DL-assisted defense strategies. The effectiveness of the ML based methods in enhancing the cyber security of SGs is also demonstrated with the help of a case study.
2021-11-30
Cultice, Tyler, Ionel, Dan, Thapliyal, Himanshu.  2020.  Smart Home Sensor Anomaly Detection Using Convolutional Autoencoder Neural Network. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :67–70.
We propose an autoencoder based approach to anomaly detection in smart grid systems. Data collecting sensors within smart home systems are susceptible to many data corruption issues, such as malicious attacks or physical malfunctions. By applying machine learning to a smart home or grid, sensor anomalies can be detected automatically for secure data collection and sensor-based system functionality. In addition, we tested the effectiveness of this approach on real smart home sensor data collected for multiple years. An early detection of such data corruption issues is essential to the security and functionality of the various sensors and devices within a smart home.
Akhras, Raphaelle, El-Hajj, Wassim, Majdalani, Michel, Hajj, Hazem, Jabr, Rabih, Shaban, Khaled.  2020.  Securing Smart Grid Communication Using Ethereum Smart Contracts. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1672–1678.
Smart grids are being continually adopted as a replacement of the traditional power grid systems to ensure safe, efficient, and cost-effective power distribution. The smart grid is a heterogeneous communication network made up of various devices such as smart meters, automation, and emerging technologies interacting with each other. As a result, the smart grid inherits most of the security vulnerabilities of cyber systems, putting the smart grid at risk of cyber-attacks. To secure the communication between smart grid entities, namely the smart meters and the utility, we propose in this paper a communication infrastructure built on top of a blockchain network, specifically Ethereum. All two-way communication between the smart meters and the utility is assumed to be transactions governed by smart contracts. Smart contracts are designed in such a way to ensure that each smart meter is authentic and each smart meter reading is reported securely and privately. We present a simulation of a sample smart grid and report all the costs incurred from building such a grid. The simulations illustrate the feasibility and security of the proposed architecture. They also point to weaknesses that must be addressed, such as scalability and cost.
Dobrea, Marius-Alexandru, Vasluianu, Mihaela, Neculoiu, Giorgian, Bichiu, Stefan.  2020.  Data Security in Smart Grid. 2020 12th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1–6.
Looking at the Smart Grid as a Cyber - Physical system of great complexity, the paper synthesizes the main IT security issues that may arise. Security issues are seen from a hybrid point of view, combining theory of information with system theory. Smart Grid has changed dramatically over the past years. With modern technologies, such as Big Data or Internet of Things (IoT), the Smart Grid is evolving into a more interconnected and dynamic power network model.
Pliatsios, Dimitrios, Sarigiannidis, Panagiotis, Efstathopoulos, Georgios, Sarigiannidis, Antonios, Tsiakalos, Apostolos.  2020.  Trust Management in Smart Grid: A Markov Trust Model. 2020 9th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies (MOCAST). :1–4.
By leveraging the advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Smart Grid (SG) aims to modernize the traditional electric power grid towards efficient distribution and reliable management of energy in the electrical domain. The SG Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) contains numerous smart meters, which are deployed throughout the distribution grid. However, these smart meters are susceptible to cyberthreats that aim to disrupt the normal operation of the SG. Cyberattacks can have various consequences in the smart grid, such as incorrect customer billing or equipment destruction. Therefore, these devices should operate on a trusted basis in order to ensure the availability, confidentiality, and integrity of the metering data. In this paper, we propose a Markov chain trust model that determines the Trust Value (TV) for each AMI device based on its behavior. Finally, numerical computations were carried out in order to investigate the reaction of the proposed model to the behavior changes of a device.
Duan, Junhong, Zhao, Bo, Guo, Sensen.  2020.  The Design and Implementation of Smart Grid SOC Platform. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Information Technology,Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA). 1:264–268.
Smart grid is the key infrastructure of the country, and its network security is an important link to ensure the national important infrastructure security. SOC as a secure operation mechanism for adaptive and continuous improvement of information security, it is practically significant to address the challenge to the network security of the smart grid. Based on the analysis of the technical characteristics and security of smart grid, and taking a grid enterprise smart grid as an example, we propose the design scheme and implementation plan of smart grid SOC platform. Experimental results show that the platform we designed can meet the performance requirements, it also meets the requirements of real-time storage of behavioral data and provides support for interactive analysis and batch analysis.
Marah, Rim, Gabassi, Inssaf El, Larioui, Sanae, Yatimi, Hanane.  2020.  Security of Smart Grid Management of Smart Meter Protection. 2020 1st International Conference on Innovative Research in Applied Science, Engineering and Technology (IRASET). :1–5.
The need of more secured and environmental energy is becoming a necessity and priority in an environment suffering from serious problems due to technological development. Since the Smart Grid is a promising alternative that supports green energy and enhances a better management of electricity, the security side has became one of the major and critical associated issues in building the communication network in the microgrid.In this paper we will present the Smart Grid Cyber security challenges and propose a distributed algorithm that face one of the biggest problems threatening the smart grid which is fires.
Shateri, Mohammadhadi, Messina, Francisco, Piantanida, Pablo, Labeau, Fabrice.  2020.  On the Impact of Side Information on Smart Meter Privacy-Preserving Methods. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.
Smart meters (SMs) can pose privacy threats for consumers, an issue that has received significant attention in recent years. This paper studies the impact of Side Information (SI) on the performance of possible attacks to real-time privacy-preserving algorithms for SMs. In particular, we consider a deep adversarial learning framework, in which the desired releaser, which is a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), is trained by fighting against an adversary network until convergence. To define the objective for training, two different approaches are considered: the Causal Adversarial Learning (CAL) and the Directed Information (DI)-based learning. The main difference between these approaches relies on how the privacy term is measured during the training process. The releaser in the CAL method, disposing of supervision from the actual values of the private variables and feedback from the adversary performance, tries to minimize the adversary log-likelihood. On the other hand, the releaser in the DI approach completely relies on the feedback received from the adversary and is optimized to maximize its uncertainty. The performance of these two algorithms is evaluated empirically using real-world SMs data, considering an attacker with access to SI (e.g., the day of the week) that tries to infer the occupancy status from the released SMs data. The results show that, although they perform similarly when the attacker does not exploit the SI, in general, the CAL method is less sensitive to the inclusion of SI. However, in both cases, privacy levels are significantly affected, particularly when multiple sources of SI are included.
Alkaeed, Mahdi, Soliman, Md Mohiuddin, Khan, Khaled M., Elfouly, Tarek M..  2020.  Distributed Framework via Block-Chain Smart Contracts for Smart Grid Systems against Cyber-Attacks. 2020 11th IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (ICSGRC). :100–105.
In this century, the demand for energy is increasing daily, and the need for energy resources has become urgent and inevitable. New ways of generating energy, such as renewable resources that depend on many sources, including the sun and wind energy will contribute to the future of humankind largely and effectively. These renewable sources are facing major challenges that cannot be ignored which also require more researches on appropriate solutions . This has led to the emergence of a new type of network user called prosumer, which causes new challenges such as the intermittent nature of renewable. Smart grids have emerged as a solution to integrate these distributed energy sources. It also provides a mechanism to maintain safety and security for power supply networks. The main idea of smart grids is to facilitate local production and consumption By customers and consumers.Distributed ledger technology (DLT) or Block-chain technology has evolved dramatically since 2008 that coincided with the birth of its first application Bitcoin, which is the first cryptocurrency. This innovation led to sparked in the digital revolution, which provides decentralization, security, and democratization of information storage and transfer systems across numerous sectors/industries. Block-chain can be applied for the sake of the durability and safety of energy systems. In this paper, we will propose a new distributed framework that provides protection based on block-chain technology for energy systems to enhance self-defense capability against those cyber-attacks.
Kserawi, Fawaz, Malluhi, Qutaibah M..  2020.  Privacy Preservation of Aggregated Data Using Virtual Battery in the Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Dependability in Sensor, Cloud and Big Data Systems and Application (DependSys). :106–111.
Smart Meters (SM) are IoT end devices used to collect user utility consumption with limited processing power on the edge of the smart grid (SG). While SMs have great applications in providing data analysis to the utility provider and consumers, private user information can be inferred from SMs readings. For preserving user privacy, a number of methods were developed that use perturbation by adding noise to alter user load and hide consumer data. Most methods limit the amount of perturbation noise using differential privacy to preserve the benefits of data analysis. However, additive noise perturbation may have an undesirable effect on billing. Additionally, users may desire to select complete privacy without giving consent to having their data analyzed. We present a virtual battery model that uses perturbation with additive noise obtained from a virtual chargeable battery. The level of noise can be set to make user data differentially private preserving statistics or break differential privacy discarding the benefits of data analysis for more privacy. Our model uses fog aggregation with authentication and encryption that employs lightweight cryptographic primitives. We use Diffie-Hellman key exchange for symmetrical encryption of transferred data and a two-way challenge-response method for authentication.
Shateri, Mohammadhadi, Messina, Francisco, Piantanida, Pablo, Labeau, Fabrice.  2020.  Privacy-Cost Management in Smart Meters Using Deep Reinforcement Learning. 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe). :929–933.
Smart meters (SMs) play a pivotal rule in the smart grid by being able to report the electricity usage of consumers to the utility provider (UP) almost in real-time. However, this could leak sensitive information about the consumers to the UP or a third-party. Recent works have leveraged the availability of energy storage devices, e.g., a rechargeable battery (RB), in order to provide privacy to the consumers with minimal additional energy cost. In this paper, a privacy-cost management unit (PCMU) is proposed based on a model-free deep reinforcement learning algorithm, called deep double Q-learning (DDQL). Empirical results evaluated on actual SMs data are presented to compare DDQL with the state-of-the-art, i.e., classical Q-learning (CQL). Additionally, the performance of the method is investigated for two concrete cases where attackers aim to infer the actual demand load and the occupancy status of dwellings. Finally, an abstract information-theoretic characterization is provided.
Wagh, Gaurav S., Mishra, Sumita.  2020.  A Cyber-Resilient Privacy Framework for the Smart Grid with Dynamic Billing Capabilities. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.
The desired features for the smart grid include dynamic billing capabilities along with consumer privacy protection. Existing aggregation-based privacy frameworks have limitations such as centralized designs prone to single points of failure and/or a high computational overload on the smart meters due to in-network aggregation or complex algorithmic operations. Additionally, these existing schemes do not consider how dynamic billing can be implemented while consumer privacy is preserved. In this paper, a cyber-resilient framework that enables dynamic billing while focusing on consumer privacy preservation is proposed. The distributed design provides a framework for spatio-temporal aggregation and keeps the process lightweight for the smart meters. The comparative analysis of our proposed work with existing work shows a significant improvement in terms of the spatial aggregation overhead, overhead on smart meters and scalability. The paper also discusses the resilience of our framework against privacy attacks.
2021-11-29
Qu, Yanfeng, Chen, Gong, Liu, Xin, Yan, Jiaqi, Chen, Bo, Jin, Dong.  2020.  Cyber-Resilience Enhancement of PMU Networks Using Software-Defined Networking. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
Phasor measurement unit (PMU) networks are increasingly deployed to offer timely and high-precision measurement of today's highly interconnected electric power systems. To enhance the cyber-resilience of PMU networks against malicious attacks and system errors, we develop an optimization-based network management scheme based on the software-defined networking (SDN) communication infrastructure to recovery PMU network connectivity and restore power system observability. The scheme enables fast network recovery by optimizing the path generation and installation process, and moreover, compressing the SDN rules to be installed on the switches. We develop a prototype system and perform system evaluation in terms of power system observability, recovery speed, and rule compression using the IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system.
2021-10-12
Sethi, Kamalakanta, Pradhan, Ankit, Bera, Padmalochan.  2020.  Attribute-Based Data Security with Obfuscated Access Policy for Smart Grid Applications. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :503–506.
Smart grid employs intelligent transmission and distribution networks for effective and reliable delivery of electricity. It uses fine-grained electrical measurements to attain optimized reliability and stability by sharing these measurements among different entities of energy management systems of the grid. There are many stakeholders like users, phasor measurement units (PMU), and other entities, with changing requirements involved in the sharing of the data. Therefore, data security plays a vital role in the correct functioning of a power grid network. In this paper, we propose an attribute-based encryption (ABE) for secure data sharing in Smart Grid architectures as ABE enables efficient and secure access control. Also, the access policy is obfuscated to preserve privacy. We use Linear Secret Sharing (LSS) Scheme for supporting any monotone access structures, thereby enhancing the expressiveness of access policies. Finally, we also analyze the security, access policy privacy and collusion resistance properties along with efficiency analysis of our cryptosystem.
Luo, Bo, Beuran, Razvan, Tan, Yasuo.  2020.  Smart Grid Security: Attack Modeling from a CPS Perspective. 2020 IEEE Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :1–6.
With the development of smart grid technologies and the fast adoption of household IoT devices in recent years, new threats, attacks, and security challenges arise. While a large number of vulnerabilities, threats, attacks and controls have been discussed in the literature, there lacks an abstract and generalizable framework that can be used to model the cyber-physical interactions of attacks and guide the design of defense mechanisms. In this paper, we propose a new modeling approach for security attacks in smart grids and IoT devices using a Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) perspective. The model considers both the cyber and physical aspects of the core components of the smart grid system and the household IoT devices, as well as the interactions between the components. In particular, our model recognizes the two parallel attack channels via the cyber world and the physical world, and identifies the potential crossing routes between these two attack channels. We further discuss all possible attack surfaces, attack objectives, and attack paths in this newly proposed model. As case studies, we examine from the perspective of this new model three representative attacks proposed in the literature. The analysis demonstrates the applicability of the model, for instance, to assist the design of detection and defense mechanisms against smart grid cyber-attacks.
Lalouani, Wassila, Younis, Mohamed.  2020.  Machine Learning Enabled Secure Collection of Phasor Data in Smart Power Grid Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :546–553.
In a smart power grid, phasor measurement devices provide critical status updates in order to enable stabilization of the grid against fluctuations in power demands and component failures. Particularly the trend is to employ a large number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) that are inter-networked through wireless links. We tackle the vulnerability of such a wireless PMU network to message replay and false data injection (FDI) attacks. We propose a novel approach for avoiding explicit data transmission through PMU measurements prediction. Our methodology is based on applying advanced machine learning techniques to forecast what values will be reported and associate a level of confidence in such prediction. Instead of sending the actual measurements, the PMU sends the difference between actual and predicted values along with the confidence level. By applying the same technique at the grid control or data aggregation unit, our approach implicitly makes such a unit aware of the actual measurements and enables authentication of the source of the transmission. Our approach is data-driven and varies over time; thus it increases the PMU network resilience against message replay and FDI attempts since the adversary's messages will violate the data prediction protocol. The effectiveness of approach is validated using datasets for the IEEE 14 and IEEE 39 bus systems and through security analysis.
Rajkumar, Vetrivel Subramaniam, Tealane, Marko, \c Stefanov, Alexandru, Presekal, Alfan, Palensky, Peter.  2020.  Cyber Attacks on Power System Automation and Protection and Impact Analysis. 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe). :247–254.
Power system automation and communication standards are spearheading the power system transition towards a smart grid. IEC 61850 is one such standard, which is widely used for substation automation and protection. It enables real-time communication and data exchange between critical substation automation and protection devices within digital substations. However, IEC 61850 is not cyber secure. In this paper, we demonstrate the dangerous implications of not securing IEC 61850 standard. Cyber attacks may exploit the vulnerabilities of the Sampled Values (SV) and Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) protocols of IEC 61850. The cyber attacks may be realised by injecting spoofed SV and GOOSE data frames into the substation communication network at the bay level. We demonstrate that such cyber attacks may lead to obstruction or tripping of multiple protective relays. Coordinated cyber attacks against the protection system in digital substations may cause generation and line disconnections, triggering cascading failures in the power grid. This may eventually result in a partial or complete blackout. The attack model, impact on system dynamics and cascading failures are veri ed experimentally through a proposed cyber-physical experimental framework that closely resembles real-world conditions within a digital substation, including Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and protection schemes. It is implemented through Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations of commercial relays with a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS).
Nguyen, Tu N., Liu, Bing-Hong, Nguyen, Nam P., Chou, Jung-Te.  2020.  Cyber Security of Smart Grid: Attacks and Defenses. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Most of today's infrastructure systems can be efficiently operated thanks to the intelligent power supply of the smart grids. However, smart grids are highly vulnerable to malicious attacks, that is, because of the interplay between the components in the smart grids, the failure of some critical components may result in the cascading failure and breakdown of the whole system. Therefore, the question of how to identify the most critical components to protect the smart grid system is the first challenge to operators. To enable the system's robustness, there has been a lot of effort aimed at the system analysis, designing new architectures, and proposing new algorithms. However, these works mainly introduce different ranking methods for link (transmission line) or node (station) identification and directly select most the highest degree nodes or common links as the critical ones. These methods fail to address the problem of interdependencies between components nor consider the role of users that is one of critical factors impacting on the smart grid vulnerability assessment. This motivates us to study a more general and practical problem in terms of smart grid vulnerability assessment, namely the Maximum-Impact through Critical-Line with Limited Budget (MICLLB) problem. The objective of this research is to provide an efficient method to identify critical components in the system by considering a realistic attack scenario.
Musleh, Ahmed S., Chen, Guo, Dong, Zhao Yang, Wang, Chen, Chen, Shiping.  2020.  Statistical Techniques-Based Characterization of FDIA in Smart Grids Considering Grid Contingencies. 2020 International Conference on Smart Grids and Energy Systems (SGES). :83–88.
False data injection attack (FDIA) is a real threat to smart grids due to its wide range of vulnerabilities and impacts. Designing a proper detection scheme for FDIA is the 1stcritical step in defending the attack in smart grids. In this paper, we investigate two main statistical techniques-based approaches in this regard. The first is based on the principal component analysis (PCA), and the second is based on the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The test cases illustrate a better characterization performance of FDIA using CCA compared to the PCA. Further, CCA provides a better differentiation of FDIA from normal grid contingencies. On the other hand, PCA provides a significantly reduced false alarm rate.
Ackley, Darryl, Yang, Hengzhao.  2020.  Exploration of Smart Grid Device Cybersecurity Vulnerability Using Shodan. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–5.
The generation, transmission, distribution, and storage of electric power is becoming increasingly decentralized. Advances in Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) are rapidly changing the nature of the power grid. Moreover, the accommodation of these new technologies by the legacy grid requires that an increasing number of devices be Internet connected so as to allow for sensor and actuator information to be collected, transmitted, and processed. With the wide adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT), the cybersecurity vulnerabilities of smart grid devices that can potentially affect the stability, reliability, and resilience of the power grid need to be carefully examined and addressed. This is especially true in situations in which smart grid devices are deployed with default configurations or without reasonable protections against malicious activities. While much work has been done to characterize the vulnerabilities associated with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Industrial Control System (ICS) devices, this paper demonstrates that similar vulnerabilities associated with the newer class of IoT smart grid devices are becoming a concern. Specifically, this paper first performs an evaluation of such devices using the Shodan platform and text processing techniques to analyze a potential vulnerability involving the lack of password protection. This work further explores several Shodan search terms that can be used to identify additional smart grid components that can be evaluated in terms of cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Finally, this paper presents recommendations for the more secure deployment of such smart grid devices.
2021-09-21
Zhe, Wang, Wei, Cheng, Chunlin, Li.  2020.  DoS attack detection model of smart grid based on machine learning method. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :735–738.
In recent years, smart grid has gradually become the common development trend of the world's power industry, and its security issues are increasingly valued by researchers. Smart grids have applied technologies such as physical control, data encryption, and authentication to improve their security, but there is still a lack of timely and effective detection methods to prevent the grid from being threatened by malicious intrusions. Aiming at this problem, a model based on machine learning to detect smart grid DoS attacks has been proposed. The model first collects network data, secondly selects features and uses PCA for data dimensionality reduction, and finally uses SVM algorithm for abnormality detection. By testing the SVM, Decision Tree and Naive Bayesian Network classification algorithms on the KDD99 dataset, it is found that the SVM model works best.