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Salfer, Martin, Eckert, Claudia.  2018.  Attack Graph-Based Assessment of Exploitability Risks in Automotive On-Board Networks. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :21:1–21:10.

High-end vehicles incorporate about one hundred computers; physical and virtualized ones; self-driving vehicles even more. This allows a plethora of attack combinations. This paper demonstrates how to assess exploitability risks of vehicular on-board networks via automatically generated and analyzed attack graphs. Our stochastic model and algorithm combine all possible attack vectors and consider attacker resources more efficiently than Bayesian networks. We designed and implemented an algorithm that assesses a compilation of real vehicle development documents within only two CPU minutes, using an average of about 100 MB RAM. Our proof of concept "Security Analyzer for Exploitability Risks" (SAlfER) is 200 to 5 000 times faster and 40 to 200 times more memory-efficient than an implementation with UnBBayes1. Our approach aids vehicle development by automatically re-checking the architecture for attack combinations that may have been enabled by mistake and which are not trivial to spot by the human developer. Our approach is intended for and relevant for industrial application. Our research is part of a collaboration with a globally operating automotive manufacturer and is aimed at supporting the security of autonomous, connected, electrified, and shared vehicles.

Lima, Antonio, Rocha, Francisco, Völp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2016.  Towards Safe and Secure Autonomous and Cooperative Vehicle Ecosystems. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Privacy. :59–70.

Semi-autonomous driver assists are already widely deployed and fully autonomous cars are progressively leaving the realm of laboratories. This evolution coexists with a progressive connectivity and cooperation, creating important safety and security challenges, the latter ranging from casual hackers to highly-skilled attackers, requiring a holistic analysis, under the perspective of fully-fledged ecosystems of autonomous and cooperative vehicles. This position paper attempts at contributing to a better understanding of the global threat plane and the specific threat vectors designers should be attentive to. We survey paradigms and mechanisms that may be used to overcome or at least mitigate the potential risks that may arise through the several threat vectors analyzed.

Zhuoping Yu, Junxian Wu, Lu Xiong.  2014.  Research of stability control of distributed drive electric vehicles under motor failure modes. Transportation Electrification Asia-Pacific (ITEC Asia-Pacific), 2014 IEEE Conference and Expo. :1-5.

With the application and promotion of electric vehicles, vehicle security problems caused by actuator reliability have become increasingly prominent. Firstly, the paper analyses and sums motor failure modes and their effects of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) , which is commonly used on electric vehicles. And then design a hierarchical structure of the vehicle control strategies and the corresponding algorithms, and adjust based on the different failure modes. Finally conduct simulation conditions in CarSim environment. Verify the control strategy and algorithm can maintain vehicle stability and reduce the burden on driver under motor failure conditions.