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Elfar, Mahmoud, Zhu, Haibei, Cummings, M. L., Pajic, Miroslav.  2019.  Security-Aware Synthesis of Human-UAV Protocols. 2019 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). :8011–8017.
In this work, we synthesize collaboration protocols for human-unmanned aerial vehicle (H-UAV) command and control systems, where the human operator aids in securing the UAV by intermittently performing geolocation tasks to confirm its reported location. We first present a stochastic game-based model for the system that accounts for both the operator and an adversary capable of launching stealthy false-data injection attacks, causing the UAV to deviate from its path. We also describe a synthesis challenge due to the UAV's hidden-information constraint. Next, we perform human experiments using a developed RESCHU-SA testbed to recognize the geolocation strategies that operators adopt. Furthermore, we deploy machine learning techniques on the collected experimental data to predict the correctness of a geolocation task at a given location based on its geographical features. By representing the model as a delayed-action game and formalizing the system objectives, we utilize off-the-shelf model checkers to synthesize protocols for the human-UAV coalition that satisfy these objectives. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the H-UAV protocol synthesis through a case study where the protocols are experimentally analyzed and further evaluated by human operators.
Lee, D. ', La, W. Gyu, Kim, H..  2018.  Drone Detection and Identification System Using Artificial Intelligence. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1131-1133.

As drone attracts much interest, the drone industry has opened their market to ordinary people, making drones to be used in daily lives. However, as it got easier for drone to be used by more people, safety and security issues have raised as accidents are much more likely to happen: colliding into people by losing control or invading secured properties. For safety purposes, it is essential for observers and drone to be aware of an approaching drone. In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive drone detection system based on machine learning. This system is designed to be operable on drones with camera. Based on the camera images, the system deduces location on image and vendor model of drone based on machine classification. The system is actually built with OpenCV library. We collected drone imagery and information for learning process. The system's output shows about 89 percent accuracy.

Sampigethaya, K., Kopardekar, P., Davis, J..  2018.  Cyber Security of Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM). 2018 Integrated Communications, Navigation, Surveillance Conference (ICNS). :1C1–1–1C1–15.

Millions of small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) aircraft of various shapes and capabilities will soon fly at low altitudes in urban environments for ambitious applications. It is critical to ensure these remotely piloted aircraft fly safely, predictably, and efficiently in this challenging airspace, without endangering themselves and other occupants sharing that airspace or in proximity. Concepts, technologies, processes, and policies to solve this hard problem of UAS Traffic Management (UTM) are being explored. But, cyber security considerations are largely missing. This paper bridges this gap and addresses UTM cyber security needs and issues. It contributes a comprehensive framework to understand, identify, classify, and assess security threats to UTM, including those resulting from sUAS vulnerabilities. Promising threat mitigations, major challenges, and research directions are discussed to secure UTM.

Bhunia, S., Sengupta, S..  2017.  Distributed adaptive beam nulling to mitigate jamming in 3D UAV mesh networks. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :120–125.

With the advancement of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), 3D wireless mesh networks will play a crucial role in next generation mission critical wireless networks. Along with providing coverage over difficult terrain, it provides better spectral utilization through 3D spatial reuse. However, being a wireless network, 3D meshes are vulnerable to jamming/disruptive attacks. A jammer can disrupt the communication, as well as control of the network by intelligently causing interference to a set of nodes. This paper presents a distributed mechanism of avoiding jamming attacks by means of 3D spatial filtering where adaptive beam nulling is used to keep the jammer in null region in order to bypass jamming. Kalman filter based tracking mechanism is used to estimate the most likely trajectory of the jammer from noisy observation of the jammer's position. A beam null border is determined by calculating confidence region of jammer's current and next position estimates. An optimization goal is presented to calculate optimal beam null that minimizes the number of deactivated links while maximizing the higher value of confidence for keeping the jammer inside the null. The survivability of a 3D mesh network with a mobile jammer is studied through simulation that validates an 96.65% reduction in the number of jammed nodes.

Clifford, J., Garfield, K., Towhidnejad, M., Neighbors, J., Miller, M., Verenich, E., Staskevich, G..  2017.  Multi-layer model of swarm intelligence for resilient autonomous systems. 2017 IEEE/AIAA 36th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–4.

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) is working with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) to develop a distributed multi-layer autonomous UAS planning and control technology for gathering intelligence in Anti-Access Area Denial (A2/AD) environments populated by intelligent adaptive adversaries. These resilient autonomous systems are able to navigate through hostile environments while performing Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) tasks, and minimizing the loss of assets. Our approach incorporates artificial life concepts, with a high-level architecture divided into three biologically inspired layers: cyber-physical, reactive, and deliberative. Each layer has a dynamic level of influence over the behavior of the agent. Algorithms within the layers act on a filtered view of reality, abstracted in the layer immediately below. Each layer takes input from the layer below, provides output to the layer above, and provides direction to the layer below. Fast-reactive control systems in lower layers ensure a stable environment supporting cognitive function on higher layers. The cyber-physical layer represents the central nervous system of the individual, consisting of elements of the vehicle that cannot be changed such as sensors, power plant, and physical configuration. On the reactive layer, the system uses an artificial life paradigm, where each agent interacts with the environment using a set of simple rules regarding wants and needs. Information is communicated explicitly via message passing and implicitly via observation and recognition of behavior. In the deliberative layer, individual agents look outward to the group, deliberating on efficient resource management and cooperation with other agents. Strategies at all layers are developed using machine learning techniques such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) or NN applied to system training that takes place prior to the mission.

Brust, M. R., Zurad, M., Hentges, L., Gomes, L., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2017.  Target Tracking Optimization of UAV Swarms Based on Dual-Pheromone Clustering. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF). :1–8.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are autonomous aircraft that, when equipped with wireless communication interfaces, can share data among themselves when in communication range. Compared to single UAVs, using multiple UAVs as a collaborative swarm is considerably more effective for target tracking, reconnaissance, and surveillance missions because of their capacity to tackle complex problems synergistically. Success rates in target detection and tracking depend on map coverage performance, which in turn relies on network connectivity between UAVs to propagate surveillance results to avoid revisiting already observed areas. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing three objectives for a swarm of UAVs: (a) target detection and tracking, (b) map coverage, and (c) network connectivity. Our approach, Dual-Pheromone Clustering Hybrid Approach (DPCHA), incorporates a multi-hop clustering and a dual-pheromone ant-colony model to optimize these three objectives. Clustering keeps stable overlay networks, while attractive and repulsive pheromones mark areas of detected targets and visited areas. Additionally, DPCHA introduces a disappearing target model for dealing with temporarily invisible targets. Extensive simulations show that DPCHA produces significant improvements in the assessment of coverage fairness, cluster stability, and connection volatility. We compared our approach with a pure dual- pheromone approach and a no-base model, which removes the base station from the model. Results show an approximately 50% improvement in map coverage compared to the pure dual-pheromone approach.

MüUller, W., Kuwertz, A., Mühlenberg, D., Sander, J..  2017.  Semantic Information Fusion to Enhance Situational Awareness in Surveillance Scenarios. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI). :397–402.

In recent years, the usage of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for security-related purposes has increased, ranging from military applications to different areas of civil protection. The deployment of UAS can support security forces in achieving an enhanced situational awareness. However, in order to provide useful input to a situational picture, sensor data provided by UAS has to be integrated with information about the area and objects of interest from other sources. The aim of this study is to design a high-level data fusion component combining probabilistic information processing with logical and probabilistic reasoning, to support human operators in their situational awareness and improving their capabilities for making efficient and effective decisions. To this end, a fusion component based on the ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) Analytics Architecture (ISR-AA) [1] is presented, incorporating an object-oriented world model (OOWM) for information integration, an expressive knowledge model and a reasoning component for detection of critical events. Approaches for translating the information contained in the OOWM into either an ontology for logical reasoning or a Markov logic network for probabilistic reasoning are presented.

Akram, R. N., Markantonakis, K., Mayes, K., Habachi, O., Sauveron, D., Steyven, A., Chaumette, S..  2017.  Security, privacy and safety evaluation of dynamic and static fleets of drones. 2017 IEEE/AIAA 36th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–12.

Interconnected everyday objects, either via public or private networks, are gradually becoming reality in modern life - often referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT) or Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). One stand-out example are those systems based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Fleets of such vehicles (drones) are prophesied to assume multiple roles from mundane to high-sensitive applications, such as prompt pizza or shopping deliveries to the home, or to deployment on battlefields for battlefield and combat missions. Drones, which we refer to as UAVs in this paper, can operate either individually (solo missions) or as part of a fleet (group missions), with and without constant connection with a base station. The base station acts as the command centre to manage the drones' activities; however, an independent, localised and effective fleet control is necessary, potentially based on swarm intelligence, for several reasons: 1) an increase in the number of drone fleets; 2) fleet size might reach tens of UAVs; 3) making time-critical decisions by such fleets in the wild; 4) potential communication congestion and latency; and 5) in some cases, working in challenging terrains that hinders or mandates limited communication with a control centre, e.g. operations spanning long period of times or military usage of fleets in enemy territory. This self-aware, mission-focused and independent fleet of drones may utilise swarm intelligence for a), air-traffic or flight control management, b) obstacle avoidance, c) self-preservation (while maintaining the mission criteria), d) autonomous collaboration with other fleets in the wild, and e) assuring the security, privacy and safety of physical (drones itself) and virtual (data, software) assets. In this paper, we investigate the challenges faced by fleet of drones and propose a potential course of action on how to overcome them.

Whelihan, D., Vai, M., Evanich, N., Kwak, K. J., Li, J., Britton, M., Frantz, B., Hadcock, D., Lynch, M., Schafer, D. et al..  2017.  Designing agility and resilience into embedded systems. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :249–254.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) such as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) sense and actuate their environment in pursuit of a mission. The attack surface of these remotely located, sensing and communicating devices is both large, and exposed to adversarial actors, making mission assurance a challenging problem. While best-practice security policies should be followed, they are rarely enough to guarantee mission success as not all components in the system may be trusted and the properties of the environment (e.g., the RF environment) may be under the control of the attacker. CPS must thus be built with a high degree of resilience to mitigate threats that security cannot alleviate. In this paper, we describe the Agile and Resilient Embedded Systems (ARES) methodology and metric set. The ARES methodology pursues cyber security and resilience (CSR) as high level system properties to be developed in the context of the mission. An analytic process guides system developers in defining mission objectives, examining principal issues, applying CSR technologies, and understanding their interactions.

Shi, Z., Huang, M., Zhao, C., Huang, L., Du, X., Zhao, Y..  2017.  Detection of LSSUAV using hash fingerprint based SVDD. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–5.
With the rapid development of science and technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) gradually become the worldwide focus of science and technology. Not only the development and application but also the security of UAV is of great significance to modern society. Different from methods using radar, optical or acoustic sensors to detect UAV, this paper proposes a novel distance-based support vector data description (SVDD) algorithm using hash fingerprint as feature. This algorithm does not need large number of training samples and its computation complexity is low. Hash fingerprint is generated by extracting features of signal preamble waveforms. Distance-based SVDD algorithm is employed to efficiently detect and recognize low, slow, small unmanned aerial vehicles (LSSUAVs) using 2.4GHz frequency band.
Liu, H., Wang, W., He, Z., Tong, Q., Wang, X., Yu, W., Lv, M..  2015.  Blind image quality evaluation metrics design for UAV photographic application. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER). :293–297.

A number of blind Image Quality Evaluation Metrics (IQEMs) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photograph application are presented. Nowadays, the visible light camera is widely used for UAV photograph application because of its vivid imaging effect; however, the outdoor environment light will produce great negative influences on its imaging output unfortunately. In this paper, to conquer this problem above, we design and reuse a series of blind IQEMs to analyze the imaging quality of UAV application. The Human Visual System (HVS) based IQEMs, including the image brightness level, the image contrast level, the image noise level, the image edge blur level, the image texture intensity level, the image jitter level, and the image flicker level, are all considered in our application. Once these IQEMs are calculated, they can be utilized to provide a computational reference for the following image processing application, such as image understanding and recognition. Some preliminary experiments for image enhancement have proved the correctness and validity of our proposed technique.

Mitchell, R., Ing-Ray Chen.  2014.  Adaptive Intrusion Detection of Malicious Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Behavior Rule Specifications. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 44:593-604.

In this paper, we propose an adaptive specification-based intrusion detection system (IDS) for detecting malicious unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in an airborne system in which continuity of operation is of the utmost importance. An IDS audits UAVs in a distributed system to determine if the UAVs are functioning normally or are operating under malicious attacks. We investigate the impact of reckless, random, and opportunistic attacker behaviors (modes which many historical cyber attacks have used) on the effectiveness of our behavior rule-based UAV IDS (BRUIDS) which bases its audit on behavior rules to quickly assess the survivability of the UAV facing malicious attacks. Through a comparative analysis with the multiagent system/ant-colony clustering model, we demonstrate a high detection accuracy of BRUIDS for compliant performance. By adjusting the detection strength, BRUIDS can effectively trade higher false positives for lower false negatives to cope with more sophisticated random and opportunistic attackers to support ultrasafe and secure UAV applications.