Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is network-on-chip  [Clear All Filters]
2023-01-06
Haase, Julian, Jaster, Sebastian, Franz, Elke, Göhringer, Diana.  2022.  Secure Communication Protocol for Network-on-Chip with Authenticated Encryption and Recovery Mechanism. 2022 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Application-specific Systems, Architectures and Processors (ASAP). :156—160.
In recent times, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become state of the art for communication in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip due to the existing scalability issues in this area. However, these systems are exposed to security threats such as extraction of secret information. Therefore, the need for secure communication arises in such environments. In this work, we present a communication protocol based on authenticated encryption with recovery mechanisms to establish secure end-to-end communication between the NoC nodes. In addition, a selected key agreement approach required for secure communication is implemented. The security functionality is located in the network adapter of each processing element. If data is tampered with or deleted during transmission, recovery mechanisms ensure that the corrupted data is retransmitted by the network adapter without the need of interference from the processing element. We simulated and implemented the complete system with SystemC TLM using the NoC simulation platform PANACA. Our results show that we can keep a high rate of correctly transmitted information even when attackers infiltrated the NoC system.
2022-03-01
Kulkarni, Vedika J., Manju, R., Gupta, Ruchika, Jose, John, Nandi, Sukumar.  2021.  Packet Header Attack by Hardware Trojan in NoC Based TCMP and Its Impact Analysis. 2021 15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS). :21–28.
With the advancement of VLSI technology, Tiled Chip Multicore Processors (TCMP) with packet switched Network-on-Chip (NoC) have been emerged as the backbone of the modern data intensive parallel systems. Due to tight time-to-market constraints, manufacturers are exploring the possibility of integrating several third-party Intellectual Property (IP) cores in their TCMP designs. Presence of malicious Hardware Trojan (HT) in the NoC routers can adversely affect communication between tiles leading to degradation of overall system performance. In this paper, we model an HT mounted on the input buffers of NoC routers that can alter the destination address field of selected NoC packets. We study the impact of such HTs and analyse its first and second order impacts at the core level, cache level, and NoC level both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our experimental study shows that the proposed HT can bring application to a complete halt by stalling instruction issue and can significantly impact the miss penalty of L1 caches. The impact of re-transmission techniques in the context of HT impacted packets getting discarded is also studied. We also expose the unrealistic assumptions and unacceptable latency overheads of existing mitigation techniques for packet header attacks and emphasise the need for alternative cost effective HT management techniques for the same.
Chaves, Cesar G., Sepulveda, Johanna, Hollstein, Thomas.  2021.  Lightweight Monitoring Scheme for Flooding DoS Attack Detection in Multi-Tenant MPSoCs. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
The increasing use of Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) within scalable multi-tenant systems, such as fog/cloud computing, faces the challenge of potential attacks originated by the execution of malicious tasks. Flooding Denial- of-Service (FDoS) attacks are one of the most common and powerful threats for Network-on-Chip (NoC)-based MPSoCs. Since, by overwhelming the NoC, the system is unable to forward legitimate traffic. However, the effectiveness of FDoS attacks depend on the NoC configuration. Moreover, designing a secure MPSoC capable of detecting such attacks while avoiding excessive power/energy and area costs is challenging. To this end, we present two contributions. First, we demonstrate two types of FDoS attacks: based on the packet injection rate (PIR-based FDoS) and based on the packet's payload length (PPL-based FDoS). We show that fair round-robin NoCs are intrinsically protected against PIR-based FDoS. Instead, PPL-based FDoS attacks represent a real threat to MPSoCs. Second, we propose a novel lightweight monitoring method for detecting communication disruptions. Simulation and synthesis results show the feasibility and efficiency of the presented approach.
Weerasena, Hansika, Charles, Subodha, Mishra, Prabhat.  2021.  Lightweight Encryption Using Chaffing and Winnowing with All-or-Nothing Transform for Network-on-Chip Architectures. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :170–180.
Network-on-Chip (NoC) fulfills the communication requirements of modern System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Due to the resource-constrained nature of NoC-based SoCs, it is a major challenge to secure on-chip communication against eavesdropping attacks using traditional encryption methods. In this paper, we propose a lightweight encryption technique using chaffing and winnowing (C&W) with all-or-nothing transform (AONT) that benefits from the unique NoC traffic characteristics. Our experimental results demonstrate that our proposed encryption technique provides the required security with significantly less area and energy overhead compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Sarihi, Amin, Patooghy, Ahmad, Hasanzadeh, Mahdi, Abdelrehim, Mostafa, Badawy, Abdel-Hameed A..  2021.  Securing Network-on-Chips via Novel Anonymous Routing. 2021 15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS). :29–34.
Network-on-Chip (NoC) is widely used as an efficient communication architecture in multi-core and many-core System-on-Chips (SoCs). However, the shared communication resources in NoCs, e.g., channels, buffers, and routers might be used to conduct attacks compromising the security of NoC-based SoCs. Almost all of the proposed encryption-based protection methods in the literature need to leave some parts of the packet unencrypted to allow the routers to process/forward packets accordingly. This uncovers the source/destination information of the packet to malicious routers, which can be used in various attacks. In this paper, we propose the idea of secure anonymous routing with minimal hardware overhead to hide the source/destination information while exchanging secure information over the network. The proposed method uses a novel source-routing algorithm that works with encrypted destination addresses and prevents malicious routers from discovering the source/destination of secure packets. To support our proposal, we have designed and implemented a new NoC architecture that works with encrypted addresses. The conducted hardware evaluations show that the proposed security solution combats the security threats at an affordable cost of 1% area and 10% power overheads chip-wide.
2021-09-30
Zhou, Jun, Li, Mengquan, Guo, Pengxing, Liu, Weichen.  2020.  Mitigation of Tampering Attacks for MR-Based Thermal Sensing in Optical NoCs. 2020 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :554–559.
As an emerging role in on-chip communication, the optical networks-on-chip (ONoCs) can provide ultra-high bandwidth, low latency and low power dissipation for the data transfer. However, the thermo-optic effects of the photonic devices have a great impact on the operating performance and reliability of ONoCs, where the thermal-aware control is used to alleviate it. Furthermore, the temperature-sensitive ONoCs are prone to be attacked by the hardware Trojans (HTs) covertly embedded in the integrated circuits (ICs) from the malicious third-party components, leading to performance degradation, denial of service (DoS), or even permanent damages. In this paper, we focus on the tampering attacks on optical sampling during the thermal sensing process in ONoCs. Corresponding approaches are proposed to mitigate the negative impacts from HT attacks. Evaluation results indicate that our approach can significantly enhance the hardware security of thermal sensing for ONoC with trivial overheads of up to 3.06% and 2.6% in average latency and energy consumption, respectively.
Mestiri, Hassen, Salah, Yahia, Baroudi, Achref Addali.  2020.  A Secure Network Interface for on-Chip Systems. 2020 20th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA). :90–94.
This paper presents a self-securing decentralized on-chip network interface (NI) architecture to Multicore System-on-Chip (McSoC) platforms. To protect intra-chip communication within McSoC, security framework proposal resides in initiator and target NIs. A comparison between block cipher and lightweight cryptographic algorithms is then given, so we can figure out the most suitable cipher for network-on-chip (NoC) architectures. AES and LED security algorithms was a subject of this comparison. The designs are developed in Xilinx ISE 14.7 tool using VHDL language.
Charles, Subodha, Mishra, Prabhat.  2020.  Securing Network-on-Chip Using Incremental Cryptography. 2020 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :168–175.
Network-on-chip (NoC) has become the standard communication fabric for on-chip components in modern System-on-chip (SoC) designs. Since NoC has visibility to all communications in the SoC, it has been one of the primary targets for security attacks. While packet encryption can provide secure communication, it can introduce unacceptable energy and performance overhead due to the resource-constrained nature of SoC designs. In this paper, we propose a lightweight encryption scheme that is implemented on the network interface. Our approach improves the performance of encryption without compromising security using incremental cryptography, which exploits the unique NoC traffic characteristics. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach significantly (up to 57%, 30% on average) reduces the encryption time compared to traditional approaches with negligible (less than 2%) impact on area overhead.
Ellinidou, Soultana, Sharma, Gaurav, Markowitch, Olivier, Gogniat, Guy, Dricot, Jean-Michel.  2020.  A novel Network-on-Chip security algorithm for tolerating Byzantine faults. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT). :1–6.
Since the number of processors and cores on a single chip is increasing, the interconnection among them becomes significant. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has direct access to all resources and information within a System-on-Chip (SoC), rendering it appealing to attackers. Malicious attacks targeting NoC are a major cause of performance depletion and they can cause arbitrary behavior of links or routers, that is, Byzantine faults. Byzantine faults have been thoroughly investigated in the context of Distributed systems however not in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. Hence, in this paper we propose a novel fault model followed by the design and implementation of lightweight algorithms, based on Software Defined Network-on-Chip (SDNoC) architecture. The proposed algorithms can be used to build highly available NoCs and can tolerate Byzantine faults. Additionally, a set of different scenarios has been simulated and the results demonstrate that by using the proposed algorithms the packet loss decreases between 65% and 76% under Transpose traffic, 67% and 77% under BitReverse and 55% and 66% under Uniform traffic.
2020-05-15
Wang, Jian, Guo, Shize, Chen, Zhe, Zhang, Tao.  2019.  A Benchmark Suite of Hardware Trojans for On-Chip Networks. IEEE Access. 7:102002—102009.
As recently studied, network-on-chip (NoC) suffers growing threats from hardware trojans (HTs), leading to performance degradation or information leakage when it provides communication service in many/multi-core systems. Therefore, defense techniques against NoC HTs experience rapid development in recent years. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few standard benchmarks developed for the defense techniques evaluation. To address this issue, in this paper, we design a suite of benchmarks which involves multiple NoCs with different HTs, so that researchers can compare various HT defense methods fairly by making use of them. We first briefly introduce the features of target NoC and its infected modules in our benchmarks, and then, detail the design of our NoC HTs in a one-by-one manner. Finally, we evaluate our benchmarks through extensive simulations and report the circuit cost of NoC HTs in terms of area and power consumption, as well as their effects on NoC performance. Besides, comprehensive experiments, including functional testing and side channel analysis are performed to assess the stealthiness of our HTs.
Ascia, Giuseppe, Catania, Vincenzo, Monteleone, Salvatore, Palesi, Maurizio, Patti, Davide, Jose, John.  2019.  Networks-on-Chip based Deep Neural Networks Accelerators for IoT Edge Devices. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :227—234.
The need for performing deep neural network inferences on resource-constrained embedded devices (e.g., Internet of Things nodes) requires specialized architectures to achieve the best trade-off among performance, energy, and cost. One of the most promising architectures in this context is based on massive parallel and specialized cores interconnected by means of a Network-on-Chip (NoC). In this paper, we extensively evaluate NoC-based deep neural network accelerators by exploring the design space spanned by several architectural parameters including, network size, routing algorithm, local memory size, link width, and number of memory interfaces. We show how latency is mainly dominated by the on-chip communication whereas energy consumption is mainly accounted by memory (both on-chip and off-chip). The outcome of the analysis, thus, pushes toward a research line devoted to the optimization of the on-chip communication fabric and the memory subsystem for performance improvement and energy efficiency, respectively.
Chaves, Cesar G., Azad, Siavoosh Payandeh, Sepulveda, Johanna, Hollstein, Thomas.  2019.  Detecting and Mitigating Low-and-Slow DoS Attacks in NoC-based MPSoCs. 2019 14th International Symposium on Reconfigurable Communication-centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC). :82—89.
As Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) permeate the Internet by powering IoT devices, they are exposed to new threats. One major threat is Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, which make communication services slow or even unavailable. While mainly studied on desktop and server systems, some DoS attacks on mobile devices and Network-on-Chip (NoC) platforms have also been considered. In the context of NoC-based MPSoC architectures, previous works have explored flooding DoS attacks and their countermeasures, however, these protection techniques are ineffective to mitigate new DoS attacks. Recently, a shift of the network attack paradigm from flooding DoS to Low-and-Slow DoS has been observed. To this end, we present two contributions. First, we demonstrate, for the first time, the impact of Low-and-Slow DoS attacks in NoC environments. Second, we propose a lightweight online monitor able to detect and mitigate these attacks. Results show that our countermeasure is feasible and that it effectively mitigates this new attack. Moreover, since the monitors are placed at the entry points of the network, both, single- and multi-source attacks can be neutralized.
Fan, Renshi, Du, Gaoming, Xu, Pengfei, Li, Zhenmin, Song, Yukun, Zhang, Duoli.  2019.  An Adaptive Routing Scheme Based on Q-learning and Real-time Traffic Monitoring for Network-on-Chip. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :244—248.
In the Network on Chip (NoC), performance optimization has always been a research focus. Compared with the static routing scheme, dynamical routing schemes can better reduce the data of packet transmission latency under network congestion. In this paper, we propose a dynamical Q-learning routing approach with real-time monitoring of NoC. Firstly, we design a real-time monitoring scheme and the corresponding circuits to record the status of traffic congestion for NoC. Secondly, we propose a novel method of Q-learning. This method finds an optimal path based on the lowest traffic congestion. Finally, we dynamically redistribute network tasks to increase the packet transmission speed and balance the traffic load. Compared with the C-XY routing and DyXY routing, our method achieved improvement in terms of 25.6%-49.5% and 22.9%-43.8%.
Ravikumar, C.P., Swamy, S. Kendaganna, Uma, B.V..  2019.  A hierarchical approach to self-test, fault-tolerance and routing security in a Network-on-Chip. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference India (ITC India). :1—6.
Since the performance of bus interconnects does not scale with the number of processors connected to the bus, chip multiprocessors make use of on-chip networks that implement packet switching and virtual channel flow control to efficiently transport data. In this paper, we consider the test and fault-tolerance aspects of such a network-on-chip (NoC). Past work in this area has addressed the communication efficiency and deadlock-free properties in NoC, but when routing externally received data, aspects of security must be addressed. A malicious denial-of-service attack or a power virus can be launched by a malicious external agent. We propose a two-tier solution to this problem, where a local self-test manager in each processing element runs test algorithms to detect faults in local processing element and its associated physical and virtual channels. At the global level, the health of the NoC is tested using a sorting-based algorithm proposed in this paper. Similarly, we propose to handle fault-tolerance and security concerns in routing at two levels. At the local level, each node is capable of fault-tolerant routing by deflecting packets to an alternate path; when doing so, since a chance of deadlock may be created, the local router must be capable of guestimating a deadlock situation, switch to packet-switching instead of flit-switching and attempt to reroute the packet. At the global level, a routing agent plays the role of gathering fault data and provide the fault-information to nodes that seek this information periodically. Similarly, the agent is capable of detecting malformed packets coming from an external source and prevent injecting such packets into the network, thereby conserving the network bandwidth. The agent also attempts to guess attempts at denial-of-service attacks and power viruses and will reject packets. Use of a two-tier approach helps in keeping the IP modular and reduces their complexity, thereby making them easier to verify.
Krishnamoorthy, Raja, Kalaivaani, P.T., Jackson, Beulah.  2019.  Test methodology for detecting short-channel faults in network on- chip networks using IOT. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1406—1417.
The NOC Network on chip provides better performance and scalability communication structures point-to-point signal node, shared through bus architecture. Information analysis of method using the IOT termination, as the energy consumed in this regard reduces and reduces the network load but it also displays safety concerns because the valuation data is stored or transmitted to the network in various stages of the node. Using encryption to protect data on the area of network-on-chip Analysis Machine is a way to solve data security issues. We propose a Network on chip based on a combined multicore cluster with special packages for computing-intensive data processing and encryption functionality and support for software, in a tight power envelope for analyzing and coordinating integrated encryption. Programming for regular computing tasks is the challenge of efficient and secure data analysis for IOT end-end applications while providing full-functionality with high efficiency and low power to satisfy the needs of multiple processing applications. Applications provide a substantial parallel, so they can also use NOC's ability. Applications must compose in. This system controls the movement of the packets through the network. As network on chip (NOC) systems become more prevalent in the processing unit. Routers and interconnection networks are the main components of NOC. This system controls the movement of packets over the network. Chip (NOC) networks are very backward for the network processing unit. Guides and Link Networks are critical elements of the NOC. Therefore, these areas require less access and power consumption, so we can better understand environmental and energy transactions. In this manner, a low-area and efficient NOC framework were proposed by removing virtual channels.
J.Y.V., Manoj Kumar, Swain, Ayas Kanta, Kumar, Sudeendra, Sahoo, Sauvagya Ranjan, Mahapatra, Kamalakanta.  2018.  Run Time Mitigation of Performance Degradation Hardware Trojan Attacks in Network on Chip. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :738—743.
Globalization of semiconductor design and manufacturing has led to several hardware security issues. The problem of Hardware Trojans (HT) is one such security issue discussed widely in industry and academia. Adversary design engineer can insert the HT to leak confidential data, cause a denial of service attack or any other intention specific to the design. HT in cryptographic modules and processors are widely discussed. HT in Multi-Processor System on Chips (MPSoC) are also catastrophic, as most of the military applications use MPSoCs. Network on Chips (NoC) are standard communication infrastructure in modern day MPSoC. In this paper, we present a novel hardware Trojan which is capable of inducing performance degradation and denial of service attacks in a NoC. The presence of the Hardware Trojan in a NoC can compromise the crucial details of packets communicated through NoC. The proposed Trojan is triggered by a particular complex bit pattern from input messages and tries to mislead the packets away from the destined addresses. A mitigation method based on bit shuffling mechanism inside the router with a key directly extracted from input message is proposed to limit the adverse effects of the Trojan. The performance of a 4×4 NoC is evaluated under uniform traffic with the proposed Trojan and mitigation method. Simulation results show that the proposed mitigation scheme is useful in limiting the malicious effect of hardware Trojan.
Kornaros, Georgios, Tomoutzoglou, Othon, Coppola, Marcello.  2018.  Hardware-Assisted Security in Electronic Control Units: Secure Automotive Communications by Utilizing One-Time-Programmable Network on Chip and Firewalls. IEEE Micro. 38:63—74.
With emerging smart automotive technologies, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, and software-dominated enhancements for enjoyable driving and advanced driver assistance systems, the complexity of providing guarantees in terms of security, trust, and privacy in a modern cyber-enabled automotive system is significantly elevated. New threat models emerge that require efficient system-level countermeasures. This article introduces synergies between on- and off-chip networking techniques to ensure secure execution environments for electronic control units. The proposed mechanisms consist of hardware firewalling and on-chip network physical isolation, whose mechanisms are combined with system-wide cryptographic techniques in automotive controller area network (CAN)-bus communications to provide authentication and confidentiality.
Reinbrecht, Cezar, Forlin, Bruno, Zankl, Andreas, Sepulveda, Johanna.  2018.  Earthquake — A NoC-based optimized differential cache-collision attack for MPSoCs. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :648—653.
Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chips (MPSoCs) are a platform for a wide variety of applications and use-cases. The high on-chip connectivity, the programming flexibility, and the reuse of IPs, however, also introduce security concerns. Problems arise when applications with different trust and protection levels share resources of the MPSoC, such as processing units, cache memories and the Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication structure. If a program gets compromised, an adversary can observe the use of these resources and infer (potentially secret) information from other applications. In this work, we explore the cache-based attack by Bogdanov et al., which infers the cache activity of a target program through timing measurements and exploits collisions that occur when the same cache location is accessed for different program inputs. We implement this differential cache-collision attack on the MPSoC Glass and introduce an optimized variant of it, the Earthquake Attack, which leverages the NoC-based communication to increase attack efficiency. Our results show that Earthquake performs well under different cache line and MPSoC configurations, illustrating that cache-collision attacks are considerable threats on MPSoCs.
Lian, Mengyun, Wang, Jian, Lu, Jinzhi.  2018.  A New Hardware Logic Circuit for Evaluating Multi-Processor Chip Security. 2018 Eighth International Conference on Instrumentation Measurement, Computer, Communication and Control (IMCCC). :1571—1574.
NoC (Network-on-Chip) is widely considered and researched by academic communities as a new inter-core interconnection method that replaces the bus. Nowadays, the complexity of on-chip systems is increasing, requiring better communication performance and scalability. Therefore, the optimization of communication performance has become one of the research hotspots. While the NoC is rapidly developing, it is threatened by hardware Trojans inserted during the design or manufacturing processes. This leads to that the attackers can exploit NoC's vulnerability to attack the on-chip systems. To solve the problem, we design and implement a replay-type hardware Trojan inserted into the NoC, aiming to provide a benchmark test set to promote the defense strategies for NoC hardware security. The experiment proves that the power consumption of the designed Trojan accounts for less than one thousandth of the entire NoC power consumption and area. Besides, simulation experiments reveal that this replaytype hardware Trojan can reduce the network throughput.
Biswas, Arnab Kumar.  2018.  Efficient Timing Channel Protection for Hybrid (Packet/Circuit-Switched) Network-on-Chip. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 29:1044—1057.
Continuous development of Network-on-Chip (NoC) enables different types of applications to run efficiently in a Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MP-SoC). Guaranteed service (GS) can be provided by circuit switching NoC and Best effort service (BES) can be provided by packet switching NoC. A hybrid NoC containing both packet and circuit switching, can provide both types of services to these different applications. But these different applications can be of different security levels and one application can interfere another application's timing characteristics during network transmission. Using this interference, a malicious application can extract secret information from higher security level flows (timing side channel) or two applications can communicate covertly violating the system's security policy (covert timing channel). We propose different mechanisms to protect hybrid routers from timing channel attacks. For design space exploration, we propose three timing channel secure hybrid routers viz. Separate Hybrid (SH), Combined with Separate interface Hybrid (CSH), and Combined Hybrid (CH) routers. Simulation results show that all three routers are secure from timing channel when compared to a conventional hybrid router. Synthesis results show that the area increments compared to a conventional hybrid router are only 7.63, 11.8, and 19.69 percent for SH, CSH, and CH routers respectively. Thus simulation and synthesis results prove the effectiveness of our proposed mechanisms with acceptable area overheads.
Wang, Jihe, Zhang, Meng, Qiu, Meikang.  2018.  A Diffusional Schedule for Traffic Reducing on Network-on-Chip. 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :206—210.
pubcrawl, Network on Chip Security, Scalability, resiliency, resilience, metrics, Tasks on NoC (Network-on-Chip) are less efficient because of long-distance data synchronization. An inefficient task schedule strategy can lead to a large number of remote data accessing that ruins the speedup of parallel execution of multiple tasks. Thus, we propose an energy efficient task schedule to reduce task traffic with a diffusional pattern. The task mapping algorithm can optimize traffic distribution by limit tasks into a small area to reduce NoC activities. Comparing to application-layer optimization, our task mapping can obtain 20% energy saving and 15% latency reduction on average.
Sepulveda, Johanna, Aboul-Hassan, Damian, Sigl, Georg, Becker, Bernd, Sauer, Matthias.  2018.  Towards the formal verification of security properties of a Network-on-Chip router. 2018 IEEE 23rd European Test Symposium (ETS). :1—6.
pubcrawl, Network on Chip Security, Scalability, resiliency, resilience, metrics, Vulnerabilities and design flaws in Network-on-Chip (NoC) routers can be exploited in order to spy, modify and constraint the sensitive communication inside the Multi-Processors Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs). Although previous works address the NoC threat, finding secure and efficient solutions to verify the security is still a challenge. In this work, we propose for the first time a method to formally verify the correctness and the security properties of a NoC router in order to provide the proper communication functionality and to avoid NoC attacks. We present a generalized verification flow that proves a wide set of implementation-independent security-related properties to hold. We employ unbounded model checking techniques to account for the highly-sequential behaviour of the NoC systems. The evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by presenting verification results of six different NoC routing architectures demonstrating the vulnerabilities of each design.
Lebiednik, Brian, Abadal, Sergi, Kwon, Hyoukjun, Krishna, Tushar.  2018.  Architecting a Secure Wireless Network-on-Chip. 2018 Twelfth IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS). :1—8.

With increasing integration in SoCs, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) connecting cores and accelerators is of paramount importance to provide low-latency and high-throughput communication. Due to limits to scaling of electrical wires in terms of energy and delay, especially for long multi-mm distances on-chip, alternate technologies such as Wireless Network-on-Chip (WNoC) have shown promise. WNoCs can provide low-latency one-hop broadcasts across the entire chip and can augment point-to-point multi-hop signaling over traditional wired NoCs. Thus, there has been a recent surge in research demonstrating the performance and energy benefits of WNoCs. However, little to no work has studied the additional security and fault tolerance challenges that are unique to WNoCs. In this work, we study potential threats related to denial-of-service, spoofing, and eavesdropping attacks in WNoCs, due to malicious hardware trojans or faulty wireless components. We introduce Prometheus, a dropin solution inside the network interface that provides protection from all three attacks, while adhering to the strict area, power and latency constraints of on-chip systems.

Daoud, Luka.  2018.  Secure Network-on-Chip Architectures for MPSoC: Overview and Challenges. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :542—543.
Network-on-Chip (NOC) is the heart of data communication between processing cores in Multiprocessor-based Systems on Chip (MPSoC). Packets transferred via the NoC are exposed to snooping, which makes NoC-based systems vulnerable to security attacks. Additionally, Hardware Trojans (HTs) can be deployed in some of the NoC nodes to apply security threats of extracting sensitive information or degrading the system performance. In this paper, an overview of some security attacks in NoC-based systems and the countermeasure techniques giving prominence on malicious nodes are discussed. Work in progress for secure routing algorithms is also presented.
2020-05-11
Vashist, Abhishek, Keats, Andrew, Pudukotai Dinakarrao, Sai Manoj, Ganguly, Amlan.  2019.  Securing a Wireless Network-on-Chip Against Jamming Based Denial-of-Service Attacks. 2019 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :320–325.
Wireless Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) have emerged as a panacea to the non-scalable multi-hop data transmission paths in traditional wired NoC architectures. Using low-power transceivers in NoC switches, novel Wireless NoC (WiNoC) architectures have been shown to achieve higher energy efficiency with improved peak bandwidth and reduced on-chip data transfer latency. However, using wireless interconnects for data transfer within a chip makes the on-chip communications vulnerable to various security threats from either external attackers or internal hardware Trojans (HTs). In this work, we propose a mechanism to make the wireless communication in a WiNoC secure against persistent jamming based Denial-of-Service attacks from both external and internal attackers. Persistent jamming attacks on the on-chip wireless medium will cause interference in data transfer over the duration of the attack resulting in errors in contiguous bits, known as burst errors. Therefore, we use a burst error correction code to monitor the rate of burst errors received over the wireless medium and deploy a Machine Learning (ML) classifier to detect the persistent jamming attack and distinguish it from random burst errors. In the event of jamming attack, alternate routing strategies are proposed to avoid the DoS attack over the wireless medium, so that a secure data transfer can be sustained even in the presence of jamming. We evaluate the proposed technique on a secure WiNoC in the presence of DoS attacks. It has been observed that with the proposed defense mechanisms, WiNoC can outperform a wired NoC even in presence of attacks in terms of performance and security. On an average, 99.87% attack detection was achieved with the chosen ML Classifiers. A bandwidth degradation of \textbackslashtextless;3% is experienced in the event of internal attack, while the wireless interconnects are disabled in the presence of an external attacker.