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Ameer, S., Benson, J., Sandhu, R..  2020.  The EGRBAC Model for Smart Home IoT. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :457–462.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling smart houses, where multiple users with complex social relationships interact with smart devices. This requires sophisticated access control specification and enforcement models, that are currently lacking. In this paper, we introduce the extended generalized role based access control (EGRBAC) model for smart home IoT. We provide a formal definition for EGRBAC and illustrate its features with a use case. A proof-of-concept demonstration utilizing AWS-IoT Greengrass is discussed in the appendix. EGRBAC is a first step in developing a comprehensive family of access control models for smart home IoT.
Houzé, É, Diaconescu, A., Dessalles, J.-L., Mengay, D., Schumann, M..  2020.  A Decentralized Approach to Explanatory Artificial Intelligence for Autonomic Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing and Self-Organizing Systems Companion (ACSOS-C). :115–120.
While Explanatory AI (XAI) is attracting increasing interest from academic research, most AI-based solutions still rely on black box methods. This is unsuitable for certain domains, such as smart homes, where transparency is key to gaining user trust and solution adoption. Moreover, smart homes are challenging environments for XAI, as they are decentralized systems that undergo runtime changes. We aim to develop an XAI solution for addressing problems that an autonomic management system either could not resolve or resolved in a surprising manner. This implies situations where the current state of affairs is not what the user expected, hence requiring an explanation. The objective is to solve the apparent conflict between expectation and observation through understandable logical steps, thus generating an argumentative dialogue. While focusing on the smart home domain, our approach is intended to be generic and transferable to other cyber-physical systems offering similar challenges. This position paper focuses on proposing a decentralized algorithm, called D-CAN, and its corresponding generic decentralized architecture. This approach is particularly suited for SISSY systems, as it enables XAI functions to be extended and updated when devices join and leave the managed system dynamically. We illustrate our proposal via several representative case studies from the smart home domain.
Rehan, S., Singh, R..  2020.  Industrial and Home Automation, Control, Safety and Security System using Bolt IoT Platform. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :787—793.
This paper describes a system that comprises of control, safety and security subsystem for industries and homes. The entire system is based on the Bolt IoT platform. Using this system, the user can control the devices such as LEDs, speed of the fan or DC motor, monitor the temperature of the premises with an alert sub-system for critical temperatures through SMS and call, monitor the presence of anyone inside the premises with an alert sub-system about any intrusion through SMS and call. If the system is used specifically in any industry then instead of monitoring the temperature any other physical quantity, which is critical for that industry, can be monitored using suitable sensors. In addition, the cloud connectivity is provided to the system using the Bolt IoT module and temperature data is sent to the cloud where using machine-learning algorithm the future temperature is predicted to avoid any accidents in the future.
Rizki, R. P., Hamidi, E. A. Z., Kamelia, L., Sururie, R. W..  2020.  Image Processing Technique for Smart Home Security Based On the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Methods. 2020 6th International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT). :1–4.
Smart home is one application of the pervasive computing branch of science. Three categories of smart homes, namely comfort, healthcare, and security. The security system is a part of smart home technology that is very important because the intensity of crime is increasing, especially in residential areas. The system will detect the face by the webcam camera if the user enters the correct password. Face recognition will be processed by the Raspberry pi 3 microcontroller with the Principal Component Analysis method using OpenCV and Python software which has outputs, namely actuators in the form of a solenoid lock door and buzzer. The test results show that the webcam can perform face detection when the password input is successful, then the buzzer actuator can turn on when the database does not match the data taken by the webcam or the test data and the solenoid door lock actuator can run if the database matches the test data taken by the sensor. webcam. The mean response time of face detection is 1.35 seconds.
Zondo, S., Ogudo, K., Umenne, P..  2020.  Design of a Smart Home System Using Bluetooth Protocol. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1—5.
Home automation is an intelligent, functional as a unit system that facilitates home processes without unnecessarily complicating the user's life. Devices can be connected, which in turn connect and talk through a centralized control unit, which are accessible via mobile phones. These devices include lights, appliances, security systems, alarms and many other sensors and devices. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Bluetooth based smart home automation system which uses a Peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller (16F1937) as the main processer and the appliances are connected to the peripheral ports of the microcontroller via relays. The circuit in the project was designed in Diptrace software. The PCB layout design was completed. The fully functional smart home prototype was built and demonstrated to functional.
Kumar, R., Sarupria, G., Panwala, V., Shah, S., Shah, N..  2020.  Power Efficient Smart Home with Voice Assistant. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.

The popularity and demand of home automation has increased exponentially in recent years because of the ease it provides. Recently, development has been done in this domain and few systems have been proposed that either use voice assistants or application for controlling the electrical appliances. However; less emphasis is laid on power efficiency and this system cannot be integrated with the existing appliances and hence, the entire system needs to be upgraded adding to a lot of additional cost in purchasing new appliances. In this research, the objective is to design such a system that emphasises on power efficiency as well as can be integrated with the already existing appliances. NodeMCU, along with Raspberry Pi, Firebase realtime database, is used to create a system that accomplishes such endeavours and can control relays, which can control these appliances without the need of replacing them. The experiments in this paper demonstrate triggering of electrical appliances using voice assistant, fire alarm on the basis of flame sensor and temperature sensor. Moreover; use of android application was presented for operating electrical appliances from a remote location. Lastly, the system can be modified by adding security cameras, smart blinds, robot vacuums etc.

Ramapatruni, S., Narayanan, S. N., Mittal, S., Joshi, A., Joshi, K..  2019.  Anomaly Detection Models for Smart Home Security. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :19–24.
Recent years have seen significant growth in the adoption of smart homes devices. These devices provide convenience, security, and energy efficiency to users. For example, smart security cameras can detect unauthorized movements, and smoke sensors can detect potential fire accidents. However, many recent examples have shown that they open up a new cyber threat surface. There have been several recent examples of smart devices being hacked for privacy violations and also misused so as to perform DDoS attacks. In this paper, we explore the application of big data and machine learning to identify anomalous activities that can occur in a smart home environment. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is trained on network level sensor data, created from a test bed with multiple sensors and smart devices. The generated HMM model is shown to achieve an accuracy of 97% in identifying potential anomalies that indicate attacks. We present our approach to build this model and compare with other techniques available in the literature.
Ishak, Muhammad Yusry Bin, Ahmad, Samsiah Binti, Zulkifli, Zalikha.  2019.  Iot Based Bluetooth Smart Radar Door System Via Mobile Apps. 2019 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Sciences (AiDAS). :142—145.
{In the last few decades, Internet of things (IOT) is one of the key elements in industrial revolution 4.0 that used mart phones as one of the best technological advances' intelligent device. It allows us to have power over devices without people intervention, either remote or voice control. Therefore, the “Smart Radar Door “system uses a microcontroller and mobile Bluetooth module as an automation of smart door lock system. It is describing the improvement of a security system integrated with an Android mobile phone that uses Bluetooth as a wireless connection protocol and processing software as a tool in order to detect any object near to the door. The mob ile device is required a password as authentication method by using microcontroller to control lock and unlock door remotely. The Bluetooth protocol was chosen as a method of communication between microcontroller and mobile devices which integrated with many Android devices in secured protocol}.
Mace, J.C., Morisset, C., Pierce, K., Gamble, C., Maple, C., Fitzgerald, J..  2018.  A multi-modelling based approach to assessing the security of smart buildings. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—10.

Smart buildings are controlled by multiple cyber-physical systems that provide critical services such as heating, ventilation, lighting and access control. These building systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable to both cyber and physical attacks. We introduce a multi-model methodology for assessing the security of these systems, which utilises INTO-CPS, a suite of modelling, simulation, and analysis tools for designing cyber-physical systems. Using a fan coil unit case study we show how its security can be systematically assessed when subjected to Man-in-the-Middle attacks on the data connections between system components. We suggest our methodology would enable building managers and security engineers to design attack countermeasures and refine their effectiveness.

da Silva Andrade, Richardson B., Souto Rosa, Nelson.  2019.  MidSecThings: Assurance Solution for Security Smart Homes in IoT. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :171–178.
The interest over building security-based solutions to reduce the vulnerability exploits and mitigate the risks associated with smart homes in IoT is growing. However, our investigation identified to architect and implement distributed security mechanisms is still a challenge because is necessary to handle security and privacy in IoT middleware with a strong focus. Our investigation, it was identified the significant proportion of the systems that did not address security and did not describe the security approach in any meaningful detail. The idea proposed in this work is to provide middleware aim to implement security mechanisms in smart home and contribute as how guide to beginner developers' IoT middleware. The advantages of using MidSecThings are to avoid leakage data, unavailable service, unidentification action and not authorized access over IoT devices in smart home.
Augusto-Gonzalez, J., Collen, A., Evangelatos, S., Anagnostopoulos, M., Spathoulas, G., Giannoutakis, K. M., Votis, K., Tzovaras, D., Genge, B., Gelenbe, E. et al..  2019.  From Internet of Threats to Internet of Things: A Cyber Security Architecture for Smart Homes. 2019 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1–6.
The H2020 European research project GHOST - Safe-Guarding Home IoT Environments with Personalised Real-time Risk Control - aims to deploy a highly effective security framework for IoT smart home residents through a novel reference architecture for user-centric cyber security in smart homes providing an unobtrusive and user-comprehensible solution. The aforementioned security framework leads to a transparent cyber security environment by increasing the effectiveness of the existing cyber security services and enhancing system's self-defence through disruptive software-enabled network security solutions. In this paper, GHOST security framework for IoT-based smart homes is presented. It is aiming to address the security challenges posed by several types of attacks, such as network, device and software. The effective design of the overall multi-layered architecture is analysed, with particular emphasis given to the integration aspects through dynamic and re-configurable solutions and the features provided by each one of the architectural layers. Additionally, real-life trials and the associated use cases are described showcasing the competences and potential of the proposed framework.
Asare, Bismark Tei, Quist–Aphetsi, Kester, Nana, Laurent.  2019.  Nodal Authentication of IoT Data Using Blockchain. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Computational Modelling and Applications (ICCMA). :125—1254.
Pervasive systems over the years continuous to grow exponentially. Engagement of IoT in fields such as Agriculture, Home automation, industrial applications etc is on the rise. Self organizing networks within the IoT field give rise to engagement of various nodes for data communication. The rise in Cyber-attacks within IoT pose a lot of threat to these connected nodes and hence there is a need for data passing through nodes to be verified during communication. In this paper we proposed a nodal authentication approach in IoT using blockchain in securing the integrity of data passing through the nodes in IoT. In our work, we engaged the GOST algorithm in our approach. At the end, we achieved a nodal authentication and verification of the transmitted data. This makes it very difficult for an attacker to fake a node in the communication chain of the connected nodes. Data integrity was achieved in the nodes during the communication.
Sandor, Hunor, Genge, Bela, Haller, Piroska, Bica, Andrei.  2019.  A Security-Enhanced Interoperability Middleware for the Internet of Things. 2019 7th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.
This paper documents an Internet of Things (IoT) middleware specially tailored to address the security, and operational requirements expected from an effective IoT platform. In essence, the middleware exposes a diverse palette of features, including authentication, authorization, auditing, confidentiality and integrity of data. Besides these aspects, the middleware encapsulates an IoT object abstraction layer that builds a generic object model that is independent from the device type (i.e., hardware, software, vendor). Furthermore, it builds on standards and specifications to accomplish a highly resilient and scalable solution. The approach is tested on several hardware platforms. A use case scenario is presented to demonstrate its main features. The middleware represents a key component in the context of the “GHOST - Safe-Guarding Home IoT Environments with Personalised Real-time Risk Control” project.
Hou, Size, Huang, Xin.  2019.  Use of Machine Learning in Detecting Network Security of Edge Computing System. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Big Data Analytics (ICBDA). :252–256.

This study has built a simulation of a smart home system by the Alibaba ECS. The architecture of hardware was based on edge computing technology. The whole method would design a clear classifier to find the boundary between regular and mutation codes. It could be applied in the detection of the mutation code of network. The project has used the dataset vector to divide them into positive and negative type, and the final result has shown the RBF-function SVM method perform best in this mission. This research has got a good network security detection in the IoT systems and increased the applications of machine learning.

Giaretta, Alberto, Dragoni, Nicola, Massacci, Fabio.  2019.  Protecting the Internet of Things with Security-by-Contract and Fog Computing. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :1–6.

Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a consolidated reality. Smart homes are equipped with a growing number of IoT devices that capture more and more information about human beings lives. However, manufacturers paid little or no attention to security, so that various challenges are still in place. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure IoT systems that combines the concept of Security-by-Contract (S×C) with the Fog computing distributed paradigm. We define the pillars of our approach, namely the notions of IoT device contract, Fog node policy and contract-policy matching, the respective life-cycles, and the resulting S×C workflow. To better understand all the concepts of the S×C framework, and highlight its practical feasibility, we use a running case study based on a context-aware system deployed in a real smart home.

Thapliyal, H., Ratajczak, N., Wendroth, O., Labrado, C..  2018.  Amazon Echo Enabled IoT Home Security System for Smart Home Environment. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :31–36.

Ever-driven by technological innovation, the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuing its exceptional evolution and growth into the common consumer space. In the wake of these developments, this paper proposes a framework for an IoT home security system that is secure, expandable, and accessible. Congruent with the ideals of the IoT, we are proposing a system utilizing an ultra-low-power wireless sensor network which would interface with a central hub via Bluetooth 4, commonly referred to as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), to monitor the home. Additionally, the system would interface with an Amazon Echo to accept user voice commands. The aforementioned central hub would also act as a web server and host an internet accessible configuration page from which users could monitor and customize their system. An internet-connected system would carry the capability to notify the users of system alarms via SMS or email. Finally, this proof of concept is intended to demonstrate expandability into other areas of home automation or building monitoring functions in general.

Ghirardello, K., Maple, C., Ng, D., Kearney, P..  2018.  Cyber Security of Smart Homes: Development of a Reference Architecture for Attack Surface Analysis. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT - 2018. :1-10.

Recent advances in pervasive computing have caused a rapid growth of the Smart Home market, where a number of otherwise mundane pieces of technology are capable of connecting to the Internet and interacting with other similar devices. However, with the lack of a commonly adopted set of guidelines, several IT companies are producing smart devices with their own proprietary standards, leading to highly heterogeneous Smart Home systems in which the interoperability of the present elements is not always implemented in the most straightforward manner. As such, understanding the cyber risk of these cyber-physical systems beyond the individual devices has become an almost intractable problem. This paper tackles this issue by introducing a Smart Home reference architecture which facilitates security analysis. Being composed by three viewpoints, it gives a high-level description of the various functions and components needed in a domestic IoT device and network. Furthermore, this document demonstrates how the architecture can be used to determine the various attack surfaces of a home automation system from which its key vulnerabilities can be determined.

Shirbhate, M. D., Solapure, S. S..  2018.  Improving existing 6LoWPAN RPL for content based routing. 2018 Second International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :632–635.

Internet of things has become a subject of interest across a different industry domain. It includes 6LoWPAN (Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network) which is used for a variety of application including home automation, sensor networks, manufacturing and industry application etc. However, gathering such a huge amount of data from such a different domain causes a problem of traffic congestion, high reliability, high energy efficiency etc. In order to address such problems, content based routing (CBR) technique is proposed, where routing paths are decided according to the type of content. By routing the correlated data to hop nodes for processing, a higher data aggregation ratio can be obtained, which in turns reducing the traffic congestion and minimizes the energy consumption. CBR is implemented on top of existing RPL (Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy network) and implemented in contiki operating system using cooja simulator. The analysis are carried out on the basis average power consumption, packet delivery ratio etc.

Adeniji, V. O., Sibanda, K..  2018.  Analysis of the effect of malicious packet drop attack on packet transmission in wireless mesh networks. 2018 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society (ICTAS). :1–6.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are known for possessing good attributes such as low up-front cost, easy network maintenance, and reliable service coverage. This has largely made them to be adopted in various environments such as; school campus networks, community networking, pervasive healthcare, office and home automation, emergency rescue operations and ubiquitous wireless networks. The routing nodes are equipped with self-organized and self-configuring capabilities. However, the routing mechanisms of WMNs depend on the collaboration of all participating nodes for reliable network performance. The authors of this paper have noted that most routing algorithms proposed for WMNs in the last few years are designed with the assumption that all the participating nodes will collaboratively be involved in relaying the data packets originated from a source to a multi-hop destination. Such design approach however exposes WMNs to vulnerability such as malicious packet drop attack. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the black hole attack with other influential factors in WMNs. In this study, NS-3 simulator was used with AODV as the routing protocol. The results show that the packet delivery ratio and throughput of WMN under attack decreases sharply as compared to WMN free from attack. On an average, 47.41% of the transmitted data packets were dropped in presence of black hole attack.
Alhafidh, B. M. H., Allen, W. H..  2017.  High Level Design of a Home Autonomous System Based on Cyber Physical System Modeling. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW). :45–52.
The process used to build an autonomous smart home system using Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) principles has received much attention by researchers and developers. However, there are many challenges during the design and implementation of such a system, such as Portability, Timing, Prediction, and Integrity. This paper presents a novel modeling methodology for a smart home system in the scope of CyberPhysical interface that attempts to overcome these issues. We discuss a high-level design approach that simulates the first three levels of a 5C architecture in CPS layers in a smart home environment. A detailed description of the model design, architecture, and a software implementation via NetLogo simulation have been presented in this paper.
Chang, S. H., William, T., Wu, W. Z., Cheng, B. C., Chen, H., Hsu, P. H..  2017.  Design of an Authentication and Key Management System for a Smart Meter Gateway in AMI. 2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :1–2.

By applying power usage statistics from smart meters, users are able to save energy in their homes or control smart appliances via home automation systems. However, owing to security and privacy concerns, it is recommended that smart meters (SM) should not have direct communication with smart appliances. In this paper, we propose a design for a smart meter gateway (SMGW) associated with a two-phase authentication mechanism and key management scheme to link a smart grid with smart appliances. With placement of the SMGW, we can reduce the design complexity of SMs as well as enhance the strength of security.

Anderson, E. C., Okafor, K. C., Nkwachukwu, O., Dike, D. O..  2017.  Real time car parking system: A novel taxonomy for integrated vehicular computing. 2017 International Conference on Computing Networking and Informatics (ICCNI). :1–9.
Automation of real time car parking system (RTCPS) using mobile cloud computing (MCC) and vehicular networking (VN) has given rise to a novel concept of integrated communication-computing platforms (ICCP). The aim of ICCP is to evolve an effective means of addressing challenges such as improper parking management scheme, traffic congestion in parking lots, insecurity of vehicles (safety applications), and other Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) services for providing data dissemination and content delivery services to connected Vehicular Clients (VCs). Edge (parking lot based) Fog computing (EFC) through road side sensor based monitoring is proposed to achieve ICCP. A real-time cloud to vehicular clients (VCs) in the context of smart car parking system (SCPS) which satisfies deterministic and non-deterministic constraints is introduced. Vehicular cloud computing (VCC) and intra-Edge-Fog node architecture is presented for ICCP. This is targeted at distributed mini-sized self-energized Fog nodes/data centers, placed between distributed remote cloud and VCs. The architecture processes data-disseminated real-time services to the connected VCs. The work built a prototype testbed comprising a black box PSU, Arduino IoT Duo, GH-311RT ultrasonic distance sensor and SHARP 2Y0A21 passive infrared sensor for vehicle detection; LinkSprite 2MP UART JPEG camera module, SD card module, RFID card reader, RDS3115 metal gear servo motors, FPM384 fingerprint scanner, GSM Module and a VCC web portal. The testbed functions at the edge of the vehicular network and is connected to the served VCs through Infrastructure-to-Vehicular (I2V) TCP/IP-based single-hop mobile links. This research seeks to facilitate urban renewal strategies and highlight the significance of ICCP prototype testbed. Open challenges and future research directions are discussed for an efficient VCC model which runs on networked fog centers (NetFCs).
Mathew, S., Saranya, G..  2017.  Advanced biometric home security system using digital signature and DNA cryptography. 2017 International Conference on Innovations in Green Energy and Healthcare Technologies (IGEHT). :1–4.

In today's growing concern for home security, we have developed an advanced security system using integrated digital signature and DNA cryptography. The digital signature is formed using multi-feature biometric traits which includes both fingerprint as well as iris image. We further increase the security by using DNA cryptography which is embedded on a smart card. In order to prevent unauthorized access manually or digitally, we use geo-detection which compares the unregistered devices location with the user's location using any of their personal devices such as smart phone or tab.

Obermaier, Johannes, Hutle, Martin.  2016.  Analyzing the Security and Privacy of Cloud-based Video Surveillance Systems. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on IoT Privacy, Trust, and Security. :22–28.

In the area of the Internet of Things, cloud-based camera surveillance systems are ubiquitously available for industrial and private environments. However, the sensitive nature of the surveillance use case imposes high requirements on privacy/confidentiality, authenticity, and availability of such systems. In this work, we investigate how currently available mass-market camera systems comply with these requirements. Considering two attacker models, we test the cameras for weaknesses and analyze for their implications. We reverse-engineered the security implementation and discovered several vulnerabilities in every tested system. These weaknesses impair the users' privacy and, as a consequence, may also damage the camera system manufacturer's reputation. We demonstrate how an attacker can exploit these vulnerabilities to blackmail users and companies by denial-of-service attacks, injecting forged video streams, and by eavesdropping private video data - even without physical access to the device. Our analysis shows that current systems lack in practice the necessary care when implementing security for IoT devices.

Pienaar, J. P., Fisher, R. M., Hancke, G. P..  2015.  Smartphone: The key to your connected smart home. 2015 IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). :999–1004.

Automation systems are gaining popularity around the world. The use of these powerful technologies for home security has been proposed and some systems have been developed. Other implementations see the user taking a central role in providing and receiving updates to the system. We propose a system making use of an Android based smartphone as the user control point. Our Android application allows for dual factor (facial and secret pin) based authentication in order to protect the privacy of the user. The system successfully implements facial recognition on the limited resources of a smartphone by making use of the Eigenfaces algorithm. The system we created was designed for home automation but makes use of technologies that allow it to be applied within any environment. This opens the possibility for more research into dual factor authentication and the architecture of our system provides a blue print for the implementation of home based automation systems. This system with minimal modifications can be applied within an industrial application.