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Frolova, Daria, Kogos, Konstsntin, Epishkina, Anna.  2021.  Traffic Normalization for Covert Channel Protecting. 2021 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ElConRus). :2330–2333.
Nowadays a huge amount of sensitive information is sending via packet data networks and its security doesn't provided properly. Very often information leakage causes huge damage to organizations. One of the mechanisms to cause information leakage when it transmits through a communication channel is to construct a covert channel. Everywhere used packet networks provide huge opportunities for covert channels creating, which often leads to leakage of critical data. Moreover, covert channels based on packet length modifying can function in a system even if traffic encryption is applied and there are some data transfer schemes that are difficult to detect. The purpose of the paper is to construct and examine a normalization protection tool against covert channels. We analyze full and partial normalization, propose estimation of the residual covert channel capacity in a case of counteracting and determine the best parameters of counteraction tool.
Hughes, Kieran, McLaughlin, Kieran, Sezer, Sakir.  2020.  Dynamic Countermeasure Knowledge for Intrusion Response Systems. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
Significant advancements in Intrusion Detection Systems has led to improved alerts. However, Intrusion Response Systems which aim to automatically respond to these alerts, is a research area which is not yet advanced enough to benefit from full automation. In Security Operations Centres, analysts can implement countermeasures using knowledge and past experience to adapt to new attacks. Attempts at automated Intrusion Response Systems fall short when a new attack occurs to which the system has no specific knowledge or effective countermeasure to apply, even leading to overkill countermeasures such as restarting services and blocking ports or IPs. In this paper, a countermeasure standard is proposed which enables countermeasure intelligence sharing, automated countermeasure adoption and execution by an Intrusion Response System. An attack scenario is created on an emulated network using the Common Open Research Emulator, where an insider attack attempts to exploit a buffer overflow on an Exim mail server. Experiments demonstrate that an Intrusion Response System with dynamic countermeasure knowledge can stop attacks that would otherwise succeed with a static predefined countermeasure approach.
Walck, Matthew, Wang, Ke, Kim, Hyong S..  2019.  TendrilStaller: Block Delay Attack in Bitcoin. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :1—9.
We present TendrilStaller, an eclipse attack targeting at Bitcoin's peer-to-peer network. TendrilStaller enables an adversary to delay block propagation to a victim for 10 minutes. The adversary thus impedes the victim from getting the latest blockchain state. It only takes as few as one Bitcoin full node and two light weight nodes to perform the attack. The light weight nodes perform a subset of the functions of a full Bitcoin node. The attack exploits a recent block propagation protocol introduced in April 2016. The protocol prescribes a Bitcoin node to select 3 neighbors that can send new blocks unsolicited. These neighbors are selected based on their recent performance in providing blocks quickly. The adversary induces the victim to select 3 attack nodes by having attack nodes send valid blocks to the victim more quickly than other neighbors. For this purpose, the adversary deploys a handful of light weight nodes so that the adversary itself receives new blocks faster. The adversary then performs the attack to delay blocks propagated to the victim. We implement the attack on top of current default Bitcoin protocol We deploy the attack nodes in multiple locations around the globe and randomly select victim nodes. Depending on the round-trip time between the adversary and the victim, 50%-85% of the blocks could be delayed to the victim. We further show that the adoption of light weight nodes greatly increases the attack probability by 15% in average. Finally, we propose several countermeasures to mitigate this eclipse attack.
Lee, Seungkwang, Kim, Taesung, Kang, Yousung.  2018.  A Masked White-Box Cryptographic Implementation for Protecting Against Differential Computation Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 13:2602–2615.
Recently, gray-box attacks on white-box cryptographic implementations have succeeded. These attacks are more efficient than white-box attacks because they can be performed without detailed knowledge of the target implementation. The success of the gray-box attack is reportedly due to the unbalanced encodings used to generate the white-box lookup table. In this paper, we propose a method to protect the gray-box attack against white-box implementations. The basic idea is to apply the masking technique before encoding intermediate values during the white-box lookup table generation. Because we do not require any random source in runtime, it is possible to perform efficient encryption and decryption using our method. The security and performance analysis shows that the proposed method can be a reliable and efficient countermeasure.
Khorsandroo, Sajad, Tosun, Ali Saman.  2018.  Time Inference Attacks on Software Defined Networks: Challenges and Countermeasures. 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :342—349.

Through time inference attacks, adversaries fingerprint SDN controllers, estimate switches flow-table size, and perform flow state reconnaissance. In fact, timing a SDN and analyzing its results can expose information which later empowers SDN resource-consumption or saturation attacks. In the real world, however, launching such attacks is not easy. This is due to some challenges attackers may encounter while attacking an actual SDN deployment. These challenges, which are not addressed adequately in the related literature, are investigated in this paper. Accordingly, practical solutions to mitigate such attacks are also proposed. Discussed challenges are clarified by means of conducting extensive experiments on an actual cloud data center testbed. Moreover, mitigation schemes have been implemented and examined in details. Experimental results show that proposed countermeasures effectively block time inference attacks.

de Sá, Alan Oliveira, Carmo, Luiz Fernando Rust da C., Santos Machado, Raphael C..  2019.  Countermeasure for Identification of Controlled Data Injection Attacks in Networked Control Systems. 2019 II Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT (MetroInd4.0 IoT). :455–459.
Networked Control Systems (NCS) are widely used in Industry 4.0 to obtain better management and operational capabilities, as well as to reduce costs. However, despite the benefits provided by NCSs, the integration of communication networks with physical plants can also expose these systems to cyber threats. This work proposes a link monitoring strategy to identify linear time-invariant transfer functions performed by a Man-in-the-Middle during controlled data injection attacks in NCSs. The results demonstrate that the proposed identification scheme provides adequate accuracy when estimating the attack function, and does not interfere in the plant behavior when the system is not under attack.
Wang, Chenguang, Cai, Yici, Wang, Haoyi, Zhou, Qiang.  2018.  Electromagnetic Equalizer: An Active Countermeasure Against EM Side-Channel Attack. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :112:1-112:8.

Electromagnetic (EM) analysis is to reveal the secret information by analyzing the EM emission from a cryptographic device. EM analysis (EMA) attack is emerging as a serious threat to hardware security. It has been noted that the on-chip power grid (PG) has a security implication on EMA attack by affecting the fluctuations of supply current. However, there is little study on exploiting this intrinsic property as an active countermeasure against EMA. In this paper, we investigate the effect of PG on EM emission and propose an active countermeasure against EMA, i.e. EM Equalizer (EME). By adjusting the PG impedance, the current waveform can be flattened, equalizing the EM profile. Therefore, the correlation between secret data and EM emission is significantly reduced. As a first attempt to the co-optimization for power and EM security, we extend the EME method by fixing the vulnerability of power analysis. To verify the EME method, several cryptographic designs are implemented. The measurement to disclose (MTD) is improved by 1138x with area and power overheads of 0.62% and 1.36%, respectively.

Hata, K., Sasaki, T., Mochizuki, A., Sawada, K., Shin, S., Hosokawa, S..  2018.  Collaborative Model-Based Fallback Control for Secured Networked Control Systems. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :5963-5970.

The authors have proposed the Fallback Control System (FCS) as a countermeasure after cyber-attacks happen in Industrial Control Systems (ICSs). For increased robustness against cyber-attacks, introducing multiple countermeasures is desirable. Then, an appropriate collaboration is essential. This paper introduces two FCSs in ICS: field network signal is driven FCS and analog signal driven FCS. This paper also implements a collaborative FCS by a collaboration function of the two FCSs. The collaboration function is that the analog signal driven FCS estimates the state of the other FCS. The collaborative FCS decides the countermeasure based on the result of the estimation after cyber-attacks happen. Finally, we show practical experiment results to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Schilling, Robert, Werner, Mario, Nasahl, Pascal, Mangard, Stefan.  2018.  Pointing in the Right Direction - Securing Memory Accesses in a Faulty World. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :595-604.

Reading and writing memory are, besides computation, the most common operations a processor performs. The correctness of these operations is therefore essential for the proper execution of any program. However, as soon as fault attacks are considered, assuming that the hardware performs its memory operations as instructed is not valid anymore. In particular, attackers may induce faults with the goal of reading or writing incorrectly addressed memory, which can have various critical safety and security implications. In this work, we present a solution to this problem and propose a new method for protecting every memory access inside a program against address tampering. The countermeasure comprises two building blocks. First, every pointer inside the program is redundantly encoded using a multiresidue error detection code. The redundancy information is stored in the unused upper bits of the pointer with zero overhead in terms of storage. Second, load and store instructions are extended to link data with the corresponding encoded address from the pointer. Wrong memory accesses subsequently infect the data value allowing the software to detect the error. For evaluation purposes, we implemented our countermeasure into a RISC-V processor, tested it on a FPGA development board, and evaluated the induced overhead. Furthermore, a LLVM-based C compiler has been modified to automatically encode all data pointers, to perform encoded pointer arithmetic, and to emit the extended load/store instructions with linking support. Our evaluations show that the countermeasure induces an average overhead of 10 % in terms of code size and 7 % regarding runtime, which makes it suitable for practical adoption.

Jansen, Kai, Tippenhauer, Nils Ole, Pöpper, Christina.  2016.  Multi-receiver GPS Spoofing Detection: Error Models and Realization. Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual Conference on Computer Security Applications. :237–250.

Spoofing is a serious threat to the widespread use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) such as GPS and can be expected to play an important role in the security of many future IoT systems that rely on time, location, or navigation information. In this paper, we focus on the technique of multi-receiver GPS spoofing detection, so far only proposed theoretically. This technique promises to detect malicious spoofing signals by making use of the reported positions of several GPS receivers deployed in a fixed constellation. We scrutinize the assumptions of prior work, in particular the error models, and investigate how these models and their results can be improved due to the correlation of errors at co-located receiver positions. We show that by leveraging spatial noise correlations, the false acceptance rate of the countermeasure can be improved while preserving the sensitivity to attacks. As a result, receivers can be placed significantly closer together than previously expected, which broadens the applicability of the countermeasure. Based on theoretical and practical investigations, we build the first realization of a multi-receiver countermeasure and experimentally evaluate its performance both in authentic and in spoofing scenarios.

Lee, Kyungroul, Yeuk, Hyeungjun, Yim, Kangbin, Kim, Suhyun.  2016.  Analysis on Manipulation of the MAC Address and Consequent Security Threats. Proceedings of the 8th ACM CCS International Workshop on Managing Insider Security Threats. :113–117.

In this paper, we analyze manipulation methods of the MAC address and consequent security threats. The Ethernet MAC address is known to be unchanged, and so is highly considered as platform-unique information. For this reason, various services are researched using the MAC address. These kinds of services are organized with MAC address as plat- form identifier or a password, and such a diverse range of security threats are caused when the MAC address is manipulated. Therefore, here we research on manipulation methods for MAC address at different levels on a computing platform and highlight the security threats resulted from modification of the MAC address. In this paper, we introduce manipulation methods on the original MAC address stored in the EEPROM on NIC (Network Interface Card) as hardware- based MAC spoofing attack, which are unknown to be general approaches. This means that the related services should struggle to detect the falsification and the results of this paper have deep significance in most MAC address-based services.