Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-08-02
Cedillo, Priscila, Riofrio, Xavier, Prado, Daniela, Orellana, Marcos.  2020.  A Middleware for Managing the Heterogeneity of Data Provining from IoT Devices in Ambient Assisted Living Environments. 2020 IEEE ANDESCON. :1—6.
Internet of Things (IoT) has been growing exponentially in the commercial market in recent years. It is also a fact that people hold one or more computing devices at home. Many of them have been developed to operate through internet connectivity with cloud computing technologies that result in the demand for fast, robust, and secure services. In most cases, the lack of these services makes difficult the transfer of data to fulfill the devices' purposes. Under these conditions, an intermediate layer or middleware is needed to process, filter, and send data through a more efficient alternative. This paper presents the adaptive solution of a middleware architecture as an intermediate layer between smart devices and cloud computing to enhance the management of the heterogeneity of data provining from IoT devices. The proposed middleware provides easy configuration, adaptability, and bearability for different environments. Finally, this solution has been implemented in the healthcare domain, in which IoT solutions are deployed into Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) environments.
2021-03-17
Straub, J..  2020.  Modeling Attack, Defense and Threat Trees and the Cyber Kill Chain, ATT CK and STRIDE Frameworks as Blackboard Architecture Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :148—153.

Multiple techniques for modeling cybersecurity attacks and defense have been developed. The use of tree- structures as well as techniques proposed by several firms (such as Lockheed Martin's Cyber Kill Chain, Microsoft's STRIDE and the MITRE ATT&CK frameworks) have all been demonstrated. These approaches model actions that can be taken to attack or stopped to secure infrastructure and other resources, at different levels of detail.This paper builds on prior work on using the Blackboard Architecture for cyberwarfare and proposes a generalized solution for modeling framework/paradigm-based attacks that go beyond the deployment of a single exploit against a single identified target. The Blackboard Architecture Cyber Command Entity attack Route (BACCER) identification system combines rules and facts that implement attack type determination and attack decision making logic with actions that implement reconnaissance techniques and attack and defense actions. BACCER's efficacy to model examples of tree-structures and other models is demonstrated herein.

2021-03-09
Muñoz, C. M. Blanco, Cruz, F. Gómez, Valero, J. S. Jimenez.  2020.  Software architecture for the application of facial recognition techniques through IoT devices. 2020 Congreso Internacional de Innovación y Tendencias en Ingeniería (CONIITI). :1–5.

The facial recognition time by time takes more importance, due to the extend kind of applications it has, but it is still challenging when faces big variations in the characteristics of the biometric data used in the process and especially referring to the transportation of information through the internet in the internet of things context. Based on the systematic review and rigorous study that supports the extraction of the most relevant information on this topic [1], a software architecture proposal which contains basic security requirements necessary for the treatment of the data involved in the application of facial recognition techniques, oriented to an IoT environment was generated. Concluding that the security and privacy considerations of the information registered in IoT devices represent a challenge and it is a priority to be able to guarantee that the data circulating on the network are only accessible to the user that was designed for this.

2021-01-18
Zhu, L., Chen, C., Su, Z., Chen, W., Li, T., Yu, Z..  2020.  BBS: Micro-Architecture Benchmarking Blockchain Systems through Machine Learning and Fuzzy Set. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :411–423.
Due to the decentralization, irreversibility, and traceability, blockchain has attracted significant attention and has been deployed in many critical industries such as banking and logistics. However, the micro-architecture characteristics of blockchain programs still remain unclear. What's worse, the large number of micro-architecture events make understanding the characteristics extremely difficult. We even lack a systematic approach to identify the important events to focus on. In this paper, we propose a novel benchmarking methodology dubbed BBS to characterize blockchain programs at micro-architecture level. The key is to leverage fuzzy set theory to identify important micro-architecture events after the significance of them is quantified by a machine learning based approach. The important events for single programs are employed to characterize the programs while the common important events for multiple programs form an importance vector which is used to measure the similarity between benchmarks. We leverage BBS to characterize seven and six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper, respectively. The results show that BBS can reveal interesting findings. Moreover, by leveraging the importance characterization results, we improve that the transaction throughput of Smallbank from Fabric by 70% while reduce the transaction latency by 55%. In addition, we find that three of seven and two of six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper are redundant, respectively.
2021-01-11
Tekinerdoğan, B., Özcan, K., Yağız, S., Yakın, İ.  2020.  Systems Engineering Architecture Framework for Physical Protection Systems. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1–8.
A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures, and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage, or other malevolent intruder attacks. In this paper we focus on the architecture modeling of PPS to support the communication among stakeholders, analysis and guiding the systems development activities. A common practice for modeling architecture is by using an architecture framework that defines a coherent set of viewpoints. Existing systems engineering modeling approaches appear to be too general and fail to address the domain-specific aspects of PPSs. On the other hand, no dedicated architecture framework approach has been provided yet to address the specific concerns of PPS. In this paper, we present an architecture framework for PPS (PPSAF) that has been developed in a real industrial context focusing on the development of multiple PPSs. The architecture framework consists of six coherent set of viewpoints including facility viewpoint, threats and vulnerabilities viewpoint, deterrence viewpoint, detection viewpoint, delay viewpoint, and response viewpoint. We illustrate the application of the architecture framework for the design of a PPS architecture of a building.
2020-12-17
Maram, S. S., Vishnoi, T., Pandey, S..  2019.  Neural Network and ROS based Threat Detection and Patrolling Assistance. 2019 Second International Conference on Advanced Computational and Communication Paradigms (ICACCP). :1—5.

To bring a uniform development platform which seamlessly combines hardware components and software architecture of various developers across the globe and reduce the complexity in producing robots which help people in their daily ergonomics. ROS has come out to be a game changer. It is disappointing to see the lack of penetration of technology in different verticals which involve protection, defense and security. By leveraging the power of ROS in the field of robotic automation and computer vision, this research will pave path for identification of suspicious activity with autonomously moving bots which run on ROS. The research paper proposes and validates a flow where ROS and computer vision algorithms like YOLO can fall in sync with each other to provide smarter and accurate methods for indoor and limited outdoor patrolling. Identification of age,`gender, weapons and other elements which can disturb public harmony will be an integral part of the research and development process. The simulation and testing reflects the efficiency and speed of the designed software architecture.

2020-12-15
Laso, P. Merino, Brosset, D., Giraud, M..  2018.  Secured Architecture for Unmanned Surface Vehicle Fleets Management and Control. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :373—375.

Cyber-physical systems contribute to building new infrastructure in the modern world. These systems help realize missions reducing costs and risks. The seas being a harsh and dangerous environment are a perfect application of them. Unmanned Surface vehicles (USV) allow realizing normal and new tasks reducing risk and cost i.e. surveillance, water cleaning, environmental monitoring or search and rescue operations. Also, as they are unmanned vehicles they can extend missions to unpleasing and risky weather conditions. The novelty of these systems makes that new command and control platforms need to be developed. In this paper, we describe an implemented architecture with 5 separated levels. This structure increases security by defining roles and by limiting information exchanges.

2020-12-11
Xie, J., Zhang, M., Ma, Y..  2019.  Using Format Migration and Preservation Metadata to Support Digital Preservation of Scientific Data. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :1—6.

With the development of e-Science and data intensive scientific discovery, it needs to ensure scientific data available for the long-term, with the goal that the valuable scientific data should be discovered and re-used for downstream investigations, either alone, or in combination with newly generated data. As such, the preservation of scientific data enables that not only might experiment be reproducible and verifiable, but also new questions can be raised by other scientists to promote research and innovation. In this paper, we focus on the two main problems of digital preservation that are format migration and preservation metadata. Format migration includes both format verification and object transformation. The system architecture of format migration and preservation metadata is presented, mapping rules of object transformation are analyzed, data fixity and integrity and authenticity, digital signature and so on are discussed and an example is shown in detail.

2020-11-17
Conway, A. E., Wang, M., Ljuca, E., Lebling, P. D..  2019.  A Dynamic Transport Overlay System for Mission-Oriented Dispersed Computing Over IoBT. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :815—820.

A dynamic overlay system is presented for supporting transport service needs of dispersed computing applications for moving data and/or code between network computation points and end-users in IoT or IoBT. The Network Backhaul Layered Architecture (Nebula) system combines network discovery and QoS monitoring, dynamic path optimization, online learning, and per-hop tunnel transport protocol optimization and synthesis over paths, to carry application traffic flows transparently over overlay tunnels. An overview is provided of Nebula's overlay system, software architecture, API, and implementation in the NRL CORE network emulator. Experimental emulation results demonstrate the performance benefits that Nebula provides under challenging networking conditions.

2020-11-16
Huyck, P..  2019.  Safe and Secure Data Fusion — Use of MILS Multicore Architecture to Reduce Cyber Threats. 2019 IEEE/AIAA 38th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–9.
Data fusion, as a means to improve aircraft and air traffic safety, is a recent focus of some researchers and system developers. Increases in data volume and processing needs necessitate more powerful hardware and more flexible software architectures to satisfy these needs. Such improvements in processed data also mean the overall system becomes more complex and correspondingly, resulting in a potentially significantly larger cyber-attack space. Today's multicore processors are one means of satisfying the increased computational needs of data fusion-based systems. When coupled with a real-time operating system (RTOS) capable of flexible core and application scheduling, large cabinets of (power hungry) single-core processors may be avoided. The functional and assurance capabilities of such an RTOS can be critical elements in providing application isolation, constrained data flows, and restricted hardware access (including covert channel prevention) necessary to reduce the overall cyber-attack space. This paper examines fundamental considerations of a multiple independent levels of security (MILS) architecture when supported by a multicore-based real-time operating system. The paper draws upon assurance activities and functional properties associated with a previous Common Criteria evaluation assurance level (EAL) 6+ / High-Robustness Separation Kernel certification effort and contrast those with activities performed as part of a MILS multicore related project. The paper discusses key characteristics and functional capabilities necessary to achieve overall system security and safety. The paper defines architectural considerations essential for scheduling applications on a multicore processor to reduce security risks. For civil aircraft systems, the paper discusses the applicability of the security assurance and architecture configurations to system providers looking to increase their resilience to cyber threats.
Tamimi, A., Touhiduzzaman, M., Hahn, A..  2019.  Modeling and Analysis Cyber Threats in Power Systems Using Architecture Analysis Design Language (AADL). 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:213–218.
The lack of strong cyber-physical modeling capabilities presents many challenges across the design, development, verification, and maintenance phases of a system [7]. Novel techniques for modeling the cyber-grid components, along with analysis and verification techniques, are imperative to the deployment of a resilient and robust power grid. Several works address False Data Injection (FDI) attacks to the power grid. However, most of them suffer from the lack of a model to investigate the effects of attacks. This paper proposed a cyber-physical model using Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) [15] and power system information models to address different attacks in power systems.
Mailloux, L. O., Span, M., Mills, R. F., Young, W..  2019.  A Top Down Approach for Eliciting Systems Security Requirements for a Notional Autonomous Space System. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–7.
Today's highly interconnected and technology reliant environment places great emphasis on the need for secure cyber-physical systems. This work addresses this need by detailing a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional space system. More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements during the conceptual stage of development. This work employs STPA-Sec in a notional space system to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specifications early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation, maintenance, or sustainment. Lastly, this approach employs a holistic viewpoint which aligns with the systems and software engineering processes as detailed in ISO/IEC/IEEE 152SS and NIST SP SOO-160 Volume 1. This work seeks to advance the science of systems security by providing insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.
Belesioti, M., Makri, R., Fehling-Kaschek, M., Carli, M., Kostopoulos, A., Chochliouros, I. P., Neri, A., Frosali, F..  2019.  A New Security Approach in Telecom Infrastructures: The RESISTO Concept. 2019 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :212–218.
Communications play a fundamental role in the economic and social well-being of the citizens and on operations of most of the critical infrastructures (CIs). Extreme weather events, natural disasters and criminal attacks represent a challenge due to their increase in frequency and intensity requiring smarter resilience of the Communication CIs, which are extremely vulnerable due to the ever-increasing complexity of the architecture also in light of the evolution towards 5G, the extensive use of programmable platforms and exponential growth of connected devices. In this paper, we present the aim of RESISTO H2020 EU-funded project, which constitutes an innovative solution for Communication CIs holistic situation awareness and enhanced resilience.
2020-10-05
Lago, Loris Dal, Ferrante, Orlando, Passerone, Roberto, Ferrari, Alberto.  2018.  Dependability Assessment of SOA-Based CPS With Contracts and Model-Based Fault Injection. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 14:360—369.

Engineering complex distributed systems is challenging. Recent solutions for the development of cyber-physical systems (CPS) in industry tend to rely on architectural designs based on service orientation, where the constituent components are deployed according to their service behavior and are to be understood as loosely coupled and mostly independent. In this paper, we develop a workflow that combines contract-based and CPS model-based specifications with service orientation, and analyze the resulting model using fault injection to assess the dependability of the systems. Compositionality principles based on the contract specification help us to make the analysis practical. The presented techniques are evaluated on two case studies.

2020-09-28
Fischinger, Michael, Egger, Norbert, Binder, Christoph, Neureiter, Christian.  2019.  Towards a Model-centric Approach for Developing Dependable Smart Grid Applications. 2019 4th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety (ICSRS). :1–9.
The Smart Grid is the leading example when talking about complex and critical System-of-Systems (SoS). Specifically regarding the Smart Grids criticality, dependability is a central quality attribute to strive for. Combined with the desire of agility in modern development, conventional systems engineering methods reach their limits in coping with these requirements. However, approaches from model-based or model-driven engineering can reduce complexity and encourage development with rapidly changing requirements. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is known to be more successful in a domain specific manner. For that reason, an approach for Domain Specific Systems Engineering (DSSE) in the Smart Grid has already been specially investigated. This Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) approach especially aims the comprehensibility of complex systems. In this context, the traceability of requirements is a centrally pursued attribute. However, achieving continuing traceability between the model of a system and the concrete implementation is still an open issue. To close this gap, the present research paper introduces a Model-Centric Software Development (MCSD) solution for Smart Grid applications. Based on two exploratory case studies, the focus finally lies on the automated generation of partial implementation artifacts and the evaluation of traceability, based on dedicated functional aspects.
Merschjohann, Sven.  2019.  Automated Suggestions of Security Enhancing Improvements for Software Architectures. 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion (MODELS-C). :666–671.
Today, connectivity is demanded in almost every domain, e.g., the smart home domain and its connected smart household devices like TVs and fridges, or the industrial automation domain, connecting plants, controllers and sensors to the internet for purposes like condition monitoring. This trend amplifies the need for secure applications that can protect their sensitive data against manipulation and leaks. However, many applications are still built without considering security in its design phase, often it is perceived as too complicated and time consuming. This is a major oversight, as fixing vulnerabilities after release is often not feasible when major architecture redesigns are necessary. Therefore, the software developer has to make sure that the developed software architecture is secure. Today, there are some tools available to help the software developer in identifying potential security weaknesses of their architecture. However, easy and fast to use tools that support the software developer in improving their architecture's security are lacking. The goal of my thesis is to make security improvements easily applicable by non-security and non-architecture experts by proposing systematic, easy to use and automated techniques that will help the software developer in designing secure software architectures. To achieve this goal, I propose a method that enables the software developer to automatically find flaws and weaknesses, as well as appropriate improvements in their given software architecture during the design phase. For this method, I adopt Model-Based Development techniques by extending and creating Domain-Specific Languages (DSL) for specifying the architecture itself and possible architectural improvements. Using these DSLs, my approach automatically suggests security enhancing improvements for the architecture, promoting increased security of software architectures and as such for the developed applications as a whole.
2020-07-16
Roth, Thomas, Burns, Martin.  2018.  A gateway to easily integrate simulation platforms for co-simulation of cyber-physical systems. 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) research leverages the expertise of researchers from multiple domains to engineer complex systems of interacting physical and computational components. An approach called co-simulation is often used in CPS conceptual design to integrate the specialized tools and simulators from each of these domains into a joint simulation for the evaluation of design decisions. Many co-simulation platforms are being developed to expedite CPS conceptualization and realization, but most use intrusive modeling and communication libraries that require researchers to either abandon their existing models or spend considerable effort to integrate them into the platform. A significant number of these co-simulation platforms use the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard that provides a rich set of services to facilitate distributed simulation. This paper introduces a simple gateway that can be readily implemented without co-simulation expertise to adapt existing models and research infrastructure for use in HLA. An open-source implementation of the gateway has been developed for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) co-simulation platform called the Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF).

Yuan, Haoxuan, Li, Fang, Huang, Xin.  2019.  A Formal Modeling and Verification Framework for Service Oriented Intelligent Production Line Design. 2019 IEEE/ACIS 18th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS). :173—178.

The intelligent production line is a complex application with a large number of independent equipment network integration. In view of the characteristics of CPS, the existing modeling methods cannot well meet the application requirements of large scale high-performance system. a formal simulation verification framework and verification method are designed for the performance constraints such as the real-time and security of the intelligent production line based on soft bus. A model-based service-oriented integration approach is employed, which adopts a model-centric way to automate the development course of the entire software life cycle. Developing experience indicate that the proposed approach based on the formal modeling and verification framework in this paper can improve the performance of the system, which is also helpful to achieve the balance of the production line and maintain the reasonable use rate of the processing equipment.

2020-05-11
Enos, James R., Nilchiani, Roshanak R..  2018.  Merging DoDAF architectures to develop and analyze the DoD network of systems. 2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–9.
The Department of Defense (DoD) manages capabilities through the Joint Interoperability and Capability Development System (JCIDS) process. As part of this process, sponsors develop a series of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products to assist analysts understand the proposed capability and how it fits into the broader network of DoD legacy systems and systems under development. However, the Joint Staff, responsible for executing the JCIDS process, often analyzes these architectures in isolation without considering the broader network of systems. DoD leadership, the Government Accountability Organization, and others have noted the lack of the DoD's ability to manage the broader portfolio of capabilities in various reports and papers. Several efforts have proposed merging DoDAF architecture into a larger meta-architecture based on individual system architectures. This paper specifically targets the Systems View 3 (SV-3), System-to-system matrix, as an opportunity to merge multiple DoDAF architecture views into a network of system and understand the potential benefits associated with analyzing a broader perspective. The goal of merging multiple SV-3s is to better understand the interoperability of a system within the network of DoD systems as network metrics may provide insights into the relative interoperability of a DoD system. Currently, the DoD's definition of interoperability focuses on the system or capability's ability to enter and operate within the DoD Information Network (DoDIN); however, this view limits the definition of interoperability as it focuses solely on information flows and not resource flows or physical connections that should be present in a SV-3. The paper demonstrates the importance of including all forms of connections between systems in a network by comparing network metrics associated with the different types of connections. Without a complete set of DoDAF architectures for each system within the DoD and based on the potential classification of these products, the paper collates data that should be included in an SV-3 from open source, unclassified references to build the overall network of DoD systems. From these sources, a network of over 300 systems with almost 1000 connections emerges based on the documented information, resource, and physical connections between these legacy and planned DoD systems. With this network, the paper explores the quantification of individual system's interoperability through the application of nodal and network metrics from social network analysis (SNA). A SNA perspective on a network of systems provides additional insights beyond traditional network analysis because of the emphasis on the importance of nodes, systems, in the network as well as the relationship, connections, between the nodes. Finally, the paper proposes future work to explore the quantification of additional attributes of systems as well as a method for further validating the findings.
2020-05-08
Kearney, Paul, Asal, Rasool.  2019.  ERAMIS: A Reference Architecture-Based Methodology for IoT Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:366—367.

Opportunities arising from IoT-enabled applications are significant, but market growth is inhibited by concerns over security and complexity. To address these issues, we propose the ERAMIS methodology, which is based on instantiation of a reference architecture that captures common design features, embodies best practice, incorporates good security properties by design, and makes explicit provision for operational security services and processes.

2020-05-04
Chaisuriya, Sarayut, Keretho, Somnuk, Sanguanpong, Surasak, Praneetpolgrang, Prasong.  2018.  A Security Architecture Framework for Critical Infrastructure with Ring-based Nested Network Zones. 2018 10th International Conference on Knowledge and Smart Technology (KST). :248–253.
The defense-in-depth approach has been widely recommended for designing critical information infrastructure, however, the lack of holistic design guidelines makes it difficult for many organizations to adopt the concept. Therefore, this paper proposes a holistic architectural framework and guidelines based on ring-based nested network zones for designing such highly secured information systems. This novel security architectural framework and guidelines offer the overall structural design and implementation options for holistically designing the N-tier/shared nothing system architectures. The implementation options, e.g. for the zone's perimeters, are recommended to achieve different capability levels of security or to trade off among different required security attributes. This framework enables the adaptive capability suitable for different real-world contexts. This paper also proposes an attack-hops verification approach as a tool to evaluate the architectural design.
2020-04-24
Zhang, Lichen.  2018.  Modeling Cloud Based Cyber Physical Systems Based on AADL. 2018 24th International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC). :1—6.

Cloud-based cyber-physical systems, like vehicle and intelligent transportation systems, are now attracting much more attentions. These systems usually include large-scale distributed sensor networks covering various components and producing enormous measurement data. Lots of modeling languages are put to use for describing cyber-physical systems or its aspects, bringing contribution to the development of cyber-physical systems. But most of the modeling techniques only focuse on software aspect so that they could not exactly express the whole cloud-based cyber-physical systems, which require appropriate views and tools in its design; but those tools are hard to be used under systemic or object-oriented methods. For example, the widest used modeling language, UML, could not fulfil the above design's requirements by using the foremer's standard form. This paper presents a method designing the cloud-based cyber-physical systems with AADL, by which we can analyse, model and apply those requirements on cloud platforms ensuring QoS in a relatively highly extensible way at the mean time.

2020-03-16
Chondamrongkul, Nacha, Sun, Jing, Wei, Bingyang, Warren, Ian.  2019.  Parallel Verification of Software Architecture Design. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :50–57.
In the component-based software system, certain behaviours of components and their composition may affect system reliability at runtime. This problem can be early detected through the automated verification of software architecture design, by which model checking is one of the techniques to achieve this. However, its practicality and performance issue remain challenges. This paper presents a scalable approach for the software architecture verification. The modelling is proposed to manifest the behaviours in the software component, in order to detect problematic behaviours, such as circular dependency and performance bottleneck. The outcome of the verification identifies the problem and the scenarios that cause it. In order to mitigate the verification performance issue, the parallelism is applied to the verification process so that multiple decomposed models can be simultaneously verified on a multi-threaded environment. As some software systems are designed as the monolithic architecture, we present a method that helps to automatically decompose a large monolithic model into a set of smaller sub-models. Our approach was evaluated and proved to enhance the performance of the verification process for the large-scale complex software systems.
2020-03-09
Ionescu, Tudor B., Engelbrecht, Gerhard.  2016.  The Privacy Case: Matching Privacy-Protection Goals to Human and Organizational Privacy Concerns. 2016 Joint Workshop on Cyber- Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids (CPSR-SG). :1–6.

Processing smart grid data for analytics purposes brings about a series of privacy-related risks. In order to allow for the most suitable mitigation strategies, reasonable privacy risks need to be addressed by taking into consideration the perspective of each smart grid stakeholder separately. In this context, we use the notion of privacy concerns to reflect potential privacy risks from the perspective of different smart grid stakeholders. Privacy concerns help to derive privacy goals, which we represent using the goals structuring notation. Thus represented goals can more comprehensibly be addressed through technical and non-technical strategies and solutions. The thread of argumentation - from concerns to goals to strategies and solutions - is presented in form of a privacy case, which is analogous to the safety case used in the automotive domain. We provide an exemplar privacy case for the smart grid developed as part of the Aspern Smart City Research project.

2020-02-24
De, Asmit, Basu, Aditya, Ghosh, Swaroop, Jaeger, Trent.  2019.  FIXER: Flow Integrity Extensions for Embedded RISC-V. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :348–353.
With the recent proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) and embedded devices, there is a growing need to develop a security framework to protect such devices. RISC-V is a promising open source architecture that targets low-power embedded devices and SoCs. However, there is a dearth of practical and low-overhead security solutions in the RISC-V architecture. Programs compiled using RISC-V toolchains are still vulnerable to code injection and code reuse attacks such as buffer overflow and return-oriented programming (ROP). In this paper, we propose FIXER, a hardware implemented security extension to RISC-V that provides a defense mechanism against such attacks. FIXER enforces fine-grained control-flow integrity (CFI) of running programs on backward edges (returns) and forward edges (calls) without requiring any architectural modifications to the RISC-V processor core. We implement FIXER on RocketChip, a RISC-V SoC platform, by leveraging the integrated Rocket Custom Coprocessor (RoCC) to detect and prevent attacks. Compared to existing software based solutions, FIXER reduces energy overhead by 60% at minimal execution time (1.5%) and area (2.9%) overheads.