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2021-09-16
Mancini, Federico, Bruvoll, Solveig, Melrose, John, Leve, Frederick, Mailloux, Logan, Ernst, Raphael, Rein, Kellyn, Fioravanti, Stefano, Merani, Diego, Been, Robert.  2020.  A Security Reference Model for Autonomous Vehicles in Military Operations. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–8.
In a previous article [1] we proposed a layered framework to support the assessment of the security risks associated with the use of autonomous vehicles in military operations and determine how to manage these risks appropriately. We established consistent terminology and defined the problem space, while exploring the first layer of the framework, namely risks from the mission assurance perspective. In this paper, we develop the second layer of the framework. This layer focuses on the risk assessment of the vehicles themselves and on producing a highlevel security design adequate for the mission defined in the first layer. To support this process, we also define a reference model for autonomous vehicles to use as a common basis for the assessment of risks and the design of the security controls.
2021-02-23
Olowononi, F. O., Rawat, D. B., Liu, C..  2020.  Dependable Adaptive Mobility in Vehicular Networks for Resilient Mobile Cyber Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

Improved safety, high mobility and environmental concerns in transportation systems across the world and the corresponding developments in information and communication technologies continue to drive attention towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This is evident in advanced driver-assistance systems such as lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance. However, in connected and autonomous vehicles, the efficient functionality of these applications depends largely on the ability of a vehicle to accurately predict it operating parameters such as location and speed. The ability to predict the immediate future/next location (or speed) of a vehicle or its ability to predict neighbors help in guaranteeing integrity, availability and accountability, thus boosting safety and resiliency of the Vehicular Network for Mobile Cyber Physical Systems (VCPS). In this paper, we proposed a secure movement-prediction for connected vehicles by using Kalman filter. Specifically, Kalman filter predicts the locations and speeds of individual vehicles with reference to already observed and known information such posted legal speed limit, geographic/road location, direction etc. The aim is to achieve resilience through the predicted and exchanged information between connected moving vehicles in an adaptive manner. By being able to predict their future locations, the following vehicle is able to adjust its position more accurately to avoid collision and to ensure optimal information exchange among vehicles.

2021-02-03
Razin, Y. S., Feigh, K. M..  2020.  Hitting the Road: Exploring Human-Robot Trust for Self-Driving Vehicles. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

With self-driving cars making their way on to our roads, we ask not what it would take for them to gain acceptance among consumers, but what impact they may have on other drivers. How they will be perceived and whether they will be trusted will likely have a major effect on traffic flow and vehicular safety. This work first undertakes an exploratory factor analysis to validate a trust scale for human-robot interaction and shows how previously validated metrics and general trust theory support a more complete model of trust that has increased applicability in the driving domain. We experimentally test this expanded model in the context of human-automation interaction during simulated driving, revealing how using these dimensions uncovers significant biases within human-robot trust that may have particularly deleterious effects when it comes to sharing our future roads with automated vehicles.

2021-02-01
Ajenaghughrure, I. B., Sousa, S. C. da Costa, Lamas, D..  2020.  Risk and Trust in artificial intelligence technologies: A case study of Autonomous Vehicles. 2020 13th International Conference on Human System Interaction (HSI). :118–123.
This study investigates how risk influences users' trust before and after interactions with technologies such as autonomous vehicles (AVs'). Also, the psychophysiological correlates of users' trust from users” eletrodermal activity responses. Eighteen (18) carefully selected participants embark on a hypothetical trip playing an autonomous vehicle driving game. In order to stay safe, throughout the drive experience under four risk conditions (very high risk, high risk, low risk and no risk) that are based on automotive safety and integrity levels (ASIL D, C, B, A), participants exhibit either high or low trust by evaluating the AVs' to be highly or less trustworthy and consequently relying on the Artificial intelligence or the joystick to control the vehicle. The result of the experiment shows that there is significant increase in users' trust and user's delegation of controls to AVs' as risk decreases and vice-versa. In addition, there was a significant difference between user's initial trust before and after interacting with AVs' under varying risk conditions. Finally, there was a significant correlation in users' psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity) when exhibiting higher and lower trust levels towards AVs'. The implications of these results and future research opportunities are discussed.
2020-12-28
Slavic, G., Campo, D., Baydoun, M., Marin, P., Martin, D., Marcenaro, L., Regazzoni, C..  2020.  Anomaly Detection in Video Data Based on Probabilistic Latent Space Models. 2020 IEEE Conference on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems (EAIS). :1—8.

This paper proposes a method for detecting anomalies in video data. A Variational Autoencoder (VAE) is used for reducing the dimensionality of video frames, generating latent space information that is comparable to low-dimensional sensory data (e.g., positioning, steering angle), making feasible the development of a consistent multi-modal architecture for autonomous vehicles. An Adapted Markov Jump Particle Filter defined by discrete and continuous inference levels is employed to predict the following frames and detecting anomalies in new video sequences. Our method is evaluated on different video scenarios where a semi-autonomous vehicle performs a set of tasks in a closed environment.

2020-12-17
Promyslov, V., Semenkov, K..  2020.  Security Threats for Autonomous and Remotely Controlled Vehicles in Smart City. 2020 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1—5.

The paper presents a comprehensive model of cybersecurity threats for a system of autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles (AV) in the environment of a smart city. The main focus in the security context is given to the “integrity” property. That property is of higher importance for industrial control systems in comparison with other security properties (availability and confidentiality). The security graph, which is part of the model, is dynamic, and, in real cases, its analysis may require significant computing resources for AV systems with a large number of assets and connections. The simplified example of the security graph for the AV system is presented.

2020-11-04
Khalid, F., Hanif, M. A., Rehman, S., Ahmed, R., Shafique, M..  2019.  TrISec: Training Data-Unaware Imperceptible Security Attacks on Deep Neural Networks. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :188—193.

Most of the data manipulation attacks on deep neural networks (DNNs) during the training stage introduce a perceptible noise that can be catered by preprocessing during inference, or can be identified during the validation phase. There-fore, data poisoning attacks during inference (e.g., adversarial attacks) are becoming more popular. However, many of them do not consider the imperceptibility factor in their optimization algorithms, and can be detected by correlation and structural similarity analysis, or noticeable (e.g., by humans) in multi-level security system. Moreover, majority of the inference attack rely on some knowledge about the training dataset. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology which automatically generates imperceptible attack images by using the back-propagation algorithm on pre-trained DNNs, without requiring any information about the training dataset (i.e., completely training data-unaware). We present a case study on traffic sign detection using the VGGNet trained on the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmarks dataset in an autonomous driving use case. Our results demonstrate that the generated attack images successfully perform misclassification while remaining imperceptible in both “subjective” and “objective” quality tests.

2020-10-06
Sullivan, Daniel, Colbert, Edward, Cowley, Jennifer.  2018.  Mission Resilience for Future Army Tactical Networks. 2018 Resilience Week (RWS). :11—14.

Cyber-physical systems are an integral component of weapons, sensors and autonomous vehicles, as well as cyber assets directly supporting tactical forces. Mission resilience of tactical networks affects command and control, which is important for successful military operations. Traditional engineering methods for mission assurance will not scale during battlefield operations. Commanders need useful mission resilience metrics to help them evaluate the ability of cyber assets to recover from incidents to fulfill mission essential functions. We develop 6 cyber resilience metrics for tactical network architectures. We also illuminate how psychometric modeling is necessary for future research to identify resilience metrics that are both applicable to the dynamic mission state and meaningful to commanders and planners.

2020-08-28
Brewer, John N., Dimitoglou, George.  2019.  Evaluation of Attack Vectors and Risks in Automobiles and Road Infrastructure. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :84—89.

The evolution of smart automobiles and vehicles within the Internet of Things (IoT) - particularly as that evolution leads toward a proliferation of completely autonomous vehicles - has sparked considerable interest in the subject of vehicle/automotive security. While the attack surface is wide, there are patterns of exploitable vulnerabilities. In this study we reviewed, classified according to their attack surface and evaluated some of the common vehicle and infrastructure attack vectors identified in the literature. To remediate these attack vectors, specific technical recommendations have been provided as a way towards secure deployments of smart automobiles and transportation infrastructures.

2020-07-27
Vöelp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Intrusion-Tolerant Autonomous Driving. 2018 IEEE 21st International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC). :130–133.
Fully autonomous driving is one if not the killer application for the upcoming decade of real-time systems. However, in the presence of increasingly sophisticated attacks by highly skilled and well equipped adversarial teams, autonomous driving must not only guarantee timeliness and hence safety. It must also consider the dependability of the software concerning these properties while the system is facing attacks. For distributed systems, fault-and-intrusion tolerance toolboxes already offer a few solutions to tolerate partial compromise of the system behind a majority of healthy components operating in consensus. In this paper, we present a concept of an intrusion-tolerant architecture for autonomous driving. In such a scenario, predictability and recovery challenges arise from the inclusion of increasingly more complex software on increasingly less predictable hardware. We highlight how an intrusion tolerant design can help solve these issues by allowing timeliness to emerge from a majority of complex components being fast enough, often enough while preserving safety under attack through pre-computed fail safes.
2020-07-20
Urien, Pascal.  2019.  Designing Attacks Against Automotive Control Area Network Bus and Electronic Control Units. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–4.
Security is a critical issue for new car generation targeting intelligent transportation systems (ITS), involving autonomous and connected vehicles. In this work we designed a low cost CAN probe and defined analysis tools in order to build attack scenarios. We reuse some threats identified by a previous work. Future researches will address new security protocols.
2020-07-03
Lisova, Elena, El Hachem, Jamal, Causevic, Aida.  2019.  Investigating Attack Propagation in a SoS via a Service Decomposition. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:9—14.

A term systems of systems (SoS) refers to a setup in which a number of independent systems collaborate to create a value that each of them is unable to achieve independently. Complexity of a SoS structure is higher compared to its constitute systems that brings challenges in analyzing its critical properties such as security. An SoS can be seen as a set of connected systems or services that needs to be adequately protected. Communication between such systems or services can be considered as a service itself, and it is the paramount for establishment of a SoS as it enables connections, dependencies, and a cooperation. Given that reliable and predictable communication contributes directly to a correct functioning of an SoS, communication as a service is one of the main assets to consider. Protecting it from malicious adversaries should be one of the highest priorities within SoS design and operation. This study aims to investigate the attack propagation problem in terms of service-guarantees through the decomposition into sub-services enriched with preconditions and postconditions at the service levels. Such analysis is required as a prerequisite for an efficient SoS risk assessment at the design stage of the SoS development life cycle to protect it from possibly high impact attacks capable of affecting safety of systems and humans using the system.

2020-05-08
Hafeez, Azeem, Topolovec, Kenneth, Awad, Selim.  2019.  ECU Fingerprinting through Parametric Signal Modeling and Artificial Neural Networks for In-vehicle Security against Spoofing Attacks. 2019 15th International Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO). :29—38.
Fully connected autonomous vehicles are more vulnerable than ever to hacking and data theft. The controller area network (CAN) protocol is used for communication between in-vehicle control networks (IVN). The absence of basic security features of this protocol, like message authentication, makes it quite vulnerable to a wide range of attacks including spoofing attacks. As traditional cybersecurity methods impose limitations in ensuring confidentiality and integrity of transmitted messages via CAN, a new technique has emerged among others to approve its reliability in fully authenticating the CAN messages. At the physical layer of the communication system, the method of fingerprinting the messages is implemented to link the received signal to the transmitting electronic control unit (ECU). This paper introduces a new method to implement the security of modern electric vehicles. The lumped element model is used to characterize the channel-specific step response. ECU and channel imperfections lead to a unique transfer function for each transmitter. Due to the unique transfer function, the step response for each transmitter is unique. In this paper, we use control system parameters as a feature-set, afterward, a neural network is used transmitting node identification for message authentication. A dataset collected from a CAN network with eight-channel lengths and eight ECUs to evaluate the performance of the suggested method. Detection results show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 97.4% of transmitter detection.
2019-10-30
Ghose, Nirnimesh, Lazos, Loukas, Li, Ming.  2018.  Secure Device Bootstrapping Without Secrets Resistant to Signal Manipulation Attacks. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :819-835.
In this paper, we address the fundamental problem of securely bootstrapping a group of wireless devices to a hub, when none of the devices share prior associations (secrets) with the hub or between them. This scenario aligns with the secure deployment of body area networks, IoT, medical devices, industrial automation sensors, autonomous vehicles, and others. We develop VERSE, a physical-layer group message integrity verification primitive that effectively detects advanced wireless signal manipulations that can be used to launch man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks over wireless. Without using shared secrets to establish authenticated channels, such attacks are notoriously difficult to thwart and can undermine the authentication and key establishment processes. VERSE exploits the existence of multiple devices to verify the integrity of the messages exchanged within the group. We then use VERSE to build a bootstrapping protocol, which securely introduces new devices to the network. Compared to the state-of-the-art, VERSE achieves in-band message integrity verification during secure pairing using only the RF modality without relying on out-of-band channels or extensive human involvement. It guarantees security even when the adversary is capable of fully controlling the wireless channel by annihilating and injecting wireless signals. We study the limits of such advanced wireless attacks and prove that the introduction of multiple legitimate devices can be leveraged to increase the security of the pairing process. We validate our claims via theoretical analysis and extensive experimentations on the USRP platform. We further discuss various implementation aspects such as the effect of time synchronization between devices and the effects of multipath and interference. Note that the elimination of shared secrets, default passwords, and public key infrastructures effectively addresses the related key management challenges when these are considered at scale.
2019-03-11
Oliveira, Luis, Luton, Jacob, Iyer, Sumeet, Burns, Chris, Mouzakitis, Alexandros, Jennings, Paul, Birrell, Stewart.  2018.  Evaluating How Interfaces Influence the User Interaction with Fully Autonomous Vehicles. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. :320–331.
With increasing automation, occupants of fully autonomous vehicles are likely to be completely disengaged from the driving task. However, even with no driving involved, there are still activities that will require interfaces between the vehicle and passengers. This study evaluated different configurations of screens providing operational-related information to occupants for tracking the progress of journeys. Surveys and interviews were used to measure trust, usability, workload and experience after users were driven by an autonomous low speed pod. Results showed that participants want to monitor the state of the vehicle and see details about the ride, including a map of the route and related information. There was a preference for this information to be displayed via an onboard touchscreen device combined with an overhead letterbox display versus a smartphone-based interface. This paper provides recommendations for the design of devices with the potential to improve the user interaction with future autonomous vehicles.
2019-03-06
Nieto, A., Acien, A., Lopez, J..  2018.  Capture the RAT: Proximity-Based Attacks in 5G Using the Routine Activity Theory. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :520-527.

The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) will enable different use cases where security will be more critical than ever before (e.g. autonomous vehicles and critical IoT devices). Unfortunately, the new networks are being built on the certainty that security problems cannot be solved in the short term. Far from reinventing the wheel, one of our goals is to allow security software developers to implement and test their reactive solutions for the capillary network of 5G devices. Therefore, in this paper a solution for analysing proximity-based attacks in 5G environments is modelled and tested using OMNET++. The solution, named CRAT, is able to decouple the security analysis from the hardware of the device with the aim to extend the analysis of proximity-based attacks to different use-cases in 5G. We follow a high-level approach, in which the devices can take the role of victim, offender and guardian following the principles of the routine activity theory.

2019-02-13
Mamun, A. Al, Mamun, M. Abdullah Al, Shikfa, A..  2018.  Challenges and Mitigation of Cyber Threat in Automated Vehicle: An Integrated Approach. 2018 International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive. :1–6.
The technological development of automated vehicles opens novel cybersecurity threats and risks for road safety. Increased connectivity often results in increased risks of a cyber-security attacks, which is one of the biggest challenges for the automotive industry that undergoes a profound transformation. State of the art studies evaluated potential attacks and recommended possible measures, from technical and organizational perspective to face these challenges. In this position paper, we review these techniques and methods and show that some of the different solutions complement each other while others overlap or are even incompatible or contradictory. Based on this gap analysis, we advocate for the need of a comprehensive framework that integrates technical and organizational mitigation measures to enhance the cybersecurity of automotive vehicles.
2019-02-08
Clark, G., Doran, M., Glisson, W..  2018.  A Malicious Attack on the Machine Learning Policy of a Robotic System. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :516-521.

The field of robotics has matured using artificial intelligence and machine learning such that intelligent robots are being developed in the form of autonomous vehicles. The anticipated widespread use of intelligent robots and their potential to do harm has raised interest in their security. This research evaluates a cyberattack on the machine learning policy of an autonomous vehicle by designing and attacking a robotic vehicle operating in a dynamic environment. The primary contribution of this research is an initial assessment of effective manipulation through an indirect attack on a robotic vehicle using the Q learning algorithm for real-time routing control. Secondly, the research highlights the effectiveness of this attack along with relevant artifact issues.

2018-09-05
Sajjad, Imran, Sharma, Rajnikant, Gerdes, Ryan.  2017.  A Game-Theoretic Approach and Evaluation of Adversarial Vehicular Platooning. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Safe Control of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles. :35–41.
In this paper, we consider an attack on a string of automated vehicles, or platoons, from a game-theoretic standpoint. Game theory enables us to ask the question of optimality in an adversarial environment; what is the optimal strategy that an attacker can use to disrupt the operation of automated vehicles, considering that the defenders are also optimally trying to maintain normal operation. We formulate a zero-sum game and find optimal controllers for different game parameters. A platoon is then simulated and its closed loop stability is then evaluated in the presence of an optimal attack. It is shown that with the constraint of optimality, the attacker cannot significantly degrade the stability of a vehicle platoon in nominal cases. It is motivated that in order to have an optimal solution that is nearly unstable, the game has to be formulated almost unfairly in favor of the attacker.
2018-05-30
Joy, Joshua, Gerla, Mario.  2017.  Privacy Risks in Vehicle Grids and Autonomous Cars. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on Smart, Autonomous, and Connected Vehicular Systems and Services. :19–23.

Traditionally, the vehicle has been the extension of the manual ambulatory system, docile to the drivers' commands. Recent advances in communications, controls and embedded systems have changed this model, paving the way to the Intelligent Vehicle Grid. The car is now a formidable sensor platform, absorbing information from the environment, from other cars (and from the driver) and feeding it to other cars and infrastructure to assist in safe navigation, pollution control and traffic management. The next step in this evolution is just around the corner: the Internet of Autonomous Vehicles. Like other important instantiations of the Internet of Things (e.g., the smart building, etc), the Internet of Vehicles will not only upload data to the Internet with V2I. It will also use V2V communications, storage, intelligence, and learning capabilities to anticipate the customers' intentions and learn from other peers. V2I and V2V are essential to the autonomous vehicle, but carry the risk of attacks. This paper will address the privacy attacks to which vehicles are exposed when they upload private data to Internet Servers. It will also outline efficient methods to preserve privacy.

2018-02-02
Chowdhury, M., Gawande, A., Wang, L..  2017.  Secure Information Sharing among Autonomous Vehicles in NDN. 2017 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). :15–26.

Autonomous vehicles must communicate with each other effectively and securely to make robust decisions. However, today's Internet falls short in supporting efficient data delivery and strong data security, especially in a mobile ad-hoc environment. Named Data Networking (NDN), a new data-centric Internet architecture, provides a better foundation for secure data sharing among autonomous vehicles. We examine two potential threats, false data dissemination and vehicle tracking, in an NDN-based autonomous vehicular network. To detect false data, we propose a four-level hierarchical trust model and the associated naming scheme for vehicular data authentication. Moreover, we address vehicle tracking concerns using a pseudonym scheme to anonymize vehicle names and certificate issuing proxies to further protect vehicle identity. Finally, we implemented and evaluated our AutoNDN application on Raspberry Pi-based mini cars in a wireless environment.

Tayeb, S., Pirouz, M., Latifi, S..  2017.  A Raspberry-Pi Prototype of Smart Transportation. 2017 25th International Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSEng). :176–182.

This paper proposes a prototype of a level 3 autonomous vehicle using Raspberry Pi, capable of detecting the nearby vehicles using an IR sensor. We make the first attempt to analyze autonomous vehicles from a microscopic level, focusing on each vehicle and their communications with the nearby vehicles and road-side units. Two sets of passive and active experiments on a pair of prototypes were run, demonstrating the interconnectivity of the developed prototype. Several sensors were incorporated into an emulation based on System-on-Chip to further demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model.

2017-12-20
Alheeti, K. M. A., McDonald-Maier, K..  2017.  An intelligent security system for autonomous cars based on infrared sensors. 2017 23rd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC). :1–5.
Safety and non-safety applications in the external communication systems of self-driving vehicles require authentication of control data, cooperative awareness messages and notification messages. Traditional security systems can prevent attackers from hacking or breaking important system functionality in autonomous vehicles. This paper presents a novel security system designed to protect vehicular ad hoc networks in self-driving and semi-autonomous vehicles that is based on Integrated Circuit Metric technology (ICMetrics). ICMetrics has the ability to secure communication systems in autonomous vehicles using features of the autonomous vehicle system itself. This security system is based on unique extracted features from vehicles behaviour and its sensors. Specifically, features have been extracted from bias values of infrared sensors which are used alongside semantically extracted information from a trace file of a simulated vehicular ad hoc network. The practical experimental implementation and evaluation of this system demonstrates the efficiency in identifying of abnormal/malicious behaviour typical for an attack.
2017-05-22
Lima, Antonio, Rocha, Francisco, Völp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2016.  Towards Safe and Secure Autonomous and Cooperative Vehicle Ecosystems. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Privacy. :59–70.

Semi-autonomous driver assists are already widely deployed and fully autonomous cars are progressively leaving the realm of laboratories. This evolution coexists with a progressive connectivity and cooperation, creating important safety and security challenges, the latter ranging from casual hackers to highly-skilled attackers, requiring a holistic analysis, under the perspective of fully-fledged ecosystems of autonomous and cooperative vehicles. This position paper attempts at contributing to a better understanding of the global threat plane and the specific threat vectors designers should be attentive to. We survey paradigms and mechanisms that may be used to overcome or at least mitigate the potential risks that may arise through the several threat vectors analyzed.

2017-04-20
McCall, Roderick, McGee, Fintan, Meschtscherjakov, Alexander, Louveton, Nicolas, Engel, Thomas.  2016.  Towards A Taxonomy of Autonomous Vehicle Handover Situations. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. :193–200.

This paper proposes a taxonomy of autonomous vehicle handover situations with a particular emphasis on situational awareness. It focuses on a number of research challenges such as: legal responsibility, the situational awareness level of the driver and the vehicle, the knowledge the vehicle must have of the driver's driving skills as well as the in-vehicle context. The taxonomy acts as a starting point for researchers and practitioners to frame the discussion on this complex problem.