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Bendre, Nihar, Desai, Kevin, Najafirad, Peyman.  2021.  Show Why the Answer is Correct! Towards Explainable AI using Compositional Temporal Attention. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3006–3012.
Visual Question Answering (VQA) models have achieved significant success in recent times. Despite the success of VQA models, they are mostly black-box models providing no reasoning about the predicted answer, thus raising questions for their applicability in safety-critical such as autonomous systems and cyber-security. Current state of the art fail to better complex questions and thus are unable to exploit compositionality. To minimize the black-box effect of these models and also to make them better exploit compositionality, we propose a Dynamic Neural Network (DMN), which can understand a particular question and then dynamically assemble various relatively shallow deep learning modules from a pool of modules to form a network. We incorporate compositional temporal attention to these deep learning based modules to increase compositionality exploitation. This results in achieving better understanding of complex questions and also provides reasoning as to why the module predicts a particular answer. Experimental analysis on the two benchmark datasets, VQA2.0 and CLEVR, depicts that our model outperforms the previous approaches for Visual Question Answering task as well as provides better reasoning, thus making it reliable for mission critical applications like safety and security.
Aguinaldo, Roberto Daniel, Solano, Geoffrey, Pontiveros, Marc Jermaine, Balolong, Marilen Parungao.  2021.  NAMData: A Web-application for the Network Analysis of Microbiome Data. TENCON 2021 - 2021 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :341–346.
Recent projects regarding the exploration of the functions of microbiomes within communities brought about a plethora of new data. That specific field of study is called Metagenomics and one of its more advancing approach is the application of network analysis. The paper introduces NAMData which is a web-application tool for the network analysis of microbiome data. The system handles the compositionality and sparsity nature of microbiome data by applying taxa filtration, normalization, and zero treatment. Furthermore, compositionally aware correlation estimators were used to compute for the correlation between taxa and the system divides the network into the positive and negative correlation network. NAMData aims to capitalize on the unique network features namely network visualization, centrality scores, and community detection. The system enables researchers to include network analysis in their analysis pipelines even without any knowledge of programming. Biological concepts can be integrated with the network findings gathered from the system to either support existing facts or form new insights.
Laird, James.  2021.  A Compositional Cost Model for the λ-calculus. 2021 36th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS). :1–13.
We describe a (time) cost model for the (call-by-value) λ-calculus based on a natural presentation of its game semantics: the cost of computing a finite approximant to the denotation of a term (its evaluation tree) is the size of its smallest derivation in the semantics. This measure has an optimality property enabling compositional reasoning about cost bounds: for any term A, context C[\_] and approximants a and c to the trees of A and C[A], the cost of computing c from C[A] is no more than the cost of computing a from A and c from C[a].Although the natural semantics on which it is based is nondeterministic, our cost model is reasonable: we describe a deterministic algorithm for recognizing evaluation tree approximants which satisfies it (up to a constant factor overhead) on a Random Access Machine. This requires an implementation of the λv-calculus on the RAM which is completely lazy: compositionality of costs entails that work done to evaluate any part of a term cannot be duplicated. This is achieved by a novel implementation of graph reduction for nameless explicit substitutions, to which we compile the λv-calculus via a series of linear cost reductions.
Gepperth, Alexander, Pfülb, Benedikt.  2021.  Image Modeling with Deep Convolutional Gaussian Mixture Models. 2021 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–9.
In this conceptual work, we present Deep Convolutional Gaussian Mixture Models (DCGMMs): a new formulation of deep hierarchical Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) that is particularly suitable for describing and generating images. Vanilla (i.e., flat) GMMs require a very large number of components to describe images well, leading to long training times and memory issues. DCGMMs avoid this by a stacked architecture of multiple GMM layers, linked by convolution and pooling operations. This allows to exploit the compositionality of images in a similar way as deep CNNs do. DCGMMs can be trained end-to-end by Stochastic Gradient Descent. This sets them apart from vanilla GMMs which are trained by Expectation-Maximization, requiring a prior k-means initialization which is infeasible in a layered structure. For generating sharp images with DCGMMs, we introduce a new gradient-based technique for sampling through non-invertible operations like convolution and pooling. Based on the MNIST and FashionMNIST datasets, we validate the DCGMMs model by demonstrating its superiority over flat GMMs for clustering, sampling and outlier detection.
Stegemann-Philipps, Christian, Butz, Martin V..  2021.  Learn It First: Grounding Language in Compositional Event-Predictive Encodings. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL). :1–6.
While language learning in infants and toddlers progresses somewhat seamlessly, in artificial systems the grounding of language in knowledge structures that are learned from sensorimotor experiences remains a hard challenge. Here we introduce LEARNA, which learns event-characterizing abstractions to resolve natural language ambiguity. LEARNA develops knowledge structures from simulated sensorimotor experiences. Given a possibly ambiguous descriptive utterance, the learned knowledge structures enable LEARNA to infer environmental scenes, and events unfolding within, which essentially constitute plausible imaginations of the utterance’s content. Similar event-predictive structures may help in developing artificial systems that can generate and comprehend descriptions of scenes and events.
Ventirozos, Filippos, Batista-Navarro, Riza, Clinch, Sarah, Arellanes, Damian.  2021.  IoT Cooking Workflows for End-Users: A Comparison Between Behaviour Trees and the DX-MAN Model. 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion (MODELS-C). :341–350.
A kitchen underpinned by the Internet of Things (IoT) requires the management of complex procedural processes. This is due to the fact that when supporting an end-user in the preparation of even only one dish, various devices may need to coordinate with each other. Additionally, it is challenging— yet desirable—to enable an end-user to program their kitchen devices according to their preferred behaviour and to allow them to visualise and track their cooking workflows. In this paper, we compared two semantic representations, namely, Behaviour Trees and the DX-MAN model. We analysed these representations based on their suitability for a range of end-users (i.e., novice to experienced). The methodology required the analysis of smart kitchen user requirements, from which we inferred that the main architectural requirements for IoT cooking workflows are variability and compositionality. Guided by the user requirements, we examined various scenarios and analysed workflow complexity and feasibility for each representation. On the one hand, we found that execution complexity tends to be higher on Behaviour Trees. However, due to their fallback node, they provide more transparency on how to recover from unprecedented circumstances. On the other hand, parameter complexity tends to be somewhat higher for the DX-MAN model. Nevertheless, the DX-MAN model can be favourable due to its compositionality aspect and the ease of visualisation it can offer.
Chen, Wenhu, Gan, Zhe, Li, Linjie, Cheng, Yu, Wang, William, Liu, Jingjing.  2021.  Meta Module Network for Compositional Visual Reasoning. 2021 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV). :655–664.
Neural Module Network (NMN) exhibits strong interpretability and compositionality thanks to its handcrafted neural modules with explicit multi-hop reasoning capability. However, most NMNs suffer from two critical draw-backs: 1) scalability: customized module for specific function renders it impractical when scaling up to a larger set of functions in complex tasks; 2) generalizability: rigid pre-defined module inventory makes it difficult to generalize to unseen functions in new tasks/domains. To design a more powerful NMN architecture for practical use, we propose Meta Module Network (MMN) centered on a novel meta module, which can take in function recipes and morph into diverse instance modules dynamically. The instance modules are then woven into an execution graph for complex visual reasoning, inheriting the strong explainability and compositionality of NMN. With such a flexible instantiation mechanism, the parameters of instance modules are inherited from the central meta module, retaining the same model complexity as the function set grows, which promises better scalability. Meanwhile, as functions are encoded into the embedding space, unseen functions can be readily represented based on its structural similarity with previously observed ones, which ensures better generalizability. Experiments on GQA and CLEVR datasets validate the superiority of MMN over state-of-the-art NMN designs. Synthetic experiments on held-out unseen functions from GQA dataset also demonstrate the strong generalizability of MMN. Our code and model are released in Github1.
Ji, Yi, Ohsawa, Yukio.  2021.  Mining Frequent and Rare Itemsets With Weighted Supports Using Additive Neural Itemset Embedding. 2021 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
Over the past two decades, itemset mining techniques have become an integral part of pattern mining in large databases. We present a novel system for mining frequent and rare itemsets simultaneously with supports weighted by cardinality in transactional datasets. Based on our neural item embedding with additive compositionality, the original mining problems are approximately reduced to polynomial-time convex optimization, namely a series of vector subset selection problems in Euclidean space. The numbers of transactions and items are no longer exponential factors of the time complexity under such reduction, except only the Euclidean space dimension, which can be assigned arbitrarily for a trade-off between mining speed and result quality. The efficacy of our method reveals that additive compositionality can be represented by linear translation in the itemset vector space, which resembles the linguistic regularities in word embedding by similar neural modeling. Experiments show that our learned embedding can bring pattern itemsets with higher accuracy than sampling-based lossy mining techniques in most cases, and the scalability of our mining approach triumphs over several state-of-the-art distributed mining algorithms.
Song, Lin, Wan, Neng, Gahlawat, Aditya, Hovakimyan, Naira, Theodorou, Evangelos A..  2021.  Compositionality of Linearly Solvable Optimal Control in Networked Multi-Agent Systems. 2021 American Control Conference (ACC). :1334–1339.
In this paper, we discuss the methodology of generalizing the optimal control law from learned component tasks to unlearned composite tasks on Multi-Agent Systems (MASs), by using the linearity composition principle of linearly solvable optimal control (LSOC) problems. The proposed approach achieves both the compositionality and optimality of control actions simultaneously within the cooperative MAS framework in both discrete and continuous-time in a sample-efficient manner, which reduces the burden of re-computation of the optimal control solutions for the new task on the MASs. We investigate the application of the proposed approach on the MAS with coordination between agents. The experiments show feasible results in investigated scenarios, including both discrete and continuous dynamical systems for task generalization without resampling.
Maruyama, Yoshihiro.  2021.  Learning, Development, and Emergence of Compositionality in Natural Language Processing. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL). :1–7.
There are two paradigms in language processing, as characterised by symbolic compositional and statistical distributional modelling, which may be regarded as based upon the principles of compositionality (or symbolic recursion) and of contextuality (or the distributional hypothesis), respectively. Starting with philosophy of language as in Frege and Wittgenstein, we elucidate the nature of language and language processing from interdisciplinary perspectives across different fields of science. At the same time, we shed new light on conceptual issues in language processing on the basis of recent advances in Transformer-based models such as BERT and GPT-3. We link linguistic cognition with mathematical cognition through these discussions, explicating symbol grounding/emergence problems shared by both of them. We also discuss whether animal cognition can develop recursive compositional information processing.
Amirian, Soheyla, Taha, Thiab R., Rasheed, Khaled, Arabnia, Hamid R..  2021.  Generative Adversarial Network Applications in Creating a Meta-Universe. 2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :175—179.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are machine learning methods that are used in many important and novel applications. For example, in imaging science, GANs are effectively utilized in generating image datasets, photographs of human faces, image and video captioning, image-to-image translation, text-to-image translation, video prediction, and 3D object generation to name a few. In this paper, we discuss how GANs can be used to create an artificial world. More specifically, we discuss how GANs help to describe an image utilizing image/video captioning methods and how to translate the image to a new image using image-to-image translation frameworks in a theme we desire. We articulate how GANs impact creating a customized world.
Mallik, Abhishek, Khetarpal, Anavi.  2021.  Turing Machine based Syllable Splitter. 2021 Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Technologies (CCICT). :87—90.
Nowadays, children, teens, and almost everyone around us tend to receive abundant and frequent advice regarding the usefulness of syllabification. Not only does it improve pronunciation, but it also makes it easier for us to read unfamiliar words in chunks of syllables rather than reading them all at once. Within this paper, we have designed, implemented, and presented a Turing machine-based syllable splitter. A Turing machine forms the theoretical basis for all modern computers and can be used to solve universal problems. On the other hand, a syllable splitter is used to hyphenate words into their corresponding syllables. We have proposed our work by illustrating the various states of the Turing machine, along with the rules it abides by, its machine specifications, and transition function. In addition to this, we have implemented a Graphical User Interface to stimulate our Turing machine to analyze our results better.
Zhan, Zhi-Hui, Wu, Sheng-Hao, Zhang, Jun.  2021.  A New Evolutionary Computation Framework for Privacy-Preserving Optimization. 2021 13th International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence (ICACI). :220—226.
Evolutionary computation (EC) is a kind of advanced computational intelligence (CI) algorithm and advanced artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm. EC algorithms have been widely studied for solving optimization and scheduling problems in various real-world applications, which act as one of the Big Three in CI and AI, together with fuzzy systems and neural networks. Even though EC has been fast developed in recent years, there is an assumption that the algorithm designer can obtain the objective function of the optimization problem so that they can calculate the fitness values of the individuals to follow the “survival of the fittest” principle in natural selection. However, in a real-world application scenario, there is a kind of problem that the objective function is privacy so that the algorithm designer can not obtain the fitness values of the individuals directly. This is the privacy-preserving optimization problem (PPOP) where the assumption of available objective function does not check out. How to solve the PPOP is a new emerging frontier with seldom study but is also a challenging research topic in the EC community. This paper proposes a rank-based cryptographic function (RCF) to protect the fitness value information. Especially, the RCF is adopted by the algorithm user to encrypt the fitness values of all the individuals as rank so that the algorithm designer does not know the exact fitness information but only the rank information. Nevertheless, the RCF can protect the privacy of the algorithm user but still can provide sufficient information to the algorithm designer to drive the EC algorithm. We have applied the RCF privacy-preserving method to two typical EC algorithms including particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE). Experimental results show that the RCF-based privacy-preserving PSO and DE can solve the PPOP without performance loss.
Kalpana, C., Booba, B..  2021.  Bio-Inspired Firefly Algorithm A Methodical Survey – Swarm Intelligence Algorithm. 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Applications (ICCICA). :1—7.
In the Swarm Intelligence domain, the firefly algorithm(s) is the most significant algorithm applied in most all optimization areas. FA and variants are easily understood and implemented. FA is capable of solving different domain problems. For solving diverse range of engineering problems requires modified FA or Hybrid FA algorithms, but it is possible additional scope of improvement. In recent times swarm intelligence based intelligent optimization algorithms have been used for Research purposes. FA is one of most important intelligence Swarm algorithm that can be applied for the problems of Global optimization. FA algorithm is capable of achieving best results for complicated issues. In this research study we have discussed and different characteristics of FA and presented brief Review of FA. Along with other metahauristic algorithm we have discussed FA algorithm’s different variant like multi objective, and hybrid. The applications of firefly algorithm are bestowed. The aim of the paper is to give future direction for research in FA.
Usman, Ali, Rafiq, Muhammad, Saeed, Muhammad, Nauman, Ali, Almqvist, Andreas, Liwicki, Marcus.  2021.  Machine Learning Computational Fluid Dynamics. 2021 Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society Workshop (SAIS). :1—4.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow is a significant research concern during the design process of a machine component that experiences fluid-structure interaction (FSI). State-of-the-art in traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made CFD reach a relative perfection level during the last couple of decades. However, the accuracy of CFD is highly dependent on mesh size; therefore, the computational cost depends on resolving the minor feature. The computational complexity grows even further when there are multiple physics and scales involved making the approach time-consuming. In contrast, machine learning (ML) has shown a highly encouraging capacity to forecast solutions for partial differential equations. A trained neural network has offered to make accurate approximations instantaneously compared with conventional simulation procedures. This study presents transient fluid flow prediction past a fully immersed body as an integral part of the ML-CFD project. MLCFD is a hybrid approach that involves initialising the CFD simulation domain with a solution forecasted by an ML model to achieve fast convergence in traditional CDF. Initial results are highly encouraging, and the entire time-based series of fluid patterns past the immersed structure is forecasted using a deep learning algorithm. Prepared results show a strong agreement compared with fluid flow simulation performed utilising CFD.
Simsek, Ozlem Imik, Alagoz, Baris Baykant.  2021.  A Computational Intelligent Analysis Scheme for Optimal Engine Behavior by Using Artificial Neural Network Learning Models and Harris Hawk Optimization. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :361—365.
Application of computational intelligence methods in data analysis and optimization problems can allow feasible and optimal solutions of complicated engineering problems. This study demonstrates an intelligent analysis scheme for determination of optimal operating condition of an internal combustion engine. For this purpose, an artificial neural network learning model is used to represent engine behavior based on engine data, and a metaheuristic optimization method is implemented to figure out optimal operating states of the engine according to the neural network learning model. This data analysis scheme is used for adjustment of optimal engine speed and fuel rate parameters to provide a maximum torque under Nitrous oxide emission constraint. Harris hawks optimization method is implemented to solve the proposed optimization problem. The solution of this optimization problem addresses eco-friendly enhancement of vehicle performance. Results indicate that this computational intelligent analysis scheme can find optimal operating regimes of an engine.
Bahel, Vedant, Mishra, Arunesh.  2021.  CI-MCMS: Computational Intelligence Based Machine Condition Monitoring System. 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :489—493.
Earlier around in year 1880’s, Industry 2.0 marked as change to the society caused by the invention of electricity. In today’s era, artificial intelligence plays a crucial role in defining the period of Industry 4.0. In this research study, we have presented Computational Intelligence based Machine Condition Monitoring system architecture for determination of developing faults in industrial machines. The goal is to increase efficiency of machines and reduce the cost. The architecture is fusion of machine sensitive sensors, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and databases, to develop an autonomous fault diagnostic system. To explain CI-MCMs, we have used neural networks on sensor data obtained from hydraulic system. The results obtained by neural network were compared with those obtained from traditional methods.
Singh, Ritesh, Khandelia, Kishan.  2021.  Web-based Computational Tools for Calculating Optimal Testing Pool Size for Diagnostic Tests of Infectious Diseases. 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Applications (ICCICA). :1—4.
Pooling together samples and testing the resulting mixture is gaining considerable interest as a potential method to markedly increase the rate of testing for SARS-CoV-2, given the resource limited conditions. Such pooling can also be employed for carrying out large scale diagnostic testing of other infectious diseases, especially when the available resources are limited. Therefore, it has become important to design a user-friendly tool to assist clinicians and policy makers, to determine optimal testing pool and sub-pool sizes for their specific scenarios. We have developed such a tool; the calculator web application is available at The algorithms employed are described and analyzed in this paper, and their application to other scientific fields is also discussed. We find that pooling always reduces the expected number of tests in all the conditions, at the cost of test sensitivity. The No sub-pooling optimal pool size calculator will be the most widely applicable one, because limitations of sample quantity will restrict sub-pooling in most conditions.
Song, Zhenlin, Sun, Linyun.  2021.  Comparing Performance and Efficiency of Designers and Design Intelligence. 2021 14th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design (ISCID). :57—60.
Intelligent design has been an emerging important area in the design. Existing works related to intelligent design use objective indicators to measure the quality of AI design by comparing the differences between AI-generated data and real data. However, the level of quality and efficiency of intelligent design compared to human designers remains unclear. We conducted user experiments to compare the design quality and efficiency of advanced design methods with that of junior designers. The conclusion is advanced intelligent design methods are comparable with junior designers on painting. Besides, intelligent design uses only 10% of the time spent by the junior designer in the tasks of layout design, color matching, and video editing.
Sooraksa, Nanta.  2021.  A Survey of using Computational Intelligence (CI) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Human Resource (HR) Analytics. 2021 7th International Conference on Engineering, Applied Sciences and Technology (ICEAST). :129—132.
Human Resource (HR) Analytics has been increasingly attracted attention for a past decade. This is because the study field is adopted data-driven approaches to be processed and interpreted for meaningful insights in human resources. The field is involved in HR decision making helping to understand why people, organization, or other business performance behaved the way they do. Embracing the available tools for decision making and learning in the field of computational intelligence (CI) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the field of HR, this creates tremendous opportunities for HR Analytics in practical aspects. However, there are still inadequate applications in this area. This paper serves as a survey of using the tools and their applications in HR involving recruitment, retention, reward and retirement. An example of using CI and AI for career development and training in the era of disruption is conceptually proposed.
Farrukh, Yasir Ali, Ahmad, Zeeshan, Khan, Irfan, Elavarasan, Rajvikram Madurai.  2021.  A Sequential Supervised Machine Learning Approach for Cyber Attack Detection in a Smart Grid System. 2021 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Modern smart grid systems are heavily dependent on Information and Communication Technology, and this dependency makes them prone to cyber-attacks. The occurrence of a cyber-attack has increased in recent years resulting in substantial damage to power systems. For a reliable and stable operation, cyber protection, control, and detection techniques are becoming essential. Automated detection of cyberattacks with high accuracy is a challenge. To address this, we propose a two-layer hierarchical machine learning model having an accuracy of 95.44 % to improve the detection of cyberattacks. The first layer of the model is used to distinguish between the two modes of operation - normal state or cyberattack. The second layer is used to classify the state into different types of cyberattacks. The layered approach provides an opportunity for the model to focus its training on the targeted task of the layer, resulting in improvement in model accuracy. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, we compared its performance against other recent cyber attack detection models proposed in the literature.
Xu, Zhengwei, Ge, Yuan, Cao, Jin, Yang, Shuquan, Lin, Qiyou, Zhou, Xu.  2021.  Robustness Analysis of Cyber-Physical Power System Based on Adjacent Matrix Evolution. 2021 China Automation Congress (CAC). :2104—2109.
Considering the influence of load, This paper proposes a robust analysis method of cyber-physical power system based on the evolution of adjacency matrix. This method uses the load matrix to detect whether the system has overload failure, utilizes the reachable matrix to detect whether the system has unconnected failure, and uses the dependency matrix to reveal the cascading failure mechanism in the system. Finally, analyze the robustness of the cyber-physical power system. The IEEE30 standard node system is taken as an example for simulation experiment, and introduced the connectivity index and the load loss ratio as evaluation indexes. The robustness of the system is evaluated and analyzed by comparing the variation curves of connectivity index and load loss ratio under different tolerance coefficients. The results show that the proposed method is feasible, reduces the complexity of graph-based attack methods, and easy to research and analyze.
Khanzadi, Pouria, Kordnoori, Shirin, Vasigh, Zahra, Mostafaei, Hamidreza, Akhtarkavan, Ehsan.  2021.  A Cyber Physical System based Stochastic Process Language With NuSMV Model Checker. 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Technology, System and Service for Internet of Everything (ITSS-IoE). :1—8.
Nowadays, cyber physical systems are playing an important role in human life in which they provide features that make interactions between human and machine easier. To design and analysis such systems, the main problem is their complexity. In this paper, we propose a description language for cyber physical systems based on stochastic processes. The proposed language is called SPDL (Stochastic Description Process Language). For designing SPDL, two main parts are considered for Cyber Physical Systems (CSP): embedded systems and physical environment. Then these parts are defined as stochastic processes and CPS is defined as a tuple. Syntax and semantics of SPDL are stated based on the proposed definition. Also, the semantics are defined as by set theory. For implementation of SPDL, dependencies between words of a requirements are extracted as a tree data structure. Based on the dependencies, SPDL is used for describing the CPS. Also, a lexical analyzer and a parser based on a defined BNF grammar for SPDL is designed and implemented. Finally, SPDL of CPS is transformed to NuSMV which is a symbolic model checker. The Experimental results show that SPDL is capable of describing cyber physical systems by natural language.
Akowuah, Francis, Kong, Fanxin.  2021.  Real-Time Adaptive Sensor Attack Detection in Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems. 2021 IEEE 27th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). :237—250.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) tightly couple information technology with physical processes, which rises new vulnerabilities such as physical attacks that are beyond conventional cyber attacks. Attackers may non-invasively compromise sensors and spoof the controller to perform unsafe actions. This issue is even emphasized with the increasing autonomy in CPS. While this fact has motivated many defense mechanisms against sensor attacks, a clear vision on the timing and usability (or the false alarm rate) of attack detection still remains elusive. Existing works tend to pursue an unachievable goal of minimizing the detection delay and false alarm rate at the same time, while there is a clear trade-off between the two metrics. Instead, we argue that attack detection should bias different metrics when a system sits in different states. For example, if the system is close to unsafe states, reducing the detection delay is preferable to lowering the false alarm rate, and vice versa. To achieve this, we make the following contributions. In this paper, we propose a real-time adaptive sensor attack detection framework. The framework can dynamically adapt the detection delay and false alarm rate so as to meet a detection deadline and improve the usability according to different system status. The core component of this framework is an attack detector that identifies anomalies based on a CUSUM algorithm through monitoring the cumulative sum of difference (or residuals) between the nominal (predicted) and observed sensor values. We augment this algorithm with a drift parameter that can govern the detection delay and false alarm. The second component is a behavior predictor that estimates nominal sensor values fed to the core component for calculating the residuals. The predictor uses a deep learning model that is offline extracted from sensor data through leveraging convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN). The model relies on little knowledge of the system (e.g., dynamics), but uncovers and exploits both the local and complex long-term dependencies in multivariate sequential sensor measurements. The third component is a drift adaptor that estimates a detection deadline and then determines the drift parameter fed to the detector component for adjusting the detection delay and false alarms. Finally, we implement the proposed framework and validate it using realistic sensor data of automotive CPS to demonstrate its efficiency and efficacy.
Patel, Mansi, Prabhu, S Raja, Agrawal, Animesh Kumar.  2021.  Network Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Detection of Cyber Attacks. 2021 8th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom). :642—646.
Preventing the cyberattacks has been a concern for any organization. In this research, the authors propose a novel method to detect cyberattacks by monitoring and analyzing the network traffic. It was observed that the various log files that are created in the server does not contain all the relevant traces to detect a cyberattack. Hence, the HTTP traffic to the web server was analyzed to detect any potential cyberattacks. To validate the research, a web server was simulated using the Opensource Damn Vulnerable Web Application (DVWA) and the cyberattacks were simulated as per the OWASP standards. A python program was scripted that captured the network traffic to the DVWA server. This traffic was analyzed in real-time by reading the various HTTP parameters viz., URLs, Get / Post methods and the dependencies. The results were found to be encouraging as all the simulated attacks in real-time could be successfully detected. This work can be used as a template by various organizations to prevent any insider threat by monitoring the internal HTTP traffic.