Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is situational awareness  [Clear All Filters]
2020-02-17
Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A..  2019.  Maritime Situational Awareness Forensics Tools for a Common Information Sharing Environment (CISE). 2019 4th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech). :1–5.
CISE stands for Common Information Sharing Environment and refers to an architecture and set of protocols, procedures and services for the exchange of data and information across Maritime Authorities of EU (European Union) Member States (MS's). In the context of enabling the implementation and adoption of CISE by different MS's, EU has funded a number of projects that enable the development of subsystems and adaptors intended to allow MS's to connect and make use of CISE. In this context, the Integrated Systems Laboratory (ISL) has led the development of the corresponding Hellenic and Cypriot CISE by developing a Control, Command & Information (C2I) system that unifies all partial maritime surveillance systems into one National Situational Picture Management (NSPM) system, and adaptors that allow the interconnection of the corresponding national legacy systems to CISE and the exchange of data, information and requests between the two MS's. Furthermore, a set of forensics tools that allow geospatial & time filtering and detection of anomalies, risk incidents, fake MMSIs, suspicious speed changes, collision paths, and gaps in AIS (Automatic Identification System), have been developed by combining motion models, AI, deep learning and fusion algorithms using data from different databases through CISE. This paper briefly discusses these developments within the EU CISE-2020, Hellenic CISE and CY-CISE projects and the benefits from the sharing of maritime data across CISE for both maritime surveillance and security. The prospect of using CISE for the creation of a considerably rich database that could be used for forensics analysis and detection of suspicious maritime traffic and maritime surveillance is discussed.
Rodriguez, Ariel, Okamura, Koji.  2019.  Generating Real Time Cyber Situational Awareness Information Through Social Media Data Mining. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:502–507.
With the rise of the internet many new data sources have emerged that can be used to help us gain insights into the cyber threat landscape and can allow us to better prepare for cyber attacks before they happen. With this in mind, we present an end to end real time cyber situational awareness system which aims to efficiently retrieve security relevant information from the social networking site Twitter.com. This system classifies and aggregates the data retrieved and provides real time cyber situational awareness information based on sentiment analysis and data analytics techniques. This research will assist security analysts to evaluate the level of cyber risk in their organization and proactively take actions to plan and prepare for potential attacks before they happen as well as contribute to the field through a cybersecurity tweet dataset.
Liu, Haitian, Han, Weihong, jia, Yan.  2019.  Construction of Cyber Range Network Security Indication System Based on Deep Learning. 2019 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :495–502.
The main purpose of this paper is to solve the problem of quantitative and qualitative evaluation of network security. Referring to the relevant network security situation assessment algorithms, and by means of advanced artificial intelligence deep learning technology, to build a network security Indication System based on Cyber Range, and optimize the guidance model of deep learning technology.
Legg, Phil, Blackman, Tim.  2019.  Tools and Techniques for Improving Cyber Situational Awareness of Targeted Phishing Attacks. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–4.
Phishing attacks continue to be one of the most common attack vectors used online today to deceive users, such that attackers can obtain unauthorised access or steal sensitive information. Phishing campaigns often vary in their level of sophistication, from mass distribution of generic content, such as delivery notifications, online purchase orders, and claims of winning the lottery, through to bespoke and highly-personalised messages that convincingly impersonate genuine communications (e.g., spearphishing attacks). There is a distinct trade-off here between the scale of an attack versus the effort required to curate content that is likely to convince an individual to carry out an action (typically, clicking a malicious hyperlink). In this short paper, we conduct a preliminary study on a recent realworld incident that strikes a balance between attacking at scale and personalised content. We adopt different visualisation tools and techniques for better assessing the scale and impact of the attack, that can be used both by security professionals to analyse the security incident, but could also be used to inform employees as a form of security awareness and training. We pitched the approach to IT professionals working in information security, who believe this may provide improved awareness of how targeted phishing campaigns can impact an organisation, and could contribute towards a pro-active step of how analysts will examine and mitigate the impact of future attacks across the organisation.
Jia, Zhuosheng, Han, Zhen.  2019.  Research and Analysis of User Behavior Fingerprint on Security Situational Awareness Based on DNS Log. 2019 6th International Conference on Behavioral, Economic and Socio-Cultural Computing (BESC). :1–4.
Before accessing Internet websites or applications, network users first ask the Domain Name System (DNS) for the corresponding IP address, and then the user's browser or application accesses the required resources through the IP address. The server log of DNS keeps records of all users' requesting queries. This paper analyzes the user network accessing behavior by analyzing network DNS log in campus, constructing a behavior fingerprint model for each user. Different users and even same user's fingerprints in different periods can be used to determine whether the user's access is abnormal or safe, whether it is infected with malicious code. After detecting the behavior of abnormal user accessing, preventing the spread of viruses, Trojans, bots and attacks is made possible, which further assists the protection of users' network access security through corresponding techniques. Finally, analysis of user behavior fingerprints of campus network access is conducted.
Jacq, Olivier, Brosset, David, Kermarrec, Yvon, Simonin, Jacques.  2019.  Cyber Attacks Real Time Detection: Towards a Cyber Situational Awareness for Naval Systems. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–2.
Over the last years, the maritime sector has seen an important increase in digital systems on board. Whether used for platform management, navigation, logistics or office tasks, a modern ship can be seen as a fully featured, complex and moving information system. Meanwhile, cyber threats on the sector are real and, for instance, the year 2018 has seen a number of harmful public ransomware attacks impacting shore and ashore assets. Gaining cyber situation recognition, comprehension and projection through Maritime Cyber Situational Awareness is therefore a challenging but essential task for the sector. However, its elaboration has to face a number of issues, such as the collect and fusion of real-time data coming from the ships and an efficient visualization and situation sharing across maritime actors. In this paper, we describe our current work and results for maritime cyber situational awareness elaboration. Even if its development is still going on, the first operational feedback is very encouraging.
Ezick, James, Henretty, Tom, Baskaran, Muthu, Lethin, Richard, Feo, John, Tuan, Tai-Ching, Coley, Christopher, Leonard, Leslie, Agrawal, Rajeev, Parsons, Ben et al..  2019.  Combining Tensor Decompositions and Graph Analytics to Provide Cyber Situational Awareness at HPC Scale. 2019 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC). :1–7.
This paper describes MADHAT (Multidimensional Anomaly Detection fusing HPC, Analytics, and Tensors), an integrated workflow that demonstrates the applicability of HPC resources to the problem of maintaining cyber situational awareness. MADHAT combines two high-performance packages: ENSIGN for large-scale sparse tensor decompositions and HAGGLE for graph analytics. Tensor decompositions isolate coherent patterns of network behavior in ways that common clustering methods based on distance metrics cannot. Parallelized graph analysis then uses directed queries on a representation that combines the elements of identified patterns with other available information (such as additional log fields, domain knowledge, network topology, whitelists and blacklists, prior feedback, and published alerts) to confirm or reject a threat hypothesis, collect context, and raise alerts. MADHAT was developed using the collaborative HPC Architecture for Cyber Situational Awareness (HACSAW) research environment and evaluated on structured network sensor logs collected from Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN) sites using HPC resources at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (ERDC DSRC). To date, MADHAT has analyzed logs with over 650 million entries.
Eckhart, Matthias, Ekelhart, Andreas, Weippl, Edgar.  2019.  Enhancing Cyber Situational Awareness for Cyber-Physical Systems through Digital Twins. 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1222–1225.
Operators of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) need to maintain awareness of the cyber situation in order to be able to adequately address potential issues in a timely manner. For instance, detecting early symptoms of cyber attacks may speed up the incident response process and mitigate consequences of attacks (e.g., business interruption, safety hazards). However, attaining a full understanding of the cyber situation may be challenging, given the complexity of CPSs and the ever-changing threat landscape. In particular, CPSs typically need to be continuously operational, may be sensitive to active scanning, and often provide only limited in-depth analysis capabilities. To address these challenges, we propose to utilize the concept of digital twins for enhancing cyber situational awareness. Digital twins, i.e., virtual replicas of systems, can run in parallel to their physical counterparts and allow deep inspection of their behavior without the risk of disrupting operational technology services. This paper reports our work in progress to develop a cyber situational awareness framework based on digital twins that provides a profound, holistic, and current view on the cyber situation that CPSs are in. More specifically, we present a prototype that provides real-time visualization features (i.e., system topology, program variables of devices) and enables a thorough, repeatable investigation process on a logic and network level. A brief explanation of technological use cases and outlook on future development efforts completes this work.
Asadi, Nima, Rege, Aunshul, Obradovic, Zoran.  2019.  Pattern Discovery in Intrusion Chains and Adversarial Movement. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–4.
Capturing the patterns in adversarial movement can present crucial insight into team dynamics and organization of cybercrimes. This information can be used for additional assessment and comparison of decision making approaches during cyberattacks. In this study, we propose a data-driven analysis based on time series analysis and social networks to identify patterns and alterations in time allocated to intrusion stages and adversarial movements. The results of this analysis on two case studies of collegiate cybersecurity exercises is provided as well as an analytical comparison of their behavioral trends and characteristics. This paper presents preliminary insight into complexities of individual and group level adversarial movement and decision-making as cyberattacks unfold.
2019-12-16
McDermott, Christopher D., Jeannelle, Bastien, Isaacs, John P..  2019.  Towards a Conversational Agent for Threat Detection in the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.
A conversational agent to detect anomalous traffic in consumer IoT networks is presented. The agent accepts two inputs in the form of user speech received by Amazon Alexa enabled devices, and classified IDS logs stored in a DynamoDB Table. Aural analysis is used to query the database of network traffic, and respond accordingly. In doing so, this paper presents a solution to the problem of making consumers situationally aware when their IoT devices are infected, and anomalous traffic has been detected. The proposed conversational agent addresses the issue of how to present network information to non-technical users, for better comprehension, and improves awareness of threats derived from the mirai botnet malware.
2019-06-17
Väisänen, Teemu, Noponen, Sami, Latvala, Outi-Marja, Kuusijärvi, Jarkko.  2018.  Combining Real-Time Risk Visualization and Anomaly Detection. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings. :55:1-55:7.

Traditional risk management produces a rather static listing of weaknesses, probabilities and mitigations. Large share of cyber security risks realize through computer networks. These attacks or attack attempts produce events that are detected by various monitoring techniques such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Often the link between detecting these potentially dangerous real-time events and risk management process is lacking, or completely missing. This paper presents means for transferring and visualizing the network events in the risk management instantly with a tool called Metrics Visualization System (MVS). The tool is used to dynamically visualize network security events of a Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) network running in Software Defined Networking (SDN) context as a case study. Visualizations are presented with a treelike graph, that gives a quick easily understandable overview of the cyber security situation. This paper also discusses what network security events are monitored and how they affect the more general risk levels. The major benefit of this approach is that the risk analyst is able to map the designed risk tree/security metrics into actual real-time events and view the system's security posture with the help of a runtime visualization view.

2019-03-28
Schroeder, Jill M., Manz, David O., Amaya, Jodi P., McMakin, Andrea H., Bays, Ryan M..  2018.  Understanding Past, Current and Future Communication and Situational Awareness Technologies for First Responders. Proceedings of the Fifth Cybersecurity Symposium. :2:1-2:14.
This study builds a foundation for improving research for first responder communication and situational awareness technology in the future. In an online survey, we elicited the opinions of 250 U.S. first responders about effectiveness, security, and reliability of past, current, and future Internet of Things technology. The most desired features respondents identified were connectivity, reliability, interoperability, and affordability. The top barriers to technology adoption and use included restricted budgets/costs, interoperability, insufficient training resources, and insufficient interagency collaboration and communication. First responders in all job types indicated that technology has made first responder equipment more useful, and technology that supports situational awareness is particularly valued. As such, future Internet of Things capabilities, such as tapping into smart device data in residences and piggybacking onto alternative communication channels, could be valuable for future first responders. Potential areas for future investigation are suggested for technology development and research.
Husák, Martin, Neshenko, Nataliia, Pour, Morteza Safaei, Bou-Harb, Elias, \v Celeda, Pavel.  2018.  Assessing Internet-Wide Cyber Situational Awareness of Critical Sectors. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :29:1-29:6.
In this short paper, we take a first step towards empirically assessing Internet-wide malicious activities generated from and targeted towards Internet-scale business sectors (i.e., financial, health, education, etc.) and critical infrastructure (i.e., utilities, manufacturing, government, etc.). Facilitated by an innovative and a collaborative large-scale effort, we have conducted discussions with numerous Internet entities to obtain rare and private information related to allocated IP blocks pertaining to the aforementioned sectors and critical infrastructure. To this end, we employ such information to attribute Internet-scale maliciousness to such sectors and realms, in an attempt to provide an in-depth analysis of the global cyber situational posture. We draw upon close to 16.8 TB of darknet data to infer probing activities (typically generated by malicious/infected hosts) and DDoS backscatter, from which we distill IP addresses of victims. By executing week-long measurements, we observed an alarming number of more than 11,000 probing machines and 300 DDoS attack victims hosted by critical sectors. We also generate rare insights related to the maliciousness of various business sectors, including financial, which typically do not report their hosted and targeted illicit activities for reputation-preservation purposes. While we treat the obtained results with strict confidence due to obvious sensitivity reasons, we postulate that such generated cyber threat intelligence could be shared with sector/critical infrastructure operators, backbone networks and Internet service providers to contribute to the overall threat remediation objective.
Silva, F. R. L., Jacob, P..  2018.  Mission-Centric Risk Assessment to Improve Cyber Situational Awareness. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :56:1-56:8.

Cyber situational awareness has become increasingly important for proactive risk management to help detect and mitigate cyber attacks. Being aware of the importance of individual information system assets to the goal or mission of the organisation is critical to help minimise enterprise risk. However current risk assessment methodologies do not give explicit support to assess mission related asset criticality. This paper describes ongoing efforts within the H2020 PROTECTIVE project to define a practical mission-centric risk assessment methodology for use across diverse organisation types.

Joo, M., Seo, J., Oh, J., Park, M., Lee, K..  2018.  Situational Awareness Framework for Cyber Crime Prevention Model in Cyber Physical System. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :837-842.
Recently, IoT, 5G mobile, big data, and artificial intelligence are increasingly used in the real world. These technologies are based on convergenced in Cyber Physical System(Cps). Cps technology requires core technologies to ensure reliability, real-time, safety, autonomy, and security. CPS is the system that can connect between cyberspace and physical space. Cyberspace attacks are confused in the real world and have a lot of damage. The personal information that dealing in CPS has high confidentiality, so the policies and technique will needed to protect the attack in advance. If there is an attack on the CPS, not only personal information but also national confidential data can be leaked. In order to prevent this, the risk is measured using the Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) Model, which can measure risk by element for situational awareness in CPS environment. To reduce risk by preventing attacks in CPS, this paper measures risk after using the concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design(CPTED).
Varga, S., Brynielsson, J., Franke, U..  2018.  Information Requirements for National Level Cyber Situational Awareness. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :774-781.

As modern societies become more dependent on IT services, the potential impact both of adversarial cyberattacks and non-adversarial service management mistakes grows. This calls for better cyber situational awareness-decision-makers need to know what is going on. The main focus of this paper is to examine the information elements that need to be collected and included in a common operational picture in order for stakeholders to acquire cyber situational awareness. This problem is addressed through a survey conducted among the participants of a national information assurance exercise conducted in Sweden. Most participants were government officials and employees of commercial companies that operate critical infrastructure. The results give insight into information elements that are perceived as useful, that can be contributed to and required from other organizations, which roles and stakeholders would benefit from certain information, and how the organizations work with creating cyber common operational pictures today. Among findings, it is noteworthy that adversarial behavior is not perceived as interesting, and that the respondents in general focus solely on their own organization.

Llopis, S., Hingant, J., Pérez, I., Esteve, M., Carvajal, F., Mees, W., Debatty, T..  2018.  A Comparative Analysis of Visualisation Techniques to Achieve Cyber Situational Awareness in the Military. 2018 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1-7.
Starting from a common fictional scenario, simulated data sources and a set of measurements will feed two different visualization techniques with the aim to make a comparative analysis. Both visualization techniques described in this paper use the operational picture concept, deemed as the most appropriate tool for military commanders and their staff to achieve cyber situational awareness and to understand the cyber defence implications in operations. Cyber Common Operational Picture (CyCOP) is a tool developed by Universitat Politècnica de València in collaboration with the Spanish Ministry of Defence whose objective is to generate the Cyber Hybrid Situational Awareness (CyHSA). Royal Military Academy in Belgium developed a 3D Operational Picture able to display mission critical elements intuitively using a priori defined domain-knowledge. A comparative analysis will assist researchers in their way to progress solutions and implementation aspects.
McDermott, C. D., Petrovski, A. V., Majdani, F..  2018.  Towards Situational Awareness of Botnet Activity in the Internet of Things. 2018 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1-8.
The following topics are dealt with: security of data; risk management; decision making; computer crime; invasive software; critical infrastructures; data privacy; insurance; Internet of Things; learning (artificial intelligence).
He, F., Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Zhou, W..  2018.  SCPN-Based Game Model for Security Situational Awareness in the Intenet of Things. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-5.
Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized by various of heterogeneous devices that facing numerous threats, which makes modeling security situation of IoT still a certain challenge. This paper defines a Stochastic Colored Petri Net (SCPN) for IoT-based smart environment and then proposes a Game model for security situational awareness. All possible attack paths are computed by the SCPN, and antagonistic behavior of both attackers and defenders are taken into consideration dynamically according to Game Theory (GT). Experiments on two typical attack scenarios in smart home environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed model can form a macroscopic trend curve of the security situation. Analysis of the results shows the capabilities of the proposed model in finding vulnerable devices and potential attack paths, and even facilitating the choice of defense strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use Game Theory in the IoT-based SCPN to establish a security situational awareness model for a complex smart environment.
Chen, J., Xu, R., Li, C..  2018.  Research of Security Situational Awareness and Visualization Approach in Cloud Computing. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :201-205.
Cloud computing is an innovative mechanism to optimize computing and storage resource utilization. Due to its cost-saving, high-efficiency advantage, the technology receives wide adoption from IT industries. However, the frequent emergences of security events become the heaviest obstacle for its advancement. The multi-layer and distributive characteristics of cloud computing make IT admins compulsively collect all necessary situational information at cloud runtime if they want to grasp the panoramic secure state, hereby practice configuration management and emergency response methods when necessary. On the other hand, technologies such as elastic resource pooling, dynamic load balancing and virtual machine real-time migration complicate the difficulty of data gathering, where secure information may come from virtual machine hypervisor, network accounting or host monitor proxies. How to classify, arrange, standardize and visualize these data turns into the most crucial issue for cloud computing security situation awareness and presentation. This dissertation borrows traditional fashion of data visualization to integrate into cloud computing features, proposes a new method for aggregating and displaying secure information which IT admins concern, and expects that by method realization cloud security monitor/management capabilities could be notably enhanced.
Stavrou, E..  2018.  Enhancing Cyber Situational Awareness: A New Perspective of Password Auditing Tools. 2018 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1-4.

Password auditing can enhance the cyber situational awareness of defenders, e.g. cyber security/IT professionals, with regards to the strength of text-based authentication mechanisms utilized in an organization. Auditing results can proactively indicate if weak passwords exist in an organization, decreasing the risks of compromisation. Password cracking is a typical and time-consuming way to perform password auditing. Given that defenders perform password auditing within a specific evaluation timeframe, the cracking process needs to be optimized to yield useful results. Existing password cracking tools do not provide holistic features to optimize the process. Therefore, the need arises to build new password auditing toolkits to assist defenders to achieve their task in an effective and efficient way. Moreover, to maximize the benefits of password auditing, a security policy should be utilized. Currently the efforts focus on the specification of password security policies, providing rules on how to construct passwords. This work proposes the functionality that should be supported by next-generation password auditing toolkits and provides guidelines to drive the specification of a relevant password auditing policy.

2018-11-19
Culler, M., Davis, K..  2018.  Toward a Sensor Trustworthiness Measure for Grid-Connected IoT-Enabled Smart Cities. 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). :168–171.

Traditional security measures for large-scale critical infrastructure systems have focused on keeping adversaries out of the system. As the Internet of Things (IoT) extends into millions of homes, with tens or hundreds of devices each, the threat landscape is complicated. IoT devices have unknown access capabilities with unknown reach into other systems. This paper presents ongoing work on how techniques in sensor verification and cyber-physical modeling and analysis on bulk power systems can be applied to identify malevolent IoT devices and secure smart and connected communities against the most impactful threats.

Lee, K., Reardon, C., Fink, J..  2018.  Augmented Reality in Human-Robot Cooperative Search. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). :1–1.

Robots operating alongside humans in field environments have the potential to greatly increase the situational awareness of their human teammates. A significant challenge, however, is the efficient conveyance of what the robot perceives to the human in order to achieve improved situational awareness. We believe augmented reality (AR), which allows a human to simultaneously perceive the real world and digital information situated virtually in the real world, has the potential to address this issue. We propose to demonstrate that augmented reality can be used to enable human-robot cooperative search, where the robot can both share search results and assist the human teammate in navigating to a search target.

2018-02-06
Guion, J., Reith, M..  2017.  Cyber Terrain Mission Mapping: Tools and Methodologies. 2017 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :105–111.

The Air Force is shifting its cybersecurity paradigm from an information technology (IT)-centric toward a mission oriented approach. Instead of focusing on how to defend its IT infrastructure, it seeks to provide mission assurance by defending mission relevant cyber terrain enabling mission execution in a contested environment. In order to actively defend a mission in cyberspace, efforts must be taken to understand and document that mission's dependence on cyberspace and cyber assets. This is known as cyber terrain mission mapping. This paper seeks to define mission mapping and overview methodologies. We also analyze current tools seeking to provide cyber situational awareness through mission mapping or cyber dependency impact analysis and identify existing shortfalls.

Brannsten, M. R., Bloebaum, T. H., Johnsen, F. T., Reitan, B. K..  2017.  Kings Eye: Platform Independent Situational Awareness. 2017 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–5.

Kings Eye is a platform independent situational awareness prototype for smart devices. Platform independence is important as there are more and more soldiers bringing their own devices, with different operating systems, into the field. The concept of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is a low-cost approach to equipping soldiers with situational awareness tools and by this it is important to facilitate and evaluate such solutions.