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Hyunki-Kim, Jinhyeok-Oh, Changuk-Jang, Okyeon-Yi, Juhong-Han, Hansaem-Wi, Chanil-Park.  2019.  Analysis of the Noise Source Entropy Used in OpenSSL’s Random Number Generation Mechanism. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :59–62.
OpenSSL is an open source library that implements the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), a security protocol used by the TCP/IP layer. All cryptographic systems require random number generation for many reasons, such as cryptographic key generation and protocol challenge/response, OpenSSL is also the same. OpenSSL can be run on a variety of operating systems. especially when generating random numbers on Unix-like operating systems, it can use /dev /(u)random [6], as a seed to add randomness. In this paper, we analyze the process provided by OpenSSL when random number generation is required. We also provide considerations for application developers and OpenSSL users to use /dev/urandom and real-time clock (nanoseconds of timespec structure) as a seed to generate cryptographic random numbers in the Unix family.
Benthall, S..  2017.  Assessing Software Supply Chain Risk Using Public Data. 2017 IEEE 28th Annual Software Technology Conference (STC). :1–5.

The software supply chain is a source of cybersecurity risk for many commercial and government organizations. Public data may be used to inform automated tools for detecting software supply chain risk during continuous integration and deployment. We link data from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) with open version control data for the open source project OpenSSL, a widely used secure networking library that made the news when a significant vulnerability, Heartbleed, was discovered in 2014. We apply the Alhazmi-Malaiya Logistic (AML) model for software vulnerability discovery to this case. This model predicts a sigmoid cumulative vulnerability discovery function over time. Some versions of OpenSSL do not conform to the predictions of the model because they contain a temporary plateau in the cumulative vulnerability discovery plot. This temporary plateau feature is an empirical signature of a security failure mode that may be useful in future studies of software supply chain risk.

Fan, Shuqin, Wang, Wenbo, Cheng, Qingfeng.  2016.  Attacking OpenSSL Implementation of ECDSA with a Few Signatures. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1505–1515.

In this work, we give a lattice attack on the ECDSA implementation in the latest version of OpenSSL, which implement the scalar multiplication by windowed Non-Adjacent Form method. We propose a totally different but more efficient method of extracting and utilizing information from the side-channel results, remarkably improving the previous attacks. First, we develop a new efficient method, which can extract almost all information from the side-channel results, obtaining 105.8 bits of information per signature on average for 256-bit ECDSA. Then in order to make the utmost of our extracted information, we translate the problem of recovering secret key to the Extended Hidden Number Problem, which can be solved by lattice reduction algorithms. Finally, we introduce the methods of elimination, merging, most significant digit recovering and enumeration to improve the attack. Our attack is mounted to the \series secp256k1\ curve, and the result shows that only 4 signatures would be enough to recover the secret key if the Flush+Reload attack is implemented perfectly without any error,which is much better than the best known result needing at least 13 signatures.

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Takahashi, Akira, Tibouchi, Mehdi.  2019.  Degenerate Fault Attacks on Elliptic Curve Parameters in OpenSSL. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :371–386.
In this paper, we describe several practically exploitable fault attacks against OpenSSL's implementation of elliptic curve cryptography, related to the singular curve point decompression attacks of Blömer and Günther (FDTC2015) and the degenerate curve attacks of Neves and Tibouchi (PKC 2016). In particular, we show that OpenSSL allows to construct EC key files containing explicit curve parameters with a compressed base point. A simple single fault injection upon loading such a file yields a full key recovery attack when the key file is used for signing with ECDSA, and a complete recovery of the plaintext when the file is used for encryption using an algorithm like ECIES. The attack is especially devastating against curves with j-invariant equal to 0 such as the Bitcoin curve secp256k1, for which key recovery reduces to a single division in the base field. Additionally, we apply the present fault attack technique to OpenSSL's implementation of ECDH, by combining it with Neves and Tibouchi's degenerate curve attack. This version of the attack applies to usual named curve parameters with nonzero j-invariant, such as P192 and P256. Although it is typically more computationally expensive than the one against signatures and encryption, and requires multiple faulty outputs from the server, it can recover the entire static secret key of the server even in the presence of point validation. These various attacks can be mounted with only a single instruction skipping fault, and therefore can be easily injected using low-cost voltage glitches on embedded devices. We validated them in practice using concrete fault injection experiments on a Rapsberry Pi single board computer running the up to date OpenSSL command line tools-a setting where the threat of fault attacks is quite significant.
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Cowart, R., Coe, D., Kulick, J., Milenković, A..  2017.  An Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Hardware Accelerated Ciphers in All-Programmable SoCs. Proceedings of the SouthEast Conference. :34–41.
The protection of confidential information has become very important with the increase of data sharing and storage on public domains. Data confidentiality is accomplished through the use of ciphers that encrypt and decrypt the data to impede unauthorized access. Emerging heterogeneous platforms provide an ideal environment to use hardware acceleration to improve application performance. In this paper, we explore the performance benefits of an AES hardware accelerator versus the software implementation for multiple cipher modes on the Zynq 7000 All-Programmable System-on-a-Chip (SoC). The accelerator is implemented on the FPGA fabric of the SoC and utilizes DMA for interfacing to the CPU. File encryption and decryption of varying file sizes are used as the workload, with execution time and throughput as the metrics for comparing the performance of the hardware and software implementations. The performance evaluations show that the accelerated AES operations achieve a speedup of 7 times relative to its software implementation and throughput upwards of 350 MB/s for the counter cipher mode, and modest improvements for other cipher modes.
Cowart, R., Coe, D., Kulick, J., Milenković, A..  2017.  An Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Hardware Accelerated Ciphers in All-Programmable SoCs. Proceedings of the SouthEast Conference. :34–41.

The protection of confidential information has become very important with the increase of data sharing and storage on public domains. Data confidentiality is accomplished through the use of ciphers that encrypt and decrypt the data to impede unauthorized access. Emerging heterogeneous platforms provide an ideal environment to use hardware acceleration to improve application performance. In this paper, we explore the performance benefits of an AES hardware accelerator versus the software implementation for multiple cipher modes on the Zynq 7000 All-Programmable System-on-a-Chip (SoC). The accelerator is implemented on the FPGA fabric of the SoC and utilizes DMA for interfacing to the CPU. File encryption and decryption of varying file sizes are used as the workload, with execution time and throughput as the metrics for comparing the performance of the hardware and software implementations. The performance evaluations show that the accelerated AES operations achieve a speedup of 7 times relative to its software implementation and throughput upwards of 350 MB/s for the counter cipher mode, and modest improvements for other cipher modes.

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Pereida García, Cesar, Brumley, Billy Bob, Yarom, Yuval.  2016.  "Make Sure DSA Signing Exponentiations Really Are Constant-Time". Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1639–1650.

TLS and SSH are two of the most commonly used protocols for securing Internet traffic. Many of the implementations of these protocols rely on the cryptographic primitives provided in the OpenSSL library. In this work we disclose a vulnerability in OpenSSL, affecting all versions and forks (e.g. LibreSSL and BoringSSL) since roughly October 2005, which renders the implementation of the DSA signature scheme vulnerable to cache-based side-channel attacks. Exploiting the software defect, we demonstrate the first published cache-based key-recovery attack on these protocols: 260 SSH-2 handshakes to extract a 1024/160-bit DSA host key from an OpenSSH server, and 580 TLS 1.2 handshakes to extract a 2048/256-bit DSA key from an stunnel server.

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Dörre, Felix, Klebanov, Vladimir.  2016.  Practical Detection of Entropy Loss in Pseudo-Random Number Generators. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :678–689.

Pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) are a critical infrastructure for cryptography and security of many computer applications. At the same time, PRNGs are surprisingly difficult to design, implement, and debug. This paper presents the first static analysis technique specifically for quality assurance of cryptographic PRNG implementations. The analysis targets a particular kind of implementation defect, the entropy loss. Entropy loss occurs when the entropy contained in the PRNG seed is not utilized to the full extent for generating the pseudo-random output stream. The Debian OpenSSL disaster, probably the most prominent PRNG-related security incident, was one but not the only manifestation of such a defect. Together with the static analysis technique, we present its implementation, a tool named Entroposcope. The tool offers a high degree of automation and practicality. We have applied the tool to five real-world PRNGs of different designs and show that it effectively detects both known and previously unknown instances of entropy loss.