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Francisco, Hernandez Muñoz Urian, Ríos-Moreno, G.J..  2021.  Controller of public vehicles and traffic lights to speed up the response time to emergencies. 2021 XVII International Engineering Congress (CONIIN). :1–6.
Frequently emergency services are required nationally and globally, in Mexico during 2020 of the 16,22,879 calls made to 911, statistics reveal that 58.43% were about security, 16.57% assistance, 13.49% medical, 6.29% civil protection, among others. However, the constant traffic of cities generates delays in the time of arrival to medical, military or civil protection services, wasting time that can be critical in an emergency. The objective is to create a connection between the road infrastructure (traffic lights) and emergency vehicles to reduce waiting time as a vehicle on a mission passes through a traffic light with Controller Area Network CAN controller to modify the color and give way to the emergency vehicle that will send signals to the traffic light controller through a controller located in the car. For this, the Controller Area Network Flexible Data (CAN-FD) controllers will be used in traffic lights since it is capable of synchronizing data in the same bus or cable to avoid that two messages arrive at the same time, which could end in car accidents if they are not it respects a hierarchy and the CANblue ll controller that wirelessly connects devices (vehicle and traffic light) at a speed of 1 Mbit / s to avoid delays in data exchange taking into account the high speeds that a car can acquire. It is intended to use the CAN controller for the development of improvements in response times in high-speed data exchange in cities with high traffic flow. As a result of the use of CAN controllers, a better data flow and interconnection is obtained.
Hounsinou, Sena, Stidd, Mark, Ezeobi, Uchenna, Olufowobi, Habeeb, Nasri, Mitra, Bloom, Gedare.  2021.  Vulnerability of Controller Area Network to Schedule-Based Attacks. 2021 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS). :495–507.
The secure functioning of automotive systems is vital to the safety of their passengers and other roadway users. One of the critical functions for safety is the controller area network (CAN), which interconnects the safety-critical electronic control units (ECUs) in the majority of ground vehicles. Unfortunately CAN is known to be vulnerable to several attacks. One such attack is the bus-off attack, which can be used to cause a victim ECU to disconnect itself from the CAN bus and, subsequently, for an attacker to masquerade as that ECU. A limitation of the bus-off attack is that it requires the attacker to achieve tight synchronization between the transmission of the victim and the attacker's injected message. In this paper, we introduce a schedule-based attack framework for the CAN bus-off attack that uses the real-time schedule of the CAN bus to predict more attack opportunities than previously known. We describe a ranking method for an attacker to select and optimize its attack injections with respect to criteria such as attack success rate, bus perturbation, or attack latency. The results show that vulnerabilities of the CAN bus can be enhanced by schedule-based attacks.
Kang, Dong Mug, Yoon, Sang Hun, Shin, Dae Kyo, Yoon, Young, Kim, Hyeon Min, Jang, Soo Hyun.  2021.  A Study on Attack Pattern Generation and Hybrid MR-IDS for In-Vehicle Network. 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :291–294.
The CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, which transmits and receives ECU control information in vehicle, has a critical risk of external intrusion because there is no standardized security system. Recently, the need for IDS (Intrusion Detection System) to detect external intrusion of CAN bus is increasing, and high accuracy and real-time processing for intrusion detection are required. In this paper, we propose Hybrid MR (Machine learning and Ruleset) -IDS based on machine learning and ruleset to improve IDS performance. For high accuracy and detection rate, feature engineering was conducted based on the characteristics of the CAN bus, and the generated features were used in detection step. The proposed Hybrid MR-IDS can cope to various attack patterns that have not been learned in previous, as well as the learned attack patterns by using both advantages of rule set and machine learning. In addition, by collecting CAN data from an actual vehicle in driving and stop state, five attack scenarios including physical effects during all driving cycle are generated. Finally, the Hybrid MR-IDS proposed in this paper shows an average of 99% performance based on F1-score.
Teo, Yu Xian, Chen, Jiaqi, Ash, Neil, Ruddle, Alastair R., Martin, Anthony J. M..  2021.  Forensic Analysis of Automotive Controller Area Network Emissions for Problem Resolution. 2021 IEEE International Joint EMC/SI/PI and EMC Europe Symposium. :619–623.
Electromagnetic emissions associated with the transmission of automotive controller area network (CAN) messages within a passenger car have been analysed and used to reconstruct the original CAN messages. Concurrent monitoring of the CAN traffic via a wired connection to the vehicle OBD-II port was used to validate the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. These results confirm the feasibility of reconstructing in-vehicle network data for forensic purposes, without the need for wired access, at distances of up to 1 m from the vehicle by using magnetic field measurements, and up to 3 m using electric field measurements. This capability has applications in the identification and resolution of EMI issues in vehicle data network, as well as possible implications for automotive cybersecurity.
Liu, Nathan, Moreno, Carlos, Dunne, Murray, Fischmeister, Sebastian.  2021.  vProfile: Voltage-Based Anomaly Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2021 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE). :1142–1147.
Modern cars are becoming more accessible targets for cyberattacks due to the proliferation of wireless communication channels. The intra-vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) bus lacks authentication, which exposes critical components to interference from less secure, wirelessly compromised modules. To address this issue, we propose vProfile, a sender authentication system based on voltage fingerprints of Electronic Control Units (ECUs). vProfile exploits the physical properties of ECU output voltages on the CAN bus to determine the authenticity of bus messages, which enables the detection of both hijacked ECUs and external devices connected to the bus. We show the potential of vProfile using experiments on two production vehicles with precision and recall scores of over 99.99%. The improved identification rates and more straightforward design of vProfile make it an attractive improvement over existing methods.
Zhang, Haichun, Huang, Kelin, Wang, Jie, Liu, Zhenglin.  2021.  CAN-FT: A Fuzz Testing Method for Automotive Controller Area Network Bus. 2021 International Conference on Computer Information Science and Artificial Intelligence (CISAI). :225–231.
The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is the de-facto standard for connecting the Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in automobiles. However, there are serious cyber-security risks due to the lack of security mechanisms. In order to mine the vulnerabilities in CAN bus, this paper proposes CAN-FT, a fuzz testing method for automotive CAN bus, which uses a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) based fuzzy message generation algorithm and the Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) based anomaly detection mechanism to capture the abnormal states of CAN bus. Experimental results on a real-world vehicle show that CAN-FT can find vulnerabilities more efficiently and comprehensively.
Khadarvali, S., Madhusudhan, V., Kiranmayi, R..  2021.  Load Frequency Control of Two Area System with Security Attack and Game Theory Based Defender Action Using ALO Tuned Integral Controller. 2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Applications (ICCICA). :1—5.

Cyber-attacks in electrical power system causes serious damages causing breakdown of few equipment to shutdown of the complete power system. Game theory is used as a tool to detect the cyber-attack in the power system recently. Interaction between the attackers and the defenders which is the inherent nature of the game theory is exploited to detect the cyber-attack in the power system. This paper implements the cyber-attack detection on a two-area power system controlled using the Load Frequency controller. Ant Lion Optimization is used to tune the integral controller applied in the Load Frequency Controller. Cyber-attacks that include constant injection, bias injection, overcompensation, and negative compensation are tested on the Game theory-based attack detection algorithm proposed. It is considered that the smart meters are attacked with the attacks by manipulating the original data in the power system. MATLAB based implementation is developed and observed that the defender action is satisfactory in the two-area system considered. Tuning of integral controller in the Load Frequency controller in the two-area system is also observed to be effective.

Jin, Shiyi, Chung, Jin-Gyun, Xu, Yinan.  2021.  Signature-Based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for In-Vehicle CAN Bus Network. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

In-vehicle CAN (Controller Area Network) bus network does not have any network security protection measures, which is facing a serious network security threat. However, most of the intrusion detection solutions requiring extensive computational resources cannot be implemented in in- vehicle network system because of the resource constrained ECUs. To add additional hardware or to utilize cloud computing, we need to solve the cost problem and the reliable communication requirement between vehicles and cloud platform, which is difficult to be applied in a short time. Therefore, we need to propose a short-term solution for automobile manufacturers. In this paper, we propose a signature-based light-weight intrusion detection system, which can be applied directly and promptly to vehicle's ECUs (Electronic Control Units). We detect the anomalies caused by several attack modes on CAN bus from real-world scenarios, which provide the basis for selecting signatures. Experimental results show that our method can effectively detect CAN traffic related anomalies. For the content related anomalies, the detection ratio can be improved by exploiting the relationship between the signals.

Thirumavalavasethurayar, P, Ravi, T.  2021.  Implementation of Replay Attack in Controller Area Network Bus Using Universal Verification Methodology. 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Smart Systems (ICAIS). :1142–1146.

Controller area network is the serial communication protocol, which broadcasts the message on the CAN bus. The transmitted message is read by all the nodes which shares the CAN bus. The message can be eavesdropped and can be re-used by some other node by changing the information or send it by duplicate times. The message reused after some delay is replay attack. In this paper, the CAN network with three CAN nodes is implemented using the universal verification components and the replay attack is demonstrated by creating the faulty node. Two types of replay attack are implemented in this paper, one is to replay the entire message and the other one is to replay only the part of the frame. The faulty node uses the first replay attack method where it behaves like the other node in the network by duplicating the identifier. CAN frame except the identifier is reused in the second method which is hard to detect the attack as the faulty node uses its own identifier and duplicates only the data in the CAN frame.

Paul, Avishek, Islam, Md Rabiul.  2021.  An Artificial Neural Network Based Anomaly Detection Method in CAN Bus Messages in Vehicles. 2021 International Conference on Automation, Control and Mechatronics for Industry 4.0 (ACMI). :1–5.

Controller Area Network is the bus standard that works as a central system inside the vehicles for communicating in-vehicle messages. Despite having many advantages, attackers may hack into a car system through CAN bus, take control of it and cause serious damage. For, CAN bus lacks security services like authentication, encryption etc. Therefore, an anomaly detection system must be integrated with CAN bus in vehicles. In this paper, we proposed an Artificial Neural Network based anomaly detection method to identify illicit messages in CAN bus. We trained our model with two types of attacks so that it can efficiently identify the attacks. When tested, the proposed algorithm showed high performance in detecting Denial of Service attacks (with accuracy 100%) and Fuzzy attacks (with accuracy 99.98%).

Fernando, Praveen, Wei, Jin.  2020.  Blockchain-Powered Software Defined Network-Enabled Networking Infrastructure for Cloud Management. 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.
Cloud architecture has become a valuable solution for different applications, such as big data analytics, due to its high degree of availability, scalability and strategic value. However, there still remain challenges in managing cloud architecture, in areas such as cloud security. In this paper, we exploit software-defined networking (SDN) and blockchain technologies to secure cloud management platforms from a networking perspective. We develop a blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure in which the integration between blockchain-based security and autonomy management layer and multi-controller SDN networking layer is defined to enhance the integrity of the control and management messages. Furthermore, our proposed networking infrastructure also enables the autonomous bandwidth provisioning to enhance the availability of cloud architecture. In the simulation section, we evaluate the performance of our proposed blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure by considering different scenarios.
Hossain, Md Delwar, Inoue, Hiroyuki, Ochiai, Hideya, FALL, Doudou, Kadobayashi, Youki.  2020.  Long Short-Term Memory-Based Intrusion Detection System for In-Vehicle Controller Area Network Bus. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :10–17.
The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus system works inside connected cars as a central system for communication between electronic control units (ECUs). Despite its central importance, the CAN does not support an authentication mechanism, i.e., CAN messages are broadcast without basic security features. As a result, it is easy for attackers to launch attacks at the CAN bus network system. Attackers can compromise the CAN bus system in several ways: denial of service, fuzzing, spoofing, etc. It is imperative to devise methodologies to protect modern cars against the aforementioned attacks. In this paper, we propose a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)-based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to detect and mitigate the CAN bus network attacks. We first inject attacks at the CAN bus system in a car that we have at our disposal to generate the attack dataset, which we use to test and train our model. Our results demonstrate that our classifier is efficient in detecting the CAN attacks. We achieved a detection accuracy of 99.9949%.
Lenard, Teri, Bolboacă, Roland, Genge, Bela.  2020.  LOKI: A Lightweight Cryptographic Key Distribution Protocol for Controller Area Networks. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing (ICCP). :513–519.
The recent advancement in the automotive sector has led to a technological explosion. As a result, the modern car provides a wide range of features supported by state of the art hardware and software. Unfortunately, while this is the case of most major components, in the same vehicle we find dozens of sensors and sub-systems built over legacy hardware and software with limited computational capabilities. This paper presents LOKI, a lightweight cryptographic key distribution scheme applicable in the case of the classical invehicle communication systems. The LOKI protocol stands out compared to already proposed protocols in the literature due to its ability to use only a single broadcast message to initiate the generation of a new cryptographic key across a group of nodes. It's lightweight key derivation algorithm takes advantage of a reverse hash chain traversal algorithm to generate fresh session keys. Experimental results consisting of a laboratory-scale system based on Vector Informatik's CANoe simulation environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methodology and its seamless impact manifested on the network.
Young, Clinton, Svoboda, Jordan, Zambreno, Joseph.  2020.  Towards Reverse Engineering Controller Area Network Messages Using Machine Learning. 2020 IEEE 6th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :1–6.
The automotive Controller Area Network (CAN) allows Electronic Control Units (ECUs) to communicate with each other and control various vehicular functions such as engine and braking control. Consequently CAN and ECUs are high priority targets for hackers. As CAN implementation details are held as proprietary information by vehicle manufacturers, it can be challenging to decode and correlate CAN messages to specific vehicle operations. To understand the precise meanings of CAN messages, reverse engineering techniques that are time-consuming, manually intensive, and require a physical vehicle are typically used. This work aims to address the process of reverse engineering CAN messages for their functionality by creating a machine learning classifier that analyzes messages and determines their relationship to other messages and vehicular functions. Our work examines CAN traffic of different vehicles and standards to show that it can be applied to a wide arrangement of vehicles. The results show that the function of CAN messages can be determined without the need to manually reverse engineer a physical vehicle.
Sami, Muhammad, Ibarra, Matthew, Esparza, Anamaria C., Al-Jufout, Saleh, Aliasgari, Mehrdad, Mozumdar, Mohammad.  2020.  Rapid, Multi-vehicle and Feed-forward Neural Network based Intrusion Detection System for Controller Area Network Bus. 2020 IEEE Green Energy and Smart Systems Conference (IGESSC). :1–6.
In this paper, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus of modern vehicles has been proposed. NESLIDS is an anomaly detection algorithm based on the supervised Deep Neural Network (DNN) architecture that is designed to counter three critical attack categories: Denial-of-service (DoS), fuzzy, and impersonation attacks. Our research scope included modifying DNN parameters, e.g. number of hidden layer neurons, batch size, and activation functions according to how well it maximized detection accuracy and minimized the false positive rate (FPR) for these attacks. Our methodology consisted of collecting CAN Bus data from online and in real-time, injecting attack data after data collection, preprocessing in Python, training the DNN, and testing the model with different datasets. Results show that the proposed IDS effectively detects all attack types for both types of datasets. NESLIDS outperforms existing approaches in terms of accuracy, scalability, and low false alarm rates.
Kalkan, Soner Can, Sahingoz, Ozgur Koray.  2020.  In-Vehicle Intrusion Detection System on Controller Area Network with Machine Learning Models. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Parallel with the developing world, transportation technologies have started to expand and change significantly year by year. This change brings with it some inevitable problems. Increasing human population and growing transportation-needs result many accidents in urban and rural areas, and this recursively results extra traffic problems and fuel consumption. It is obvious that the issues brought by this spiral loop needed to be solved with the use of some new technological achievements. In this context, self-driving cars or automated vehicles concepts are seen as a good solution. However, this also brings some additional problems with it. Currently many cars are provided with some digital security systems, which are examined in two phases, internal and external. These systems are constructed in the car by using some type of embedded system (such as the Controller Area Network (CAN)) which are needed to be protected form outsider cyberattacks. These attack can be detected by several ways such as rule based system, anomaly based systems, list based systems, etc. The current literature showed that researchers focused on the use of some artificial intelligence techniques for the detection of this type of attack. In this study, an intrusion detection system based on machine learning is proposed for the CAN security, which is the in-vehicle communication structure. As a result of the study, it has been observed that the decision tree-based ensemble learning models results the best performance in the tested models. Additionally, all models have a very good accuracy levels.
Lenard, Teri, Bolboacă, Roland, Genge, Bela, Haller, Piroska.  2020.  MixCAN: Mixed and Backward-Compatible Data Authentication Scheme for Controller Area Networks. 2020 IFIP Networking Conference (Networking). :395–403.
The massive proliferation of state of the art interfaces into the automotive sector has triggered a revolution in terms of the technological ecosystem that is found in today's modern car. Accordingly, on the one hand, we find dozens of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) running several hundred MB of code, and more and more sophisticated dashboards with integrated wireless communications. On the other hand, in the same vehicle we find the underlying communication infrastructure struggling to keep up with the pace of these radical changes. This paper presents MixCAN (MIXed data authentication for Control Area Networks), an approach for mixing different message signatures (i.e., authentication tags) in order to reduce the overhead of Controller Area Network (CAN) communications. MixCAN leverages the attributes of Bloom Filters in order to ensure that an ECU can sign messages with different CAN identifiers (i.e., mix different message signatures), and that other ECUs can verify the signature for a subset of monitored CAN identifiers. Extensive experimental results based on Vectors Informatik's CANoe/CANalyzer simulation environment and the data set provided by Hacking and Countermeasure Research Lab (HCRL) confirm the validity and applicability of the developed approach. Subsequent experiments including a test bed consisting of Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ systems equipped with CAN communication modules demonstrate the practical integration of MixCAN in real automotive systems.
Schell, Oleg, Kneib, Marcel.  2020.  VALID: Voltage-Based Lightweight Intrusion Detection for the Controller Area Network. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :225–232.
The Controller Area Network (CAN), a broadcasting bus for intra-vehicle communication, does not provide any security mechanisms, although it is implemented in almost every vehicle. Attackers can exploit this issue, transmit malicious messages unnoticeably and cause severe harm. As the utilization of Message Authentication Codes (MACs) is only possible to a limited extent in resource-constrained systems, the focus is put on the development of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). Due to their simple idea of operation, current developments are increasingly utilizing physical signal properties like voltages to realize these systems. Although the feasibility for CAN-based networks could be demonstrated, the least approaches consider the constrained resource-availability of vehicular hardware. To close this gap, we present Voltage-Based Lightweight Intrusion Detection (VALID), which provides physics-based intrusion detection with low resource requirements. By utilizing solely the individual voltage levels on the network during communication, the system detects unauthorized message transmissions without any sophisticated sampling approaches and feature calculations. Having performed evaluations on data from two real vehicles, we show that VALID is not only able to detect intrusions with an accuracy of 99.54 %, but additionally is capable of identifying the attack source reliably. These properties make VALID one of the most lightweight intrusion detection approaches that is ready-to-use, as it can be easily implemented on hardware already installed in vehicles and does not require any further components. Additionally, this allows existing platforms to be retrofitted and vehicular security systems to be improved and extended.
Sunny, Jerin, Sankaran, Sriram, Saraswat, Vishal.  2020.  A Hybrid Approach for Fast Anomaly Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Recent advancements in the field of in-vehicle network and wireless communication, has been steadily progressing. Also, the advent of technologies such as Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANET) and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), has transformed modern automobiles into a sophisticated cyber-physical system rather than just a isolated mechanical device. Modern automobiles rely on many electronic control units communicating over the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. Although protecting the car's external interfaces is an vital part of preventing attacks, detecting malicious activity on the CAN bus is an effective second line of defense against attacks. This paper proposes a hybrid anomaly detection system for CAN bus based on patterns of recurring messages and time interval of messages. The proposed method does not require modifications in CAN bus. The proposed system is evaluated on real CAN bus traffic with simulated attack scenarios. Results obtained show that our proposed system achieved a good detection rate with fast response times.
Zhang, Xing, Cui, Xiaotong, Cheng, Kefei, Zhang, Liang.  2020.  A Convolutional Encoder Network for Intrusion Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :366–369.
Integrated with various electronic control units (ECUs), vehicles are becoming more intelligent with the assistance of essential connections. However, the interaction with the outside world raises great concerns on cyber-attacks. As a main standard for in-vehicle network, Controller Area Network (CAN) does not have any built-in security mechanisms to guarantee a secure communication. This increases risks of denial of service, remote control attacks by an attacker, posing serious threats to underlying vehicles, property and human lives. As a result, it is urgent to develop an effective in-vehicle network intrusion detection system (IDS) for better security. In this paper, we propose a Feature-based Sliding Window (FSW) to extract the feature of CAN Data Field and CAN IDs. Then we construct a convolutional encoder network (CEN) to detect network intrusion of CAN networks. The proposed FSW-CEN method is evaluated on real-world datasets. The experimental results show that compared to traditional data processing methods and convolutional neural networks, our method is able to detect attacks with a higher accuracy in terms of detection accuracy and false negative rate.
Nishida, Kanata, Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Security Evaluation of Counter Synchronization Method for CAN Against DoS Attack. 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :166–167.
MAC using a counter value in message authentication for in-vehicle network prevents replay attack. When synchronization deviation of the counter value occurs between the sender and receiver, a message cannot be authenticated correctly because the generated MACs are different. Thus, a counter synchronization method has been proposed. In addition, injection and replay attack of a synchronization message for the synchronization method have been performed. However, DoS attack on the synchronization method has not been conducted. This study performs DoS attack in order to evaluate security of the synchronization method. Experimental results reveal the vulnerability of the synchronization method against DoS attack.
Xu, Tangwei, Lu, Xiaozhen, Xiao, Liang, Tang, Yuliang, Dai, Huaiyu.  2019.  Voltage Based Authentication for Controller Area Networks with Reinforcement Learning. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–5.
Controller area networks (CANs) are vulnerable to spoofing attacks such as frame falsifying attacks, as electronic control units (ECUs) send and receive messages without any authentication and encryption. In this paper, we propose a physical authentication scheme that exploits the voltage features of the ECU signals on the CAN bus and applies reinforcement learning to choose the authentication mode such as the protection level and test threshold. This scheme enables a monitor node to optimize the authentication mode via trial-and-error without knowing the CAN bus signal model and spoofing model. Experimental results show that the proposed authentication scheme can significantly improve the authentication accuracy and response compared with a benchmark scheme.
Boumiza, Safa, Braham, Rafik.  2019.  An Anomaly Detector for CAN Bus Networks in Autonomous Cars based on Neural Networks. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :1–6.
The domain of securing in-vehicle networks has attracted both academic and industrial researchers due to high danger of attacks on drivers and passengers. While securing wired and wireless interfaces is important to defend against these threats, detecting attacks is still the critical phase to construct a robust secure system. There are only a few results on securing communication inside vehicles using anomaly-detection techniques despite their efficiencies in systems that need real-time detection. Therefore, we propose an intrusion detection system (IDS) based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network for Controller Area Networks (CAN) bus. This IDS divides data according to the ID field of CAN packets using K-means clustering algorithm, then it extracts suitable features and uses them to train and construct the neural network. The proposed IDS works for each ID separately and finally it combines their individual decisions to construct the final score and generates alert in the presence of attack. The strength of our intrusion detection method is that it works simultaneously for two types of attacks which will eliminate the use of several separate IDS and thus reduce the complexity and cost of implementation.
Lekidis, Alexios, Barosan, Ion.  2019.  Model-based simulation and threat analysis of in-vehicle networks. 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–8.
Automotive systems are currently undergoing a rapid evolution through the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Software Defined Networking (SDN) technologies. The main focus of this evolution is to improve the driving experience, including automated controls, intelligent navigation and safety systems. Moreover, the extremely rapid pace that such technologies are brought into the vehicles, necessitates the presence of adequate testing of new features to avoid operational errors. Apart from testing though, IoT and SDN technologies also widen the threat landscape of cyber-security risks due to the amount of connectivity interfaces that are nowadays exposed in vehicles. In this paper we present a new method, based on OMNET++, for testing new in-vehicle features and assessing security risks through network simulation. The method is demonstrated through a case-study on a Toyota Prius, whose network data are analyzed for the detection of anomalies caused from security threats or operational errors.
Hayward, Jake, Tomlinson, Andrew, Bryans, Jeremy.  2019.  Adding Cyberattacks To An Industry-Leading CAN Simulator. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :9–16.
Recent years have seen an increase in the data usage in cars, particularly as they become more autonomous and connected. With the rise in data use have come concerns about automotive cyber-security. An in-vehicle network shown to be particularly vulnerable is the Controller Area Network (CAN), which is the communication bus used by the car's safety critical and performance critical components. Cyber attacks on the CAN have been demonstrated, leading to research to develop attack detection and attack prevention systems. Such research requires representative attack demonstrations and data for testing. Obtaining this data is problematical due to the expense, danger and impracticality of using real cars on roads or tracks for example attacks. Whilst CAN simulators are available, these tend to be configured for testing conformance and functionality, rather than analysing security and cyber vulnerability. We therefore adapt a leading, industry-standard, CAN simulator to incorporate a core set of cyber attacks that are representative of those proposed by other researchers. Our adaptation allows the user to configure the attacks, and can be added easily to the free version of the simulator. Here we describe the simulator and, after reviewing the attacks that have been demonstrated and discussing their commonalities, we outline the attacks that we have incorporated into the simulator.