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2020-07-30
Showkatramani, Girish J., Khatri, Nidhi, Landicho, Arlene, Layog, Darwin.  2019.  A Secure Permissioned Blockchain Based System for Trademarks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures (DAPPCON). :135—139.
A trademark may be a word, phrase, symbol, sound, color, scent or design, or combination of these, that identifies and distinguishes the products or services of a particular source from those of others. Obtaining a trademark is a complex, time intensive and costly process that involves varied steps before the trademark can be registered including searching prior trademarks, filing of the trademark application, review of the trademark application and final publication for opposition by the public. Currently, the process of trademark registration, renewal and validation faces numerous challenges such as the requirement for registration in different jurisdictions, maintenance of centralized databases in different jurisdictions, proving the authenticity of the physical trademark documents, identifying the violation and abuse of the intellectual property etc. to name a few. Recently, blockchain technology has shown great potential in a variety of industries such as finance, education, energy and resource management, healthcare, due to its decentralization and non-tampering features. Furthermore, in the recent years, smart contracts have attracted increased attention due to the popularity of blockchains. In this study, we have utilized Hyperledger fabric as the permissioned blockchain framework along with smart contracts to provide solution to the financial, procedural, enforcement and protection related challenges of the current trademark system. Our blockchain based application seeks to provide a secure, decentralized, immutable trademark system that can be utilized by the intellectual property organizations across different jurisdictions for easily and effectively registering, renewing, validating and distributing digital trademark certificates.
Yang, Fan, Shi, Yue, Wu, Qingqing, Li, Fei, Zhou, Wei, Hu, Zhiyan, Xiong, Naixue, Zhang, Yong.  2019.  The Survey on Intellectual Property Based on Blockchain Technology. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber Physical Systems (ICPS). :743—748.
The characteristics of decentralization, tamper-resistance and transaction anonymity of blockchain can resolve effectively the problems in traditional intellectual property such as the difficulty of electronic obtaining for evidence, the high cost and low compensation when safeguarding the copyrights. Blockchain records the information through encryption algorithm, removes the third party, and stores the information in all nodes to prevent the information from being tampered with, so as to realize the protection of intellectual property. Starting from the bottom layer of blockchain, this paper expounds in detail the characteristics and the technical framework of blockchain. At the same time, according to the existing problems in transaction throughput, time delay and resource consumption of blockchain system, optimization mechanisms such as cross-chain and proof of stake are analyzed. Finally, combined with the characteristics of blockchain technology and existing application framework, this paper summarizes the existing problems in the industry and forecasts the development trend of intellectual property based on blockchain technology.
2020-07-24
Rotondi, Domenico, Saltarella, Marco.  2019.  Facing parallel market and counterfeit issues by the combined use of blockchain and CP-ABE encryption technologies. 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS). :1—6.

Blockchains are emerging technologies that propose new business models and value propositions. Besides their application for cryptocurrency purposes, as distributed ledgers of transactions, they enable new ways to provision trusted information in a distributed fashion. In this paper, we present our product tagging solution designed to help Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) protect their brands against counterfeit products and parallel markets, as well as to enhance UX (User Experience) and promote the brand and product.Our solution combines the use of DLT to assure, in a verifiable and permanent way, the trustworthiness and confidentiality of the information associated to the goods and the innovative CP-ABE encryption technique to differentiate accessibility to the product's information.

2020-07-13
Hepp, Thomas, Spaeh, Fabian, Schoenhals, Alexander, Ehret, Philip, Gipp, Bela.  2019.  Exploring Potentials and Challenges of Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructures. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :847–852.
Traditional public key infrastructures (PKIs), in particular, X.509 and PGP, is plagued by security and usability issues. As reoccurring incidents show, these are not only of theoretical nature but allow attackers to inflict severe damage. Emerging blockchain technology allows for advances in this area, facilitating a trustless immutable ledger with fast consensus. There have been numerous proposals for utilization of the blockchain in the area of PKI, either as extensions upon existing methods or independent solutions. In this paper, we first study traditional PKI, then proceed with novel approaches, showing how they can improve upon recent issues. We provide a comprehensive evaluation, finding that independent blockchain-based solutions are preferable in the future, mainly due to their stronger security. However, global adoption of these yet requires advances in blockchain development, e.g., concerning scalability.
2020-07-10
Ra, Gyeong-Jin, Lee, Im-Yeong.  2019.  A Study on Hybrid Blockchain-based XGS (XOR Global State) Injection Technology for Efficient Contents Modification and Deletion. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :300—305.

Blockchain is a database technology that provides the integrity and trust of the system can't make arbitrary modifications and deletions by being an append-only distributed ledger. That is, the blockchain is not a modification or deletion but a CRAB (Create-Retrieve-Append-Burn) method in which data can be read and written according to a legitimate user's access right(For example, owner private key). However, this can not delete the created data once, which causes problems such as privacy breach. In this paper, we propose an on-off block-chained Hybrid Blockchain system to separate the data and save the connection history to the blockchain. In addition, the state is changed to the distributed database separately from the ledger record, and the state is changed by generating the arbitrary injection in the XOR form, so that the history of modification / deletion of the Off Blockchain can be efficiently retrieved.

2020-07-09
Duan, Huayi, Zheng, Yifeng, Du, Yuefeng, Zhou, Anxin, Wang, Cong, Au, Man Ho.  2019.  Aggregating Crowd Wisdom via Blockchain: A Private, Correct, and Robust Realization. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom. :1—10.

Crowdsensing, driven by the proliferation of sensor-rich mobile devices, has emerged as a promising data sensing and aggregation paradigm. Despite useful, traditional crowdsensing systems typically rely on a centralized third-party platform for data collection and processing, which leads to concerns like single point of failure and lack of operation transparency. Such centralization hinders the wide adoption of crowdsensing by wary participants. We therefore explore an alternative design space of building crowdsensing systems atop the emerging decentralized blockchain technology. While enjoying the benefits brought by the public blockchain, we endeavor to achieve a consolidated set of desirable security properties with a proper choreography of latest techniques and our customized designs. We allow data providers to safely contribute data to the transparent blockchain with the confidentiality guarantee on individual data and differential privacy on the aggregation result. Meanwhile, we ensure the service correctness of data aggregation and sanitization by delicately employing hardware-assisted transparent enclave. Furthermore, we maintain the robustness of our system against faulty data providers that submit invalid data, with a customized zero-knowledge range proof scheme. The experiment results demonstrate the high efficiency of our designs on both mobile client and SGX-enabled server, as well as reasonable on-chain monetary cost of running our task contract on Ethereum.

2020-07-06
Balouchestani, Arian, Mahdavi, Mojtaba, Hallaj, Yeganeh, Javdani, Delaram.  2019.  SANUB: A new method for Sharing and Analyzing News Using Blockchain. 2019 16th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :139–143.
Millions of news are being exchanged daily among people. With the appearance of the Internet, the way of broadcasting news has changed and become faster, however it caused many problems. For instance, the increase in the speed of broadcasting news leads to an increase in the speed of fake news creation. Fake news can have a huge impression on societies. Additionally, the existence of a central entity, such as news agencies, could lead to fraud in the news broadcasting process, e.g. generating fake news and publishing them for their benefits. Since Blockchain technology provides a reliable decentralized network, it can be used to publish news. In addition, Blockchain with the help of decentralized applications and smart contracts can provide a platform in which fake news can be detected through public participation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sharing and analyzing news to detect fake news using Blockchain, called SANUB. SANUB provides features such as publishing news anonymously, news evaluation, reporter validation, fake news detection and proof of news ownership. The results of our analysis show that SANUB outperformed the existing methods.
2020-07-03
Bao, Xianglin, Su, Cheng, Xiong, Yan, Huang, Wenchao, Hu, Yifei.  2019.  FLChain: A Blockchain for Auditable Federated Learning with Trust and Incentive. 2019 5th International Conference on Big Data Computing and Communications (BIGCOM). :151—159.

Federated learning (shorted as FL) recently proposed by Google is a privacy-preserving method to integrate distributed data trainers. FL is extremely useful due to its ensuring privacy, lower latency, less power consumption and smarter models, but it could fail if multiple trainers abort training or send malformed messages to its partners. Such misbehavior are not auditable and parameter server may compute incorrectly due to single point failure. Furthermore, FL has no incentive to attract sufficient distributed training data and computation power. In this paper, we propose FLChain to build a decentralized, public auditable and healthy FL ecosystem with trust and incentive. FLChain replace traditional FL parameter server whose computation result must be consensual on-chain. Our work is not trivial when it is vital and hard to provide enough incentive and deterrence to distributed trainers. We achieve model commercialization by providing a healthy marketplace for collaborative-training models. Honest trainer can gain fairly partitioned profit from well-trained model according to its contribution and the malicious can be timely detected and heavily punished. To reduce the time cost of misbehavior detecting and model query, we design DDCBF for accelerating the query of blockchain-documented information. Finally, we implement a prototype of our work and measure the cost of various operations.

2020-06-29
Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
Giri, Nupur, Jaisinghani, Rahul, Kriplani, Rohit, Ramrakhyani, Tarun, Bhatia, Vinay.  2019.  Distributed Denial Of Service(DDoS) Mitigation in Software Defined Network using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :673–678.
A DDoS attack is a spiteful attempt to disrupt legitimate traffic to a server by overwhelming the target with a flood of requests from geographically dispersed systems. Today attackers prefer DDoS attack methods to disrupt target services as they generate GBs to TBs of random data to flood the target. In existing mitigation strategies, because of lack of resources and not having the flexibility to cope with attacks by themselves, they are not considered to be that effective. So effective DDoS mitigation techniques can be provided using emerging technologies such as blockchain and SDN(Software-Defined Networking). We propose an architecture where a smart contract is deployed in a private blockchain, which facilitates a collaborative DDoS mitigation architecture across multiple network domains. Blockchain application is used as an additional security service. With Blockchain, shared protection is enabled among all hosts. With help of smart contracts, rules are distributed among all hosts. In addition, SDN can effectively enable services and security policies dynamically. This mechanism provides ASes(Autonomous Systems) the possibility to deploy their own DPS(DDoS Prevention Service) and there is no need to transfer control of the network to the third party. This paper focuses on the challenges of protecting a hybridized enterprise from the ravages of rapidly evolving Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) attack.
2020-06-19
Lai, Chengzhe, Du, Yangyang, Men, Jiawei, Zheng, Dong.  2019.  A Trust-based Real-time Map Updating Scheme. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :334—339.

The real-time map updating enables vehicles to obtain accurate and timely traffic information. Especially for driverless cars, real-time map updating can provide high-precision map service to assist the navigation, which requires vehicles to actively upload the latest road conditions. However, due to the untrusted network environment, it is difficult for the real-time map updating server to evaluate the authenticity of the road information from the vehicles. In order to prevent malicious vehicles from deliberately spreading false information and protect the privacy of vehicles from tracking attacks, this paper proposes a trust-based real-time map updating scheme. In this scheme, the public key is used as the identifier of the vehicle for anonymous communication with conditional anonymity. In addition, the blockchain is applied to provide the existence proof for the public key certificate of the vehicle. At the same time, to avoid the spread of false messages, a trust evaluation algorithm is designed. The fog node can validate the received massages from vehicles using Bayesian Inference Model. Based on the verification results, the road condition information is sent to the real-time map updating server so that the server can update the map in time and prevent the secondary traffic accident. In order to calculate the trust value offset for the vehicle, the fog node generates a rating for each message source vehicle, and finally adds the relevant data to the blockchain. According to the result of security analysis, this scheme can guarantee the anonymity and prevent the Sybil attack. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective and accurate in terms of real-time map updating and trust values calculating.

2020-06-08
Hu, Qin, Wang, Shengling, Cheng, Xiuzhen.  2019.  A Game Theoretic Analysis on Block Withholding Attacks Using the Zero-Determinant Strategy. 2019 IEEE/ACM 27th International Symposium on Quality of Service (IWQoS). :1–10.
In Bitcoin's incentive system that supports open mining pools, block withholding attacks incur huge security threats. In this paper, we investigate the mutual attacks among pools as this determines the macroscopic utility of the whole distributed system. Existing studies on pools' interactive attacks usually employ the conventional game theory, where the strategies of the players are considered pure and equal, neglecting the existence of powerful strategies and the corresponding favorable game results. In this study, we take advantage of the Zero-Determinant (ZD) strategy to analyze the block withholding attack between any two pools, where the ZD adopter has the unilateral control on the expected payoffs of its opponent and itself. In this case, we are faced with the following questions: who can adopt the ZD strategy? individually or simultaneously? what can the ZD player achieve? In order to answer these questions, we derive the conditions under which two pools can individually or simultaneously employ the ZD strategy and demonstrate the effectiveness. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use the ZD strategy to analyze the block withholding attack among pools.
2020-06-03
Chopade, Mrunali, Khan, Sana, Shaikh, Uzma, Pawar, Renuka.  2019.  Digital Forensics: Maintaining Chain of Custody Using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :744—747.

The fundamental aim of digital forensics is to discover, investigate and protect an evidence, increasing cybercrime enforces digital forensics team to have more accurate evidence handling. This makes digital evidence as an important factor to link individual with criminal activity. In this procedure of forensics investigation, maintaining integrity of the evidence plays an important role. A chain of custody refers to a process of recording and preserving details of digital evidence from collection to presenting in court of law. It becomes a necessary objective to ensure that the evidence provided to the court remains original and authentic without tampering. Aim is to transfer these digital evidences securely using encryption techniques.

Duy, Phan The, Do Hoang, Hien, Thu Hien, Do Thi, Ba Khanh, Nguyen, Pham, Van-Hau.  2019.  SDNLog-Foren: Ensuring the Integrity and Tamper Resistance of Log Files for SDN Forensics using Blockchain. 2019 6th NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (NICS). :416—421.

Despite bringing many benefits of global network configuration and control, Software Defined Networking (SDN) also presents potential challenges for both digital forensics and cybersecurity. In fact, there are various attacks targeting a range of vulnerabilities on vital elements of this paradigm such as controller, Northbound and Southbound interfaces. In addition to solutions of security enhancement, it is important to build mechanisms for digital forensics in SDN which provide the ability to investigate and evaluate the security of the whole network system. It should provide features of identifying, collecting and analyzing log files and detailed information about network devices and their traffic. However, upon penetrating a machine or device, hackers can edit, even delete log files to remove the evidences about their presence and actions in the system. In this case, securing log files with fine-grained access control in proper storage without any modification plays a crucial role in digital forensics and cybersecurity. This work proposes a blockchain-based approach to improve the security of log management in SDN for network forensics, called SDNLog-Foren. This model is also evaluated with different experiments to prove that it can help organizations keep sensitive log data of their network system in a secure way regardless of being compromised at some different components of SDN.

2020-06-01
Tang, Yuzhe, Zou, Qiwu, Chen, Ju, Li, Kai, Kamhoua, Charles A., Kwiat, Kevin, Njilla, Laurent.  2018.  ChainFS: Blockchain-Secured Cloud Storage. 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :987–990.
This work presents ChainFS, a middleware system that secures cloud storage services using a minimally trusted Blockchain. ChainFS hardens the cloud-storage security against forking attacks. The ChainFS middleware exposes a file-system interface to end users. Internally, ChainFS stores data files in the cloud and exports minimal and necessary functionalities to the Blockchain for key distribution and file operation logging. We implement the ChainFS system on Ethereum and S3FS and closely integrate it with FUSE clients and Amazon S3 cloud storage. We measure the system performance and demonstrate low overhead.
2020-05-22
Jemal, Jay, Kornegay, Kevin T..  2019.  Security Assessment of Blockchains in Heterogenous IoT Networks : Invited Presentation. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1—4.

As Blockchain technology become more understood in recent years and its capability to solve enterprise business use cases become evident, technologist have been exploring Blockchain technology to solve use cases that have been daunting industries for years. Unlike existing technologies, one of the key features of blockchain technology is its unparalleled capability to provide, traceability, accountability and immutable records that can be accessed at any point in time. One application area of interest for blockchain is securing heterogenous networks. This paper explores the security challenges in a heterogonous network of IoT devices and whether blockchain can be a viable solution. Using an experimental approach, we explore the possibility of using blockchain technology to secure IoT devices, validate IoT device transactions, and establish a chain of trust to secure an IoT device mesh network, as well as investigate the plausibility of using immutable transactions for forensic analysis.

2020-05-11
Memon, Raheel Ahmed, Li, Jianping, Ahmed, Junaid, Khan, Asif, Nazir, M. Irshad, Mangrio, M. Ismail.  2018.  Modeling of Blockchain Based Systems Using Queuing Theory Simulation. 2018 15th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :107–111.
Blockchain is the one of leading technology of this time; it has started to revolutionize several fields like, finance, business, industry, smart home, healthcare, social networks, Internet and the Internet of Things. It has many benefits like, decentralized network, robustness, availability, stability, anonymity, auditability and accountability. The applications of Blockchain are emerging, and it is found that most of the work is focused on its engineering implementation. While the theoretical part is very less considered and explored. In this paper we implemented the simulation of mining process in Blockchain based systems using queuing theory. We took the parameters of one of the mature Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin's real data and simulated using M/M/n/L queuing system in JSIMgraph. We have achieved realistic results; and expect that it will open up new research direction in theoretical research of Blockchain based systems.
2020-04-13
Jeong, Yena, Hwang, DongYeop, Kim, Ki-Hyung.  2019.  Blockchain-Based Management of Video Surveillance Systems. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :465–468.
In this paper, we propose a video surveillance system based on blockchain system. The proposed system consists of a blockchain network with trusted internal managers. The metadata of the video is recorded on the distributed ledger of the blockchain, thereby blocking the possibility of forgery of the data. The proposed architecture encrypts and stores the video, creates a license within the blockchain, and exports the video. Since the decryption key for the video is managed by the private DB of the blockchain, it is not leaked by the internal manager unauthorizedly. In addition, the internal administrator can manage and export videos safely by exporting the license generated in the blockchain to the DRM-applied video player.
Agostino Ardagna, Claudio, Asal, Rasool, Damiani, Ernesto, El Ioini, Nabil, Pahl, Claus.  2019.  Trustworthy IoT: An Evidence Collection Approach Based on Smart Contracts. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC). :46–50.
Today, Internet of Things (IoT) implements an ecosystem where a panoply of interconnected devices collect data from physical environments and supply them to processing services, on top of which cloud-based applications are built and provided to mobile end users. The undebatable advantages of smart IoT systems clash with the need of a secure and trustworthy environment. In this paper, we propose a service-based methodology based on blockchain and smart contracts for trustworthy evidence collection at the basis of a trustworthy IoT assurance evaluation. The methodology balances the provided level of trustworthiness and its performance, and is experimentally evaluated using Hyperledger fabric blockchain.
Heiss, Jonathan, Eberhardt, Jacob, Tai, Stefan.  2019.  From Oracles to Trustworthy Data On-Chaining Systems. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :496–503.
Many blockchain transactions require blockchain-external data sources to provide data. Oracle systems have been proposed as a link between blockchains and blockchain-external resources. However, these Oracle systems vary greatly in assumptions and applicability and each system addresses the challenge of data on-chaining partly. We argue that Data On-chaining must be done in a trustworthy manner and, as a first contribution, define a set of key requirements for Trustworthy Data On-chaining. Further, we provide an in-depth assessment and comparison of state-of-the-art Oracle systems with regards to these requirements. This differentiation pinpoints the need for a uniform understanding of and directions for future research on Trustworthy Data On-chaining.
Mohanta, Bhabendu K., Panda, Soumyashree S., Satapathy, Utkalika, Jena, Debasish, Gountia, Debasis.  2019.  Trustworthy Management in Decentralized IoT Application using Blockchain. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) as per estimated will connect 50 billion devices by 2020. Since its evolution, IoT technology provides lots of flexibility to develop and implement any application. Most of the application improves the human living standard and also makes life easy to access and monitoring the things in real time. Though there exist some security and privacy issues in IoT system like authentication, computation, data modification, trust among users. In this paper, we have identified the IoT application like insurance, supply chain system, smart city and smart car where trust among associated users is an major issue. The current centralized system does not provide enough trust between users. Using Blockchain technology we have shown that trust issue among users can be managed in a decentralized way so that information can be traceable and identify/verify any time. Blockchain has properties like distributed, digitally share and immutable which enhance security. For Blockchain implementation, Ethereum platform is used.
Grissa, Mohamed, Yavuz, Attila A., Hamdaoui, Bechir.  2019.  TrustSAS: A Trustworthy Spectrum Access System for the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1495–1503.
As part of its ongoing efforts to meet the increased spectrum demand, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently opened up 150 MHz in the 3.5 GHz band for shared wireless broadband use. Access and operations in this band, aka Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS), will be managed by a dynamic spectrum access system (SAS) to enable seamless spectrum sharing between secondary users (SUs) and incumbent users. Despite its benefits, SAS's design requirements, as set by FCC, present privacy risks to SUs, merely because SUs are required to share sensitive operational information (e.g., location, identity, spectrum usage) with SAS to be able to learn about spectrum availability in their vicinity. In this paper, we propose TrustSAS, a trustworthy framework for SAS that synergizes state-of-the-art cryptographic techniques with blockchain technology in an innovative way to address these privacy issues while complying with FCC's regulatory design requirements. We analyze the security of our framework and evaluate its performance through analysis, simulation and experimentation. We show that TrustSAS can offer high security guarantees with reasonable overhead, making it an ideal solution for addressing SUs' privacy issues in an operational SAS environment.
2020-04-10
Asare, Bismark Tei, Quist–Aphetsi, Kester, Nana, Laurent.  2019.  Nodal Authentication of IoT Data Using Blockchain. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Computational Modelling and Applications (ICCMA). :125—1254.
Pervasive systems over the years continuous to grow exponentially. Engagement of IoT in fields such as Agriculture, Home automation, industrial applications etc is on the rise. Self organizing networks within the IoT field give rise to engagement of various nodes for data communication. The rise in Cyber-attacks within IoT pose a lot of threat to these connected nodes and hence there is a need for data passing through nodes to be verified during communication. In this paper we proposed a nodal authentication approach in IoT using blockchain in securing the integrity of data passing through the nodes in IoT. In our work, we engaged the GOST algorithm in our approach. At the end, we achieved a nodal authentication and verification of the transmitted data. This makes it very difficult for an attacker to fake a node in the communication chain of the connected nodes. Data integrity was achieved in the nodes during the communication.
2020-04-06
Patsonakis, Christos, Samari, Katerina, Kiayiasy, Aggelos, Roussopoulos, Mema.  2019.  On the Practicality of a Smart Contract PKI. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures (DAPPCON). :109–118.
Public key infrastructures (PKIs) are one of the main building blocks for securing communications over the Internet. Currently, PKIs are under the control of centralized authorities, which is problematic as evidenced by numerous incidents where they have been compromised. The distributed, fault tolerant log of transactions provided by blockchains and more recently, smart contract platforms, constitutes a powerful tool for the decentralization of PKIs. To verify the validity of identity records, blockchain-based identity systems store on chain either all identity records, or, a small (or even constant) sized amount of data for verifying identity records stored off chain. However, as most of these systems have never been implemented, there is little information regarding the practical implications of each design's tradeoffs. In this work, we first implement and evaluate the only provably secure, smart contract based PKI of Patsonakis et al. on top of Ethereum. This construction incurs constant-sized storage at the expense of computational complexity. To explore this tradeoff, we propose and implement a second construction which, eliminates the need for trusted setup, preserves the security properties of Patsonakis et al. and, as illustrated through our evaluation, is the only version with constant-sized state that can be deployed on the live chain of Ethereum. Furthermore, we compare these two systems with the simple approach of most prior works, e.g., the Ethereum Name Service, where all identity records are stored on the smart contract's state, to illustrate several shortcomings of Ethereum and its cost model. We propose several modifications for fine tuning the model, which would be useful to be considered for any smart contract platform like Ethereum so that it reaches its full potential to support arbitrary distributed applications.
Chen, Yuxiang, Dong, Guishan, Bai, Jian, Hao, Yao, Li, Feng, Peng, Haiyang.  2019.  Trust Enhancement Scheme for Cross Domain Authentication of PKI System. 2019 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :103–110.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) has been popularized in many scenarios such as e-government applications, enterprises, etc. Due to the construction of PKI system of various regions and departments, there formed a lot of isolated PKI management domains, cross-domain authentication has become a problem that cannot ignored, which also has some traditional solutions such as cross-authentication, trust list, etc. However, some issues still exist, which hinder the popularity of unified trust services. For example, lack of unified cross domain standard, the update period of Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is too long, which affects the security of cross-domain authentication. In this paper, we proposed a trust transferring model by using blockchain consensus instead of traditional trusted third party for e-government applications. We exploit how to solve the unified trust service problem of PKI at the national level through consensus and transfer some CA management functions to the blockchain. And we prove the scheme's feasibility from engineering perspective. Besides, the scheme has enough scalability to satisfy trust transfer requirements of multiple PKI systems. Meanwhile, the security and efficiency are also guaranteed compared with traditional solutions.