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2021-01-18
Qiu, J., Lu, X., Lin, J..  2019.  Optimal Selection of Cryptographic Algorithms in Blockchain Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :208–212.
As a collection of innovative technologies, blockchain has solved the problem of reliable transmission and exchange of information on untrusted networks. The underlying implementation is the basis for the reliability of blockchain, which consists of various cryptographic algorithms for the use of identity authentication and privacy protection of distributed ledgers. The cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in the blockchain, which guarantees the confidentiality, integrity, verifiability and non-repudiation of the blockchain. In order to get the most suitable cryptographic algorithm for the blockchain system, this paper proposed a method using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to evaluate and score the comprehensive performance of the three types of cryptographic algorithms applied in the blockchain, including symmetric cryptographic algorithms, asymmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash algorithms. This paper weighs the performance differences of cryptographic algorithms considering the aspects of security, operational efficiency, language and hardware support and resource consumption. Finally, three cryptographic algorithms are selected that are considered to be the most suitable ones for block-chain systems, namely ECDSA, sha256 and AES. This result is also consistent with the most commonly used cryptographic algorithms in the current blockchain development direction. Therefore, the reliability and practicability of the algorithm evaluation pro-posed in this paper has been proved.
Zhu, L., Chen, C., Su, Z., Chen, W., Li, T., Yu, Z..  2020.  BBS: Micro-Architecture Benchmarking Blockchain Systems through Machine Learning and Fuzzy Set. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :411–423.
Due to the decentralization, irreversibility, and traceability, blockchain has attracted significant attention and has been deployed in many critical industries such as banking and logistics. However, the micro-architecture characteristics of blockchain programs still remain unclear. What's worse, the large number of micro-architecture events make understanding the characteristics extremely difficult. We even lack a systematic approach to identify the important events to focus on. In this paper, we propose a novel benchmarking methodology dubbed BBS to characterize blockchain programs at micro-architecture level. The key is to leverage fuzzy set theory to identify important micro-architecture events after the significance of them is quantified by a machine learning based approach. The important events for single programs are employed to characterize the programs while the common important events for multiple programs form an importance vector which is used to measure the similarity between benchmarks. We leverage BBS to characterize seven and six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper, respectively. The results show that BBS can reveal interesting findings. Moreover, by leveraging the importance characterization results, we improve that the transaction throughput of Smallbank from Fabric by 70% while reduce the transaction latency by 55%. In addition, we find that three of seven and two of six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper are redundant, respectively.
Huitzil, I., Fuentemilla, Á, Bobillo, F..  2020.  I Can Get Some Satisfaction: Fuzzy Ontologies for Partial Agreements in Blockchain Smart Contracts. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
This paper proposes a novel extension of blockchain systems with fuzzy ontologies. The main advantage is to let the users have flexible restrictions, represented using fuzzy sets, and to develop smart contracts where there is a partial agreement among the involved parts. We propose a general architecture based on four fuzzy ontologies and a process to develop and run the smart contracts, based on a reduction to a well-known fuzzy ontology reasoning task (Best Satisfiability Degree). We also investigate different operators to compute Pareto-optimal solutions and implement our approach in the Ethereum blockchain.
2021-01-11
Cao, S., Zou, J., Du, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Successive Framework: Enabling Accurate Identification and Secure Storage for Data in Smart Grid. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Due to malicious eavesdropping, forgery as well as other risks, it is challenging to dispose and store collected power data from smart grid in secure manners. Blockchain technology has become a novel method to solve the above problems because of its de-centralization and tamper-proof characteristics. It is especially well known that data stored in blockchain cannot be changed, so it is vital to seek out perfect mechanisms to ensure that data are compliant with high quality (namely, accuracy of the power data) before being stored in blockchain. This will help avoid losses due to low-quality data modification or deletion as needed in smart grid. Thus, we apply the parallel vision theory on the identification of meter readings to realize accurate power data. A cloud-blockchain fusion model (CBFM) is proposed for the storage of accurate power data, allowing for secure conducting of flexible transactions. Only power data calculated by parallel visual system instead of image data collected originally via robot would be stored in blockchain. Hence, we define the quality assurance before data uploaded to blockchain and security guarantee after data stored in blockchain as a successive framework, which is a brand new solution to manage efficiency and security as a whole for power data and data alike in other scenes. Security analysis and performance evaluations are performed, which prove that CBFM is highly secure and efficient impressively.
Kuperberg, M..  2020.  Towards Enabling Deletion in Append-Only Blockchains to Support Data Growth Management and GDPR Compliance. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :393–400.
Conventional blockchain implementations with append-only semantics do not support deleting or overwriting data in confirmed blocks. However, many industry-relevant use cases require the ability to delete data, especially when personally identifiable information is stored or when data growth has to be constrained. Existing attempts to reconcile these contradictions compromise on core qualities of the blockchain paradigm, as they include backdoor-like approaches such as central authorities with elevated rights or usage of specialized chameleon hash algorithms in chaining of the blocks. The contribution of this paper is a novel architecture for the blockchain ledger and consensus, which uses a tree of context chains with simultaneous validity. A context chain captures the transactions of a closed group of entities and persons, thus structuring blocks in a precisely defined way. The resulting context isolation enables consensus-steered deletion of an entire context without side effects to other contexts. We show how this architecture supports truncation, data rollover and separation of concerns, how the GDPR regulations can be fulfilled by this architecture and how it differs from sidechains and state channels.
2020-12-21
Enkhtaivan, B., Inoue, A..  2020.  Mediating Data Trustworthiness by Using Trusted Hardware between IoT Devices and Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :314–318.
In recent years, with the progress of data analysis methods utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, concepts of smart cities collecting data from IoT devices and creating values by analyzing it have been proposed. However, making sure that the data is not tampered with is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to utilize blockchain technology to record and trace the history of the data. Park and Kim proposed ensuring the trustworthiness of the data by utilizing an IoT device with a trusted execution environment (TEE). Also, Guan et al. proposed authenticating an IoT device and mediating data using a TEE. For the authentication, they use the physically unclonable function of the IoT device. Usually, IoT devices suffer from the lack of resources necessary for creating transactions for the blockchain ledger. In this paper, we present a secure protocol in which a TEE acts as a proxy to the IoT devices and creates the necessary transactions for the blockchain. We use an authenticated encryption method on the data transmission between the IoT device and TEE to authenticate the device and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the data generated by the IoT devices.
Huang, H., Zhou, S., Lin, J., Zhang, K., Guo, S..  2020.  Bridge the Trustworthiness Gap amongst Multiple Domains: A Practical Blockchain-based Approach. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
In isolated network domains, global trustworthiness (e.g., consistent network view) is critical to the multiple-domain business partners who aim to perform the trusted corporations depending on each isolated network view. However, to achieve such global trustworthiness across distributed network domains is a challenge. This is because when multiple-domain partners are required to exchange their local domain views with each other, it is difficult to ensure the data trustworthiness among them. In addition, the isolated domain view in each partner is prone to be destroyed by malicious falsification attacks. To this end, we propose a blockchain-based approach that can ensure the trustworthiness among multiple-party domains. In this paper, we mainly present the design and implementation of the proposed trustworthiness-protection system. A cloud-based prototype and a local testbed are developed based on Ethereum. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed prototype and testbed.
2020-12-02
Narang, S., Byali, M., Dayama, P., Pandit, V., Narahari, Y..  2019.  Design of Trusted B2B Market Platforms using Permissioned Blockchains and Game Theory. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :385—393.

Trusted collaboration satisfying the requirements of (a) adequate transparency and (b) preservation of privacy of business sensitive information is a key factor to ensure the success and adoption of online business-to-business (B2B) collaboration platforms. Our work proposes novel ways of stringing together game theoretic modeling, blockchain technology, and cryptographic techniques to build such a platform for B2B collaboration involving enterprise buyers and sellers who may be strategic. The B2B platform builds upon three ideas. The first is to use a permissioned blockchain with smart contracts as the technical infrastructure for building the platform. Second, the above smart contracts implement deep business logic which is derived using a rigorous analysis of a repeated game model of the strategic interactions between buyers and sellers to devise strategies to induce honest behavior from buyers and sellers. Third, we present a formal framework that captures the essential requirements for secure and private B2B collaboration, and, in this direction, we develop cryptographic regulation protocols that, in conjunction with the blockchain, help implement such a framework. We believe our work is an important first step in the direction of building a platform that enables B2B collaboration among strategic and competitive agents while maximizing social welfare and addressing the privacy concerns of the agents.

Malvankar, A., Payne, J., Budhraja, K. K., Kundu, A., Chari, S., Mohania, M..  2019.  Malware Containment in Cloud. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :221—227.

Malware is pervasive and poses serious threats to normal operation of business processes in cloud. Cloud computing environments typically have hundreds of hosts that are connected to each other, often with high risk trust assumptions and/or protection mechanisms that are not difficult to break. Malware often exploits such weaknesses, as its immediate goal is often to spread itself to as many hosts as possible. Detecting this propagation is often difficult to address because the malware may reside in multiple components across the software or hardware stack. In this scenario, it is usually best to contain the malware to the smallest possible number of hosts, and it's also critical for system administration to resolve the issue in a timely manner. Furthermore, resolution often requires that several participants across different organizational teams scramble together to address the intrusion. In this vision paper, we define this problem in detail. We then present our vision of decentralized malware containment and the challenges and issues associated with this vision. The approach of containment involves detection and response using graph analytics coupled with a blockchain framework. We propose the use of a dominance frontier for profile nodes which must be involved in the containment process. Smart contracts are used to obtain consensus amongst the involved parties. The paper presents a basic implementation of this proposal. We have further discussed some open problems related to our vision.

2020-12-01
Nikander, P., Autiosalo, J., Paavolainen, S..  2019.  Interledger for the Industrial Internet of Things. 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). 1:908—915.

The upsurge of Industrial Internet of Things is forcing industrial information systems to enable less hierarchical information flow. The connections between humans, devices, and their digital twins are growing in numbers, creating a need for new kind of security and trust solutions. To address these needs, industries are applying distributed ledger technologies, aka blockchains. A significant number of use cases have been studied in the sectors of logistics, energy markets, smart grid security, and food safety, with frequently reported benefits in transparency, reduced costs, and disintermediation. However, distributed ledger technologies have challenges with transaction throughput, latency, and resource requirements, which render the technology unusable in many cases, particularly with constrained Internet of Things devices.To overcome these challenges within the Industrial Internet of Things, we suggest a set of interledger approaches that enable trusted information exchange across different ledgers and constrained devices. With these approaches, the technically most suitable ledger technology can be selected for each use case while simultaneously enjoying the benefits of the most widespread ledger implementations. We present state of the art for distributed ledger technologies to support the use of interledger approaches in industrial settings.

Tanana, D..  2019.  Decentralized Labor Record System Based on Wavelet Consensus Protocol. 2019 International Multi-Conference on Engineering, Computer and Information Sciences (SIBIRCON). :0496—0499.

The labor market involves several untrusted actors with contradicting objectives. We propose a blockchain based system for labor market, which provides benefits to all participants in terms of confidence, transparency, trust and tracking. Our system would handle employment data through new Wavelet blockchain platform. It would change the job market enabling direct agreements between parties without other participants, and providing new mechanisms for negotiating the employment conditions. Furthermore, our system would reduce the need in existing paper workflow as well as in major internet recruiting companies. The key differences of our work from other blockchain based labor record systems are usage of Wavelet blockchain platform, which features metastability, directed acyclic graph system and Turing complete smart contracts platform and introduction of human interaction inside the smart contracts logic, instead of automatic execution of contracts. The results are promising while inconclusive and we would further explore potential of blockchain solutions for labor market problems.

Goel, A., Agarwal, A., Vatsa, M., Singh, R., Ratha, N..  2019.  DeepRing: Protecting Deep Neural Network With Blockchain. 2019 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW). :2821—2828.

Several computer vision applications such as object detection and face recognition have started to completely rely on deep learning based architectures. These architectures, when paired with appropriate loss functions and optimizers, produce state-of-the-art results in a myriad of problems. On the other hand, with the advent of "blockchain", the cybersecurity industry has developed a new sense of trust which was earlier missing from both the technical and commercial perspectives. Employment of cryptographic hash as well as symmetric/asymmetric encryption and decryption algorithms ensure security without any human intervention (i.e., centralized authority). In this research, we present the synergy between the best of both these worlds. We first propose a model which uses the learned parameters of a typical deep neural network and is secured from external adversaries by cryptography and blockchain technology. As the second contribution of the proposed research, a new parameter tampering attack is proposed to properly justify the role of blockchain in machine learning.

Craggs, B., Rashid, A..  2019.  Trust Beyond Computation Alone: Human Aspects of Trust in Blockchain Technologies. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society (ICSE-SEIS). :21—30.

Blockchains - with their inherent properties of transaction transparency, distributed consensus, immutability and cryptographic verifiability - are increasingly seen as a means to underpin innovative products and services in a range of sectors from finance through to energy and healthcare. Discussions, too often, make assertions that the trustless nature of blockchain technologies enables and actively promotes their suitability - there being no need to trust third parties or centralised control. Yet humans need to be able to trust systems, and others with whom the system enables transactions. In this paper, we highlight that understanding this need for trust is critical for the development of blockchain-based systems. Through an online study with 125 users of the most well-known of blockchain based systems - the cryptocurrency Bitcoin - we uncover that human and institutional aspects of trust are pervasive. Our analysis highlights that, when designing future blockchain-based technologies, we ought to not only consider computational trust but also the wider eco-system, how trust plays a part in users engaging/disengaging with such eco-systems and where design choices impact upon trust. From this, we distill a set of guidelines for software engineers developing blockchain-based systems for societal applications.

2020-11-23
Zhu, L., Dong, H., Shen, M., Gai, K..  2019.  An Incentive Mechanism Using Shapley Value for Blockchain-Based Medical Data Sharing. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :113–118.
With the development of big data and machine learning techniques, medical data sharing for the use of disease diagnosis has received considerable attention. Blockchain, as an emerging technology, has been widely used to resolve the efficiency and security issues in medical data sharing. However, the existing studies on blockchain-based medical data sharing have rarely concerned about the reasonable incentive mechanism. In this paper, we propose a cooperation model where medical data is shared via blockchain. We derive the topological relationships among the participants consisting of data owners, miners and third parties, and gradually develop the computational process of Shapley value revenue distribution. Specifically, we explore the revenue distribution under different consensuses of blockchain. Finally, we demonstrate the incentive effect and rationality of the proposed solution by analyzing the revenue distribution.
Singh, M., Kim, S..  2018.  Crypto trust point (cTp) for secure data sharing among intelligent vehicles. 2018 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC). :1–4.
Tremendous amount of research is going on in the field of Intelligent vehicles (IVs)in industries and academics. Although, IV supports a better convenience for the society, but it also suffers from some concerns. Security is the major concern in Intelligent vehicle technology, due to its high exposure to data and information communication. The environment of the IV communication has many security vulnerabilities, which cannot be solved by Traditional Security approaches due to their fixed capabilities. Among security, trust, data accuracy and reliability of communication data in the communication channel are the other issues in IV communication. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer, distributed and decentralized technology which is used by the digital currency Bit-coin, to build trust and reliability and it has capability and is feasible to use Blockchain in IV Communication. In this paper, we propose, Blockchain based crypto Trust point (cTp) mechanism for IV communication. Using cTp in the IVs communication environment can provide IV data security and reliability. cTp mechanism accounts for the legitimate and illegitimate vehicles behavior, and rewarding thereby building trust among the vehicles. We also propose a reward based system using cTp (exchange of some cTp among IVs, during successful communication). We use blockchain technology in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for the data management of the cTp. Using ITS, cTp details of every vehicle can be accessed ubiquitously by IVs. We evaluation, our proposal using the intersection use case scenario for intelligent vehicles communication.
2020-11-20
Lu, X., Guan, Z., Zhou, X., Du, X., Wu, L., Guizani, M..  2019.  A Secure and Efficient Renewable Energy Trading Scheme Based on Blockchain in Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1839—1844.
Nowadays, with the diversification and decentralization of energy systems, the energy Internet makes it possible to interconnect distributed energy sources and consumers. In the energy trading market, the traditional centralized model relies entirely on trusted third parties. However, as the number of entities involved in the transactions grows and the forms of transactions diversify, the centralized model gradually exposes problems such as insufficient scalability, High energy consumption, and low processing efficiency. To address these challenges, we propose a secure and efficient energy renewable trading scheme based on blockchain. In our scheme, the electricity market trading model is divided into two levels, which can not only protect the privacy, but also achieve a green computing. In addition, in order to adapt to the relatively weak computing power of the underlying equipment in smart grid, we design a credibility-based equity proof mechanism to greatly improve the system availability. Compared with other similar distributed energy trading schemes, we prove the advantages of our scheme in terms of high operational efficiency and low computational overhead through experimental evaluations. Additionally, we conduct a detailed security analysis to demonstrate that our solution meets the security requirements.
2020-11-17
Tosh, D. K., Shetty, S., Foytik, P., Njilla, L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  Blockchain-Empowered Secure Internet -of- Battlefield Things (IoBT) Architecture. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :593—598.

Internet of Things (IoT) technology is emerging to advance the modern defense and warfare applications because the battlefield things, such as combat equipment, warfighters, and vehicles, can sense and disseminate information from the battlefield to enable real-time decision making on military operations and enhance autonomy in the battlefield. Since this Internet-of-Battlefield Things (IoBT) environment is highly heterogeneous in terms of devices, network standards, platforms, connectivity, and so on, it introduces trust, security, and privacy challenges when battlefield entities exchange information with each other. To address these issues, we propose a Blockchain-empowered auditable platform for IoBT and describe its architectural components, such as battlefield-sensing layer, network layer, and consensus and service layer, in depth. In addition to the proposed layered architecture, this paper also presents several open research challenges involved in each layer to realize the Blockchain-enabled IoBT platform.

Buenrostro, E. D., Rivera, A. O. G., Tosh, D., Acosta, J. C., Njilla, L..  2019.  Evaluating Usability of Permissioned Blockchain for Internet-of-Battlefield Things Security. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :841—846.

Military technology is ever-evolving to increase the safety and security of soldiers on the field while integrating Internet-of-Things solutions to improve operational efficiency in mission oriented tasks in the battlefield. Centralized communication technology is the traditional network model used for battlefields and is vulnerable to denial of service attacks, therefore suffers performance hazards. They also lead to a central point of failure, due to which, a flexible model that is mobile, resilient, and effective for different scenarios must be proposed. Blockchain offers a distributed platform that allows multiple nodes to update a distributed ledger in a tamper-resistant manner. The decentralized nature of this system suggests that it can be an effective tool for battlefields in securing data communication among Internet-of-Battlefield Things (IoBT). In this paper, we integrate a permissioned blockchain, namely Hyperledger Sawtooth, in IoBT context and evaluate its performance with the goal of determining whether it has the potential to serve the performance needs of IoBT environment. Using different testing parameters, the metric data would help in suggesting the best parameter set, network configuration and blockchain usability views in IoBT context. We show that a blockchain-integrated IoBT platform has heavy dependency on the characteristics of the underlying network such as topology, link bandwidth, jitter, and other communication configurations, that can be tuned up to achieve optimal performance.

Khakurel, U., Rawat, D., Njilla, L..  2019.  2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). :241—247.

FastChain is a simulator built in NS-3 which simulates the networked battlefield scenario with military applications, connecting tankers, soldiers and drones to form Internet-of-Battlefield-Things (IoBT). Computing, storage and communication resources in IoBT are limited during certain situations in IoBT. Under these circumstances, these resources should be carefully combined to handle the task to accomplish the mission. FastChain simulator uses Sharding approach to provide an efficient solution to combine resources of IoBT devices by identifying the correct and the best set of IoBT devices for a given scenario. Then, the set of IoBT devices for a given scenario collaborate together for sharding enabled Blockchain technology. Interested researchers, policy makers and developers can download and use the FastChain simulator to design, develop and evaluate blockchain enabled IoBT scenarios that helps make robust and trustworthy informed decisions in mission-critical IoBT environment.

2020-11-16
Choudhury, O., Sylla, I., Fairoza, N., Das, A..  2019.  A Blockchain Framework for Ensuring Data Quality in Multi-Organizational Clinical Trials. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics (ICHI). :1–9.
The cost and complexity of conducting multi-site clinical trials have significantly increased over time, with site monitoring, data management, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) amendments being key drivers. Trial sponsors, such as pharmaceutical companies, are also increasingly outsourcing trial management to multiple organizations. Enforcing compliance with standard operating procedures, such as preserving data privacy for human subject protection, is crucial for upholding the integrity of a study and its findings. Current efforts to ensure quality of data collected at multiple sites and by multiple organizations lack a secure, trusted, and efficient framework for fragmented data capture. To address this challenge, we propose a novel data management infrastructure based on a permissioned blockchain with private channels, smart contracts, and distributed ledgers. We use an example multi-organizational clinical trial to design and implement a blockchain network: generate activity-specific private channels to segregate data flow for confidentiality, write channel-specific smart contracts to enforce regulatory guidelines, monitor the immutable transaction log to detect protocol breach, and auto-generate audit trail. Through comprehensive experimental study, we demonstrate that our system handles high-throughput transactions, exhibits low-latency, and constitutes a trusted, scalable solution.
Zhang, C., Xu, C., Xu, J., Tang, Y., Choi, B..  2019.  GEMˆ2-Tree: A Gas-Efficient Structure for Authenticated Range Queries in Blockchain. 2019 IEEE 35th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :842–853.
Blockchain technology has attracted much attention due to the great success of the cryptocurrencies. Owing to its immutability property and consensus protocol, blockchain offers a new solution for trusted storage and computation services. To scale up the services, prior research has suggested a hybrid storage architecture, where only small meta-data are stored onchain and the raw data are outsourced to off-chain storage. To protect data integrity, a cryptographic proof can be constructed online for queries over the data stored in the system. However, the previous schemes only support simple key-value queries. In this paper, we take the first step toward studying authenticated range queries in the hybrid-storage blockchain. The key challenge lies in how to design an authenticated data structure (ADS) that can be efficiently maintained by the blockchain, in which a unique gas cost model is employed. By analyzing the performance of the existing techniques, we propose a novel ADS, called GEM2-tree, which is not only gas-efficient but also effective in supporting authenticated queries. To further reduce the ADS maintenance cost without sacrificing much the query performance, we also propose an optimized structure, GEM2*-tree, by designing a two-level index structure. Theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation validate the performance of the proposed ADSs.
2020-11-09
Bose, S., Raikwar, M., Mukhopadhyay, D., Chattopadhyay, A., Lam, K..  2018.  BLIC: A Blockchain Protocol for Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management of ICS. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :1326–1335.
Blockchain technology has brought a huge paradigm shift in multiple industries, by integrating distributed ledger, smart contracts and consensus protocol under the same roof. Notable applications of blockchain include cryptocurrencies and large-scale multi-party transaction management systems. The latter fits very well into the domain of manufacturing and supply chain management for Integrated Circuits (IC), which, despite several advanced technologies, is vulnerable to malicious practices, such as overproduction, IP piracy and deleterious design modification to gain unfair advantages. To combat these threats, researchers have proposed several ideas like hardware metering, design obfuscation, split manufacturing and watermarking. In this paper, we show, how these issues can be complementarily dealt with using blockchain technology coupled with identity-based encryption and physical unclonable functions, for improved resilience against certain adversarial motives. As part of our proposed blockchain protocol, titled `BLIC', we propose an authentication mechanism to secure both active and passive IC transactions, and a composite consensus protocol designed for IC supply chains. We also present studies on the security, scalability, privacy and anonymity of the BLIC protocol.
2020-11-02
Ajay, K, Bharath, B, Akhil, M V, Akanksh, R, Hemavathi, P.  2018.  Intellectual Property Management Using Blockchain. 2018 3rd International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :428—430.

With the advent of blockchain technology, multiple avenues of use are being explored. The immutability and security afforded by blockchain are the key aspects of exploitation. Extending this to legal contracts involving digital intellectual properties provides a way to overcome the use of antiquated paperwork to handle digital assets.

Zhang, Yuan, Xu, Chunxiang, Li, Hongwei, Yang, Haomiao, Shen, Xuemin.  2019.  Chronos: Secure and Accurate Time-Stamping Scheme for Digital Files via Blockchain. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.

It is common to certify when a file was created in digital investigations, e.g., determining first inventors for patentable ideas in intellectual property systems to resolve disputes. Secure time-stamping schemes can be derived from blockchain-based storage to protect files from backdating/forward-dating, where a file is integrated into a transaction on a blockchain and the timestamp of the corresponding block reflects the latest time the file was created. Nevertheless, blocks' timestamps in blockchains suffer from time errors, which causes the inaccuracy of files' timestamps. In this paper, we propose an accurate blockchain-based time-stamping scheme called Chronos. In Chronos, when a file is created, the file and a sufficient number of successive blocks that are latest confirmed on blockchain are integrated into a transaction. Due to chain quality, it is computationally infeasible to pre-compute these blocks. The time when the last block was chained to the blockchain serves as the earliest creation time of the file. The time when the block including the transaction was chained indicates the latest creation time of the file. Therefore, Chronos makes the file's creation time corresponding to this time interval. Based on chain growth, Chronos derives the time when these two blocks were chained from their heights on the blockchain, which ensures the accuracy of the file's timestamp. The security and performance of Chronos are demonstrated by a comprehensive evaluation.

2020-10-26
Clincy, Victor, Shahriar, Hossain.  2019.  IoT Malware Analysis. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:920–921.
IoT devices can be used to fulfil many of our daily tasks. IoT could be wearable devices, home appliances, or even light bulbs. With the introduction of this new technology, however, vulnerabilities are being introduced and can be leveraged or exploited by malicious users. One common vehicle of exploitation is malicious software, or malware. Malware can be extremely harmful and compromise the confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA triad) of information systems. This paper analyzes the types of malware attacks, introduce some mitigation approaches and discusses future challenges.