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2021-05-03
Zhu, Fangzhou, Liu, Liang, Meng, Weizhi, Lv, Ting, Hu, Simin, Ye, Renjun.  2020.  SCAFFISD: A Scalable Framework for Fine-Grained Identification and Security Detection of Wireless Routers. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1194–1199.

The security of wireless network devices has received widespread attention, but most existing schemes cannot achieve fine-grained device identification. In practice, the security vulnerabilities of a device are heavily depending on its model and firmware version. Motivated by this issue, we propose a universal, extensible and device-independent framework called SCAFFISD, which can provide fine-grained identification of wireless routers. It can generate access rules to extract effective information from the router admin page automatically and perform quick scans for known device vulnerabilities. Meanwhile, SCAFFISD can identify rogue access points (APs) in combination with existing detection methods, with the purpose of performing a comprehensive security assessment of wireless networks. We implement the prototype of SCAFFISD and verify its effectiveness through security scans of actual products.

2021-03-15
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
2021-02-23
Adat, V., Parsamehr, R., Politis, I., Tselios, C., Kotsopoulos, S..  2020.  Malicious user identification scheme for network coding enabled small cell environment. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
Reliable communication over the wireless network with high throughput is a major target for the next generation communication technologies. Network coding can significantly improve the throughput efficiency of the network in a cooperative environment. The small cell technology and device to device communication make network coding an ideal candidate for improved performance in the fifth generation of communication networks. However, the security concerns associated with network coding needs to be addressed before any practical implementations. Pollution attacks are considered one of the most threatening attacks in the network coding environment. Although there are different integrity schemes to detect polluted packets, identifying the exact adversary in a network coding environment is a less addressed challenge. This paper proposes a scheme for identifying and locating adversaries in a dense, network coding enabled environment of mobile nodes. It also discusses a non-repudiation protocol that will prevent adversaries from deceiving the network.
2020-12-28
Hussain, M. S., Khan, K. U. R..  2020.  Network-based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System in MANETS. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :881—886.

In the communication model of wired and wireless Adhoc networks, the most needed requirement is the integration of security. Mobile Adhoc networks are more aroused with the attacks compared to the wired environment. Subsequently, the characteristics of Mobile Adhoc networks are also influenced by the vulnerability. The pre-existing unfolding solutions are been obtained for infrastructure-less networks. However, these solutions are not always necessarily suitable for wireless networks. Further, the framework of wireless Adhoc networks has uncommon vulnerabilities and due to this behavior it is not protected by the same solutions, therefore the detection mechanism of intrusion is combinedly used to protect the Manets. Several intrusion detection techniques that have been developed for a fixed wired network cannot be applied in this new environment. Furthermore, The issue of intensity in terms of energy is of a major kind due to which the life of the working battery is very limited. The objective this research work is to detect the Anomalous behavior of nodes in Manet's and Experimental analysis is done by making use of Network Simulator-2 to do the comparative analysis for the existing algorithm, we enhanced the previous algorithm in order to improve the Energy efficiency and results shown the improvement of energy of battery life and Throughput is checked with respect to simulation of test case analysis. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing approach.

2020-12-14
Arjoune, Y., Salahdine, F., Islam, M. S., Ghribi, E., Kaabouch, N..  2020.  A Novel Jamming Attacks Detection Approach Based on Machine Learning for Wireless Communication. 2020 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :459–464.
Jamming attacks target a wireless network creating an unwanted denial of service. 5G is vulnerable to these attacks despite its resilience prompted by the use of millimeter wave bands. Over the last decade, several types of jamming detection techniques have been proposed, including fuzzy logic, game theory, channel surfing, and time series. Most of these techniques are inefficient in detecting smart jammers. Thus, there is a great need for efficient and fast jamming detection techniques with high accuracy. In this paper, we compare the efficiency of several machine learning models in detecting jamming signals. We investigated the types of signal features that identify jamming signals, and generated a large dataset using these parameters. Using this dataset, the machine learning algorithms were trained, evaluated, and tested. These algorithms are random forest, support vector machine, and neural network. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated and compared using the probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of miss detection, and accuracy. The simulation results show that jamming detection based random forest algorithm can detect jammers with a high accuracy, high detection probability and low probability of false alarm.
2020-11-23
Karavaev, I. S., Selivantsev, V. I., Shtern, Y. I., Shtern, M. Y..  2018.  The development of the data transfer protocol in the intelligent control systems of the energy carrier parameters. 2018 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1305–1308.
For the control of the parameters and for the accounting of the energy consumption in buildings and structures the intelligent control system has been developed that provides: the continuous monitoring of the thermodynamic parameters of the energy carriers measured by wireless smart sensors; the calculation and transmission of the measured parameters via the radio channel to the database for their accumulation and storage; control signals delivery for the control devices of the energy consumption and for the security devices; the maintaining of a database of the energy consumption accounting. For the interaction of the hardware and software in the control system, the SimpliciTI-based protocol and algorithms for the reliable data transmission over the radio channel in a dense urban environment have been developed.
2020-06-15
Kipchuk, Feodosiy, Sokolov, Volodymyr, Buriachok, Volodymyr, Kuzmenko, Lidia.  2019.  Investigation of Availability of Wireless Access Points based on Embedded Systems. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :1–5.
The paper presents the results of load testing of embedded hardware platforms for Internet of Things solutions. Analyzed the available hardware. The operating systems from different manufacturers were consolidated into a single classification, and for the two most popular, load testing was performed by an external and internal wireless network adapter. Developed its own software solution based on the Python programming language. The number of wireless subscribers ranged from 7 to 14. Experimental results will be useful in deploying wireless infrastructure for small commercial and scientific wireless networks.
2020-06-01
Kapoor, Chavi.  2019.  Routing Table Management using Dynamic Information with Routing Around Connectivity Holes (RACH) for IoT Networks. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :174—177.

The internet of things (IoT) is the popular wireless network for data collection applications. The IoT networks are deployed in dense or sparse architectures, out of which the dense networks are vastly popular as these are capable of gathering the huge volumes of data. The collected data is analyzed using the historical or continuous analytical systems, which uses the back testing or time-series analytics to observe the desired patterns from the target data. The lost or bad interval data always carries the high probability to misguide the analysis reports. The data is lost due to a variety of reasons, out of which the most popular ones are associated with the node failures and connectivity holes, which occurs due to physical damage, software malfunctioning, blackhole/wormhole attacks, route poisoning, etc. In this paper, the work is carried on the new routing scheme for the IoTs to avoid the connectivity holes, which analyzes the activity of wireless nodes and takes the appropriate actions when required.

2020-05-11
Yu, Dunyi.  2018.  Research on Anomaly Intrusion Detection Technology in Wireless Network. 2018 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Intelligent Systems (ICVRIS). :540–543.
In order to improve the security of wireless network, an anomaly intrusion detection algorithm based on adaptive time-frequency feature decomposition is proposed. This paper analyzes the types and detection principles of wireless network intrusion detection, it adopts the information statistical analysis method to detect the network intrusion, constructs the traffic statistical analysis model of the network abnormal intrusion, and establishes the network intrusion signal model by combining the signal fitting method. The correlation matching filter is used to filter the network intrusion signal to improve the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the time-frequency analysis method is used to extract the characteristic quantity of the network abnormal intrusion, and the adaptive correlation spectrum analysis method is used to realize the intrusion detection. The simulation results show that this method has high accuracy and strong anti-interference ability, and it can effectively guarantee the network security.
Poovendran, R, Billclinton., S, Darshan., R, Dinakar., R, Fazil., M.  2019.  Design and analysis of a mesh-based Adaptive Wireless Network-on Chips Architecture With Irregular Network Routing. 2019 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1–6.
The metallic interface for between core messages expends wealth influence and lesser throughput which are huge in Network-on Chip (NoC) structures. We proposed a remote Network-on-Chip (NoC) building Wireless Network-on Chip that uses power and imperatives gainful remote handsets to improve higherenergy and throughput by altering channels as indicated by traffic plans. Our proposed computations uses interface use bits of knowledge to redispensreal platforms, and a vitality funds of 29-35%. Wireless channels and a token sharing arrangement to totally use the remote information transmission successfully. Remote/electrical topological with results demonstrates a through-put advancement of 69%, a speedup between 1.7-2.9X on real platform, and an power savings of 25-38%.
2020-05-08
Shen, Weiguo, Wang, Wei.  2018.  Node Identification in Wireless Network Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2018 14th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :238—241.
Aiming at the problem of node identification in wireless networks, a method of node identification based on deep learning is proposed, which starts with the tiny features of nodes in radiofrequency layer. Firstly, in order to cut down the computational complexity, Principal Component Analysis is used to reduce the dimension of node sample data. Secondly, a convolution neural network containing two hidden layers is designed to extract local features of the preprocessed data. Stochastic gradient descent method is used to optimize the parameters, and the Softmax Model is used to determine the output label. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by experiments on practical wireless ad-hoc network.
2020-03-23
Alaoui, Sadek Belamfedel, El Houssaine, Tissir, Noreddine, Chaibi.  2019.  Modelling, analysis and design of active queue management to mitigate the effect of denial of service attack in wired/wireless network. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1–7.
Mitigating the effect of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in wired/wireless networks is a problem of extreme importance. The present paper investigates this problem and proposes a secure AQM to encounter the effects of DDoS attacks on queue's router. The employed method relies on modelling the TCP/AQM system subjected to different DoS attack rate where the resulting closed-loop system is expressed as new Markovian Jump Linear System (MJLS). Sufficient delay-dependent conditions which guarantee the syntheses of a stabilizing control for the closed-loop system with a guaranteed cost J* are derived. Finally, a numerical example is displayed.
2020-02-17
Dhanujalakshmi, R., Kartheeban, K..  2019.  Smart and Secure Group Communication in Iot Using Exponential Based Self Healing Group Key Distribution Protocol. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Techniques in Control, Optimization and Signal Processing (INCOS). :1–4.
The major role of Internet of Things is to gather and exchange large amount of data through wireless network. Unreliable wireless network creates insecure connections, so security is very much important in IoT. Self-healing group key distribution protocol can be used to mitigate security issues for unreliable wireless network. It improves communication efficiency. we can recover lost session keys using broadcast message by group members in place of group manager requiring missing key update messages to be transmitted. This study also illustrates about a new E-SGKD protocol that faces many secure problems and uses AES algorithm provides security properties with appropriate storage requirement. We have compromised session key retrieve time to reduce expenses for communication. Output of this paper and simulation is appeal to Zigbee network as it has drastic outcome in communication and storage, the results will be compared with the access polynomial self-healing protocol for analysis process.
2020-01-27
Eya, Nnabuike, Alhassan, Haru, AlAbdullah, Ali, Hameed, Khalid, Bin-Melha, Mohammed, Abd-Alhameed, Raed A..  2019.  Improved Group Key Management with Host Mobility Protocol in Wireless Mobile Environment. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Technology. :56–64.

Group communication as an efficient communication mechanism, in recent years has become popular. This is due to the increase in group applications and services. Group communication ensures efficient delivery of packets from one source to multiple recipients or many sources to multiple recipients. Group key management in a wireless environment has been an interesting challenge with group communication because of insecure communication channel. The security and integrity of group communication in a wireless environment is a challenge. One of the challenges with group communication is the mobility of group members. Member mobility is a challenge when designing a group key management scheme. There have been several attempts that have been made to design a secure group key management for wireless environment. Not so many successful attempts have towards wireless mobile environments to explicitly address the various challenges with dynamic mobility issue between multiple networks. This research proposes a GKM scheme that tackles mobility in group communication. The protocol is analyzed to assess security and performance requirements. The size of the group variation, the mobility rate variation are carefully observed to determine the impact on the average of rekeying messages generated at every event and also 1-affects-n phenomenon. The results achieved, shows that the proposed protocol outperforms other popular solutions with less number of rekeying messages per event and also less number of affected members per event. Backward and Forward security are preserved for moving members.

2019-09-09
Rathi, P. S., Rao, C. M..  2018.  An Enhanced Threshold Based Cryptography with Secrete Sharing and Particle Swarm Optimization for Data Sending in MANET. 2018 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (ACIRS). :87-91.

There are two types of network architectures are presents those are wired network and wireless network. MANETs is one of the examples of wireless network. Each and every network has their own features which make them different from other types of network. Some of the features of MANETs are; infrastructure less network, mobility, dynamic network topology which make it different and more popular from wired network but these features also generate different problems for achieving security due to the absence of centralized authority inside network as well as sending of data due to its mobility features. Achieving security in wired network is little-bit easy compare to MANETs because in wired network user need to just protect main centralized authority for achieving security whereas in MANETs there is no centralized authority available so protecting server in MANETs is difficult compare to wired network. Data sending and receiving process is also easy in wired network but mobility features makes this data sending and receiving process difficult in MANETs. Protecting server or central repository without making use of secrete sharing in wired network will create so many challenges and problem in terms of security. The proposed system makes use of Secrete sharing method to protect server from malicious nodes and `A New particle Swarm Optimization Method for MANETs' (NPSOM) for performing data sending and receiving operation in optimization way. NPSOM technique get equated with the steady particle swarm optimizer (PSO) technique. PSO was essentially designed by Kennedy, Eberhart in 1995. These methods are based upon 4 dissimilar types of parameters. These techniques were encouraged by common performance of animals, some of them are bird assembling and fish tuition, ant colony. The proposed system converts this PSO in the form of MANETs where Particle is nothing but the nodes in the network, Swarm means collection of multiple nodes and Optimization means finding the best and nearer root to reach to destination. Each and every element study about their own previous best solution which they are having with them for the given optimization problem, likewise they see for the groups previous best solution which they got for the same problem and finally they correct its solution depending on these values. This same process gets repeated for finding of the best and optimal solutions value. NPSOM technique, used in proposed system there every element changes its location according to the solution which they got previously and which is poorest as well as their collection's earlier poorest solution for finding best, optimal value. In this proposed system we are concentrating on, sidestepping element's and collections poorest solution which they got before.

2018-10-26
Zhang, Zechen, Peng, Wei, Liu, Song.  2017.  A secure and reliable coding scheme over wireless links in cyber-physical systems. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1079–1085.

Cyber-physical systems connect the physical world and the information world by sensors and actuators. These sensors are usually small embedded systems which have many limitations on wireless communication, computing and storage. This paper proposes a lightweight coding method for secure and reliable transmission over a wireless communication links in cyber-physical systems. The reliability of transmission is provided by forward error correction. And to ensure the confidentiality, we utilize different encryption matrices at each time of coding which are generated by the sequence number of packets. So replay attacks and other cyber threats can be resisted simultaneously. The issues of the prior reliable transmission protocols and secure communication protocols in wireless networks of a cyber-physical system are reduced, such as large protocol overhead, high interaction delay and large computation cost.

2018-06-07
Qiao, Yue, Srinivasan, Kannan, Arora, Anish.  2017.  Channel Spoofer: Defeating Channel Variability and Unpredictability. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. :402–413.
A vast literature on secret sharing protocols now exists based on the folk theorem that the wireless channel between communicating parties Alice and Bob cannot be controlled or predicted by a third party in a fine-grain way. We find that the folk theorem unfortunately does not hold. In particular, we show how an adversary, using a customized full-duplex forwarder, can control the channel seen by Alice and Bob in fine granularity without leaving a trace, while predicting with high probability the secrets generated by any channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocol. An implementation of our proposed secret manipulator, called Channel Spoofer, on a software-defined radio platform empirically verifies Channel Spoofer's effectiveness in breaking several representative state-of-the-art secret sharing protocols. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed Channel Spoofer is the first practical attacker against all extant channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocols.
2018-02-02
Mohapatra, S., Siddappa, M..  2017.  Enhancing security for load balanced energy enhanced clustered bee ad hoc network using secret public keys. 2017 International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :343–348.

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most important and unique network in wireless network which has brought maximum mobility and scalability. It is suitable for environments that need on fly setup. A lot of challenges come with implementing these networks. The most sensitive challenge that MANET faces is making the MANET energy efficient at the same time handling the security issues. In this paper we are going to discuss the best routing for maximum energy saving which is Load Balanced Energy Enhanced Clustered Bee Ad Hoc Routing (LBEE) along with secured PKI scheme. LBEE which is inspired from swarm intelligence and follows the bee colony paradigm has been found as the best energy efficient method for the MANETs. In this paper along with energy efficiency care has been taken for security of all the nodes of the network. The best suiting security for the protocol has been chosen as the four key security scheme.

2017-10-03
Chlebus, Bogdan S., Vaya, Shailesh.  2016.  Distributed Communication in Bare-bones Wireless Networks. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking. :1:1–1:10.

We consider wireless networks in which the effects of interference are determined by the SINR model. We address the question of structuring distributed communication when stations have very limited individual capabilities. In particular, nodes do not know their geographic coordinates, neighborhoods or even the size n of the network, nor can they sense collisions. Each node is equipped only with its unique name from a range \1, ..., N\. We study the following three settings and distributed algorithms for communication problems in each of them. In the uncoordinated-start case, when one node starts an execution and other nodes are awoken by receiving messages from already awoken nodes, we present a randomized broadcast algorithm which wakes up all the nodes in O(n log2 N) rounds with high probability. In the synchronized-start case, when all the nodes simultaneously start an execution, we give a randomized algorithm that computes a backbone of the network in O(Δ log7 N) rounds with high probability. Finally, in the partly-coordinated-start case, when a number of nodes start an execution together and other nodes are awoken by receiving messages from the already awoken nodes, we develop an algorithm that creates a backbone network in time O(n log2 N + Δ log7 N) with high probability.

2017-02-14
K. Sakai, M. T. Sun, W. S. Ku, J. Wu, T. H. Lai.  2015.  "Multi-path Based Avoidance Routing in Wireless Networks". 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. :706-715.

The speedy advancement in computer hardware has caused data encryption to no longer be a 100% safe solution for secure communications. To battle with adversaries, a countermeasure is to avoid message routing through certain insecure areas, e.g., Malicious countries and nodes. To this end, avoidance routing has been proposed over the past few years. However, the existing avoidance protocols are single-path-based, which means that there must be a safe path such that no adversary is in the proximity of the whole path. This condition is difficult to satisfy. As a result, routing opportunities based on the existing avoidance schemes are limited. To tackle this issue, we propose an avoidance routing framework, namely Multi-Path Avoidance Routing (MPAR). In our approach, a source node first encodes a message into k different pieces, and each piece is sent via k different paths. The destination can assemble the original message easily, while an adversary cannot recover the original message unless she obtains all the pieces. We prove that the coding scheme achieves perfect secrecy against eavesdropping under the condition that an adversary has incomplete information regarding the message. The simulation results validate that the proposed MPAR protocol achieves its design goals.

2015-05-05
Di Renzo, M., Haas, H., Ghrayeb, A., Sugiura, S., Hanzo, L..  2014.  Spatial Modulation for Generalized MIMO: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implementation. Proceedings of the IEEE. 102:56-103.

A key challenge of future mobile communication research is to strike an attractive compromise between wireless network's area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. This necessitates a clean-slate approach to wireless system design, embracing the rich body of existing knowledge, especially on multiple-input-multiple-ouput (MIMO) technologies. This motivates the proposal of an emerging wireless communications concept conceived for single-radio-frequency (RF) large-scale MIMO communications, which is termed as SM. The concept of SM has established itself as a beneficial transmission paradigm, subsuming numerous members of the MIMO system family. The research of SM has reached sufficient maturity to motivate its comparison to state-of-the-art MIMO communications, as well as to inspire its application to other emerging wireless systems such as relay-aided, cooperative, small-cell, optical wireless, and power-efficient communications. Furthermore, it has received sufficient research attention to be implemented in testbeds, and it holds the promise of stimulating further vigorous interdisciplinary research in the years to come. This tutorial paper is intended to offer a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey on SM-MIMO research, to provide a critical appraisal of its potential advantages, and to promote the discussion of its beneficial application areas and their research challenges leading to the analysis of the technological issues associated with the implementation of SM-MIMO. The paper is concluded with the description of the world's first experimental activities in this vibrant research field.
 

Gopejenko, V., Bobrovskis, S..  2014.  Robust security network association adjusted hybrid authentication schema. Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT), 2014 IEEE 8th International Conference on. :1-5.

Wireless network, whether it's ad-hoc or at enterprise level is vulnerable due to its features of open medium, and usually due to weak authentication, authorization, encryption, monitoring and accounting mechanisms. Various wireless vulnerability situations as well as the minimal features that are required in order to protect, monitor, account, authenticate, and authorize nodes, users, computers into the network are examined. Also, aspects of several IEEE Security Standards, which were ratified and which are still in draft are described.
 

2015-05-04
Jagdale, B.N., Bakal, J.W..  2014.  Synergetic cloaking technique in wireless network for location privacy. Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2014 9th International Conference on. :1-6.

Mobile users access location services from a location based server. While doing so, the user's privacy is at risk. The server has access to all details about the user. Example the recently visited places, the type of information he accesses. We have presented synergetic technique to safeguard location privacy of users accessing location-based services via mobile devices. Mobile devices have a capability to form ad-hoc networks to hide a user's identity and position. The user who requires the service is the query originator and who requests the service on behalf of query originator is the query sender. The query originator selects the query sender with equal probability which leads to anonymity in the network. The location revealed to the location service provider is a rectangle instead of exact co-ordinate. In this paper we have simulated the mobile network and shown the results for cloaking area sizes and performance against the variation in the density of users.

2015-04-30
Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.

Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.