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Dabush, Lital, Routtenberg, Tirza.  2022.  Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in Unobservable Power Systems by Laplacian Regularization. 2022 IEEE 12th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM). :415—419.
The modern electrical grid is a complex cyber-physical system, and thus is vulnerable to measurement losses and attacks. In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting false data injection (FDI) attacks and bad data in unobservable power systems. Classical bad-data detection methods usually assume observable systems and cannot detect stealth FDI attacks. We use the smoothness property of the system states (voltages) w.r.t. the admittance matrix, which is also the Laplacian of the graph representation of the grid. First, we present the Laplacian-based regularized state estimator, which does not require full observability of the network. Then, we derive the Laplacian-regularized generalized likelihood ratio test (LR-GLRT). We show that the LR-GLRT has a component of a soft high-pass graph filter applied to the state estimator. Numerical results on the IEEE 118-bus system demonstrate that the LR-GLRT outperforms other detection approaches and is robust to missing data.
Wu, Yuhao, Wang, Yujie, Zhai, Shixuan, Li, Zihan, Li, Ao, Wang, Jinwen, Zhang, Ning.  2022.  Work-in-Progress: Measuring Security Protection in Real-time Embedded Firmware. 2022 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS). :495–498.
The proliferation of real-time cyber-physical systems (CPS) is making profound changes to our daily life. Many real-time CPSs are security and safety-critical because of their continuous interactions with the physical world. While the general perception is that the security protection mechanism deployment is often absent in real-time embedded systems, there is no existing empirical study that measures the adoption of these mechanisms in the ecosystem. To bridge this gap, we conduct a measurement study for real-time embedded firmware from both a security perspective and a real-time perspective. To begin with, we collected more than 16 terabytes of embedded firmware and sampled 1,000 of them for the study. Then, we analyzed the adoption of security protection mechanisms and their potential impacts on the timeliness of real-time embedded systems. Besides, we measured the scheduling algorithms supported by real-time embedded systems since they are also security-critical.
ISSN: 2576-3172
Tehaam, Muhammad, Ahmad, Salman, Shahid, Hassan, Saboor, Muhammad Suleman, Aziz, Ayesha, Munir, Kashif.  2022.  A Review of DDoS Attack Detection and Prevention Mechanisms in Clouds. 2022 24th International Multitopic Conference (INMIC). :1–6.
Cloud provides access to shared pool of resources like storage, networking, and processing. Distributed denial of service attacks are dangerous for Cloud services because they mainly target the availability of resources. It is important to detect and prevent a DDoS attack for the continuity of Cloud services. In this review, we analyze the different mechanisms of detection and prevention of the DDoS attacks in Clouds. We identify the major DDoS attacks in Clouds and compare the frequently-used strategies to detect, prevent, and mitigate those attacks that will help the future researchers in this area.
ISSN: 2049-3630
Plambeck, Swantje, Fey, Görschwin, Schyga, Jakob, Hinckeldeyn, Johannes, Kreutzfeldt, Jochen.  2022.  Explaining Cyber-Physical Systems Using Decision Trees. 2022 2nd International Workshop on Computation-Aware Algorithmic Design for Cyber-Physical Systems (CAADCPS). :3—8.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are systems that contain digital embedded devices while depending on environmental influences or external configurations. Identifying relevant influences of a CPS as well as modeling dependencies on external influences is difficult. We propose to learn these dependencies with decision trees in combination with clustering. The approach allows to automatically identify relevant influences and receive a data-related explanation of system behavior involving the system's use-case. Our paper presents a case study of our method for a Real-Time Localization System (RTLS) proving the usefulness of our approach, and discusses further applications of a learned decision tree.
Williams, Daniel, Clark, Chelece, McGahan, Rachel, Potteiger, Bradley, Cohen, Daniel, Musau, Patrick.  2022.  Discovery of AI/ML Supply Chain Vulnerabilities within Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Assured Autonomy (ICAA). :93—96.
Steady advancement in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development over recent years has caused AI systems to become more readily adopted across industry and military use-cases globally. As powerful as these algorithms are, there are still gaping questions regarding their security and reliability. Beyond adversarial machine learning, software supply chain vulnerabilities and model backdoor injection exploits are emerging as potential threats to the physical safety of AI reliant CPS such as autonomous vehicles. In this work in progress paper, we introduce the concept of AI supply chain vulnerabilities with a provided proof of concept autonomous exploitation framework. We investigate the viability of algorithm backdoors and software third party library dependencies for applicability into modern AI attack kill chains. We leverage an autonomous vehicle case study for demonstrating the applicability of our offensive methodologies within a realistic AI CPS operating environment.
Thiruloga, Sooryaa Vignesh, Kukkala, Vipin Kumar, Pasricha, Sudeep.  2022.  TENET: Temporal CNN with Attention for Anomaly Detection in Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 27th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). :326—331.
Modern vehicles have multiple electronic control units (ECUs) that are connected together as part of a complex distributed cyber-physical system (CPS). The ever-increasing communication between ECUs and external electronic systems has made these vehicles particularly susceptible to a variety of cyber-attacks. In this work, we present a novel anomaly detection framework called TENET to detect anomalies induced by cyber-attacks on vehicles. TENET uses temporal convolutional neural networks with an integrated attention mechanism to learn the dependency between messages traversing the in-vehicle network. Post deployment in a vehicle, TENET employs a robust quantitative metric and classifier, together with the learned dependencies, to detect anomalous patterns. TENET is able to achieve an improvement of 32.70% in False Negative Rate, 19.14% in the Mathews Correlation Coefficient, and 17.25% in the ROC-AUC metric, with 94.62% fewer model parameters, and 48.14% lower inference time compared to the best performing prior works on automotive anomaly detection.
Choucri, Nazli, Agarwal, Gaurav.  2022.  Analytics for Cybersecurity Policy of Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1—7.
Guidelines, directives, and policy statements are usually presented in “linear” text form - word after word, page after page. However necessary, this practice impedes full understanding, obscures feedback dynamics, hides mutual dependencies and cascading effects and the like-even when augmented with tables and diagrams. The net result is often a checklist response as an end in itself. All this creates barriers to intended realization of guidelines and undermines potential effectiveness. We present a solution strategy using text as “data”, transforming text into a structured model, and generate network views of the text(s), that we then can use for vulnerability mapping, risk assessments and note control point analysis. For proof of concept we draw on NIST conceptual model and analysis of guidelines for smart grid cybersecurity, more than 600 pages of text.
Hristozov, Anton, Matson, Eric, Dietz, Eric, Rogers, Marcus.  2022.  Sensor Data Protection in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 17th Conference on Computer Science and Intelligence Systems (FedCSIS). :855—859.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have a physical part that can interact with sensors and actuators. The data that is read from sensors and the one generated to drive actuators is crucial for the correct operation of this class of devices. Most implementations trust the data being read from sensors and the outputted data to actuators. Real-time validation of the input and output of data for any system is crucial for the safety of its operation. This paper proposes an architecture for handling this issue through smart data guards detached from sensors and controllers and acting solely on the data. This mitigates potential issues of malfunctioning sensors and intentional sensor and controller attacks. The data guards understand the expected data, can detect anomalies and can correct them in real-time. This approach adds more guarantees for fault-tolerant behavior in the presence of attacks and sensor failures.
Wang, Bo, Zhang, Zhixiong, Wang, Jingyi, Guo, Chuangxin, Hao, Jie.  2022.  Resistance Strategy of Power Cyber-Physical System under Large-Scale and Complex Faults. 2022 6th International Conference on Green Energy and Applications (ICGEA). :254—258.
In recent years, with the occurrence of climate change and various extreme events, the research on the resistance of physical information systems to large-scale complex faults is of great significance. Propose a power information system to deal with complex faults in extreme weather, establish an anti-interference framework, construct a regional anti-interference strategy based on regional load output matching and topological connectivity, and propose branch active power adjustment methods to reduce disasters. In order to resist the risk of system instability caused by overrun of branch power and phase disconnection, the improved IEEE33 node test system simulation shows that this strategy can effectively reduce the harm of large-scale and complex faults.
Lee, Hwiwon, Kim, Sosun, Kim, Huy Kang.  2022.  SoK: Demystifying Cyber Resilience Quantification in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :178—183.
Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is becoming increasingly complicated and integrated into our daily lives, laying the foundation for advanced infrastructures, commodities, and services. In this regard, operational continuity of the system is the most critical objective, and cyber resilience quantification to evaluate and enhance it has garnered attention. However, understanding of the increasingly critical cyber risks is weak, with the focus being solely on the damage that occurs in the physical domain. To address this gap, this work takes aim at shedding some light on the cyber resilience quantification of CPS. We review the numerous resilience quantification techniques presented to date through several metrics to provide systematization of knowledge (SoK). In addition, we discuss the challenges of current quantification methods and give ideas for future research that will lead to more precise cyber resilience measurements.
Rimawi, Diaeddin.  2022.  Green Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :105—109.
Cyber-Physical System (CPS) represents systems that join both hardware and software components to perform real-time services. Maintaining the system's reliability is critical to the continuous delivery of these services. However, the CPS running environment is full of uncertainties and can easily lead to performance degradation. As a result, the need for a recovery technique is highly needed to achieve resilience in the system, with keeping in mind that this technique should be as green as possible. This early doctorate proposal, suggests a game theory solution to achieve resilience and green in CPS. Game theory has been known for its fast performance in decision-making, helping the system to choose what maximizes its payoffs. The proposed game model is described over a real-life collaborative artificial intelligence system (CAIS), that involves robots with humans to achieve a common goal. It shows how the expected results of the system will achieve the resilience of CAIS with minimized CO2 footprint.
Vasisht, Soumya, Rahman, Aowabin, Ramachandran, Thiagarajan, Bhattacharya, Arnab, Adetola, Veronica.  2022.  Multi-fidelity Bayesian Optimization for Co-design of Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 ACM/IEEE 13th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :298—299.
A simulation-based optimization framework is developed to con-currently design the system and control parameters to meet de-sired performance and operational resiliency objectives. Leveraging system information from both data and models of varying fideli-ties, a rigorous probabilistic approach is employed for co-design experimentation. Significant economic benefits and resilience im-provements are demonstrated using co-design compared to existing sequential designs for cyber-physical systems.
Carvalho, Gonçalo, Medeiros, Nadia, Madeira, Henrique, Cabral, Bruno.  2022.  A Functional FMECA Approach for the Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Resilience. 2022 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :672—681.
The damage or destruction of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) affect societies’ sustainable functioning. Therefore, it is crucial to have effective methods to assess the risk and resilience of CIs. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) are two approaches to risk assessment and criticality analysis. However, these approaches are complex to apply to intricate CIs and associated Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). We provide a top-down strategy, starting from a high abstraction level of the system and progressing to cover the functional elements of the infrastructures. This approach develops from FMECA but estimates risks and focuses on assessing resilience. We applied the proposed technique to a real-world CI, predicting how possible improvement scenarios may influence the overall system resilience. The results show the effectiveness of our approach in benchmarking the CI resilience, providing a cost-effective way to evaluate plausible alternatives concerning the improvement of preventive measures.
Wintenberg, Andrew, Lafortune, Stéphane, Ozay, Necmiye.  2022.  Communication Obfuscation for Privacy and Utility against Obfuscation-Aware Eavesdroppers. 2022 American Control Conference (ACC). :3363—3363.
Networked cyber-physical systems must balance the utility of communication for monitoring and control with the risks of revealing private information. Many of these networks, such as wireless communication, are vulnerable to eavesdrop-ping by illegitimate recipients. Obfuscation can hide information from eaves-droppers by ensuring their observations are ambiguous or misleading. At the same time, coordination with recipients can enable them to interpret obfuscated data. In this way, we propose an obfuscation framework for dynamic systems that ensures privacy against eavesdroppers while maintaining utility for legitimate recipients. We consider eavesdroppers unaware of obfuscation by requiring that their observations are consistent with the original system, as well as eaves-droppers aware of the goals of obfuscation by assuming they learn of the specific obfuscation implementation used. We present a method for bounded synthesis of solutions based upon distributed reactive synthesis and the synthesis of publicly-known obfuscators.
ISSN: 2378-5861
Wang, Jinwen, Li, Ao, Li, Haoran, Lu, Chenyang, Zhang, Ning.  2022.  RT-TEE: Real-time System Availability for Cyber-physical Systems using ARM TrustZone. 2022 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :352—369.
Embedded devices are becoming increasingly pervasive in safety-critical systems of the emerging cyber-physical world. While trusted execution environments (TEEs), such as ARM TrustZone, have been widely deployed in mobile platforms, little attention has been given to deployment on real-time cyber-physical systems, which present a different set of challenges compared to mobile applications. For safety-critical cyber-physical systems, such as autonomous drones or automobiles, the current TEE deployment paradigm, which focuses only on confidentiality and integrity, is insufficient. Computation in these systems also needs to be completed in a timely manner (e.g., before the car hits a pedestrian), putting a much stronger emphasis on availability.To bridge this gap, we present RT-TEE, a real-time trusted execution environment. There are three key research challenges. First, RT-TEE bootstraps the ability to ensure availability using a minimal set of hardware primitives on commodity embedded platforms. Second, to balance real-time performance and scheduler complexity, we designed a policy-based event-driven hierarchical scheduler. Third, to mitigate the risks of having device drivers in the secure environment, we designed an I/O reference monitor that leverages software sandboxing and driver debloating to provide fine-grained access control on peripherals while minimizing the trusted computing base (TCB).We implemented prototypes on both ARMv8-A and ARMv8-M platforms. The system is tested on both synthetic tasks and real-life CPS applications. We evaluated rover and plane in simulation and quadcopter both in simulation and with a real drone.
Lois, Robert S., Cole, Daniel G..  2022.  Designing Secure and Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems Using Formal Models. 2022 Resilience Week (RWS). :1—6.

This work-in-progress paper proposes a design methodology that addresses the complexity and heterogeneity of cyber-physical systems (CPS) while simultaneously proving resilient control logic and security properties. The design methodology involves a formal methods-based approach by translating the complex control logic and security properties of a water flow CPS into timed automata. Timed automata are a formal model that describes system behaviors and properties using mathematics-based logic languages with precision. Due to the semantics that are used in developing the formal models, verification techniques, such as theorem proving and model checking, are used to mathematically prove the specifications and security properties of the CPS. This work-in-progress paper aims to highlight the need for formalizing plant models by creating a timed automata of the physical portions of the water flow CPS. Extending the time automata with control logic, network security, and privacy control processes is investigated. The final model will be formally verified to prove the design specifications of the water flow CPS to ensure efficacy and security.

Sain, Mangal, Normurodov, Oloviddin, Hong, Chen, Hui, Kueh Lee.  2022.  A Survey on the Security in Cyber Physical System with Multi-Factor Authentication. 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :1—8.
Cyber-physical Systems can be defined as a complex networked control system, which normally develop by combining several physical components with the cyber space. Cyber Physical System are already a part of our daily life. As its already being a part of everyone life, CPS also have great potential security threats and can be vulnerable to various cyber-attacks without showing any sign directly to component failure. To protect user security and privacy is a fundamental concern of any kind of system; either it’s a simple web application or supplicated professional system. Digital Multifactor authentication is one of the best ways to make secure authentication. It covers many different areas of a Cyber-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. Most of the time, Multifactor authentication is little complex as it requires extra step from users. This paper will discuss the evolution from single authentication to Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). This paper seeks to analyze and evaluate the most prominent authentication techniques based on accuracy, cost, and feasibility of implementation. We also suggest several authentication schemes which incorporate with Multifactor authentication for CPS.
Béatrix-May, Balaban, Ştefan, Sacală Ioan, Alina-Claudia, Petrescu-Niţă, Radu, Simen.  2022.  Security issues in MCPS when using Wireless Sensor Networks. 2022 E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB). :1—4.
Considering the evolution of technology, the need to secure data is growing fast. When we turn our attention to the healthcare field, securing data and assuring privacy are critical conditions that must be accomplished. The information is sensitive and confidential, and the exchange rate is very fast. Over the years, the healthcare domain has gradually seen a growth of interest regarding the interconnectivity of different processes to optimize and improve the services that are provided. Therefore, we need intelligent complex systems that can collect and transport sensitive data in a secure way. These systems are called cyber-physical systems. In healthcare domain, these complex systems are named medical cyber physical systems. The paper presents a brief description of the above-mentioned intelligent systems. Then, we focus on wireless sensor networks and the issues and challenges that occur in securing sensitive data and what improvements we propose on this subject. In this paper we tried to provide a detailed overview about cyber-physical systems, medical cyber-physical systems, wireless sensor networks and the security issues that can appear.
Devliyal, Swati, Sharma, Sachin, Goyal, Himanshu Rai.  2022.  Cyber Physical System Architectures for Pharmaceutical Care Services: Challenges and Future Trends. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Current Development in Engineering and Technology (CCET). :1—6.
The healthcare industry is confronted with a slew of significant challenges, including stringent regulations, privacy concerns, and rapidly rising costs. Many leaders and healthcare professionals are looking to new technology and informatics to expand more intelligent forms of healthcare delivery. Numerous technologies have advanced during the last few decades. Over the past few decades, pharmacy has changed and grown, concentrating less on drugs and more on patients. Pharmaceutical services improve healthcare's affordability and security. The primary invention was a cyber-infrastructure made up of smart gadgets that are connected to and communicate with one another. These cyber infrastructures have a number of problems, including privacy, trust, and security. These gadgets create cyber-physical systems for pharmaceutical care services in p-health. In the present period, cyber-physical systems for pharmaceutical care services are dealing with a variety of important concerns and demanding conditions, i.e., problems and obstacles that need be overcome to create a trustworthy and effective medical system. This essay offers a thorough examination of CPS's architectural difficulties and emerging tendencies.
Zhang, Yue, Nan, Xiaoya, Zhou, Jialing, Wang, Shuai.  2022.  Design of Differential Privacy Protection Algorithms for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Computational Intelligence (ICISCI). :29—34.
A new privacy Laplace common recognition algorithm is designed to protect users’ privacy data in this paper. This algorithm disturbs state transitions and information generation functions using exponentially decaying Laplace noise to avoid attacks. The mean square consistency and privacy protection performance are further studied. Finally, the theoretical results obtained are verified by performing numerical simulations.
Aljohani, Nader, Agnew, Dennis, Nagaraj, Keerthiraj, Boamah, Sharon A., Mathieu, Reynold, Bretas, Arturo S., McNair, Janise, Zare, Alina.  2022.  Cross-Layered Cyber-Physical Power System State Estimation towards a Secure Grid Operation. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.
In the Smart Grid paradigm, this critical infrastructure operation is increasingly exposed to cyber-threats due to the increased dependency on communication networks. An adversary can launch an attack on a power grid operation through False Data Injection into system measurements and/or through attacks on the communication network, such as flooding the communication channels with unnecessary data or intercepting messages. A cross-layered strategy that combines power grid data, communication grid monitoring and Machine Learning-based processing is a promising solution for detecting cyber-threats. In this paper, an implementation of an integrated solution of a cross-layer framework is presented. The advantage of such a framework is the augmentation of valuable data that enhances the detection of anomalies in the operation of power grid. IEEE 118-bus system is built in Simulink to provide a power grid testing environment and communication network data is emulated using SimComponents. The performance of the framework is investigated under various FDI and communication attacks.
Li, Dahua, Li, Dapeng, Liu, Junjie, Song, Yu, Ji, Yuehui.  2022.  Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Cyber-Physical Systems under False Data Injection Attack. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA). :357—362.
The security control problem of cyber-physical system (CPS) under actuator attacks is studied in the paper. Considering the strict-feedback cyber-physical systems with external disturbance, a security control scheme is proposed by combining backstepping method and super-twisting sliding mode technology when the transmission control input signal of network layer is under false data injection(FDI) attack. Firstly, the unknown nonlinear function of the CPS is identified by Radial Basis Function Neural Network. Secondly, the backstepping method and super-twisting sliding mode algorithm are combined to eliminate the influence of actuator attack and ensure the robustness of the control system. Then, by Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the proposed control scheme can ensure that all signals in the closed-loop system are semi-global and ultimately uniformly bounded. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by the inverted pendulum simulation.
Liu, Bin, Chen, Jingzhao, Hu, Yong.  2022.  A Simple Approach to Data-driven Security Detection for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 34th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC). :5440—5445.
In this paper, a data-driven security detection approach is proposed in a simple manner. The detector is designed to deal with false data injection attacks suffered by industrial cyber-physical systems with unknown model information. First, the attacks are modeled from the perspective of the generalized plant mismatch, rather than the operating data being tampered. Second, some subsystems are selected to reduce the design complexity of the detector, and based on them, an output estimator with iterative form is presented in a theoretical way. Then, a security detector is constructed based on the proposed estimator and its cost function. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by simulations of a Western States Coordinated Council 9-bus power system.
Wang, Changjiang, Yu, Chutian, Yin, Xunhu, Zhang, Lijun, Yuan, Xiang, Fan, Mingxia.  2022.  An Optimal Planning Model for Cyber-physical Active Distribution System Considering the Reliability Requirements. 2022 4th International Conference on Smart Power & Internet Energy Systems (SPIES). :1476—1480.
Since the cyber and physical layers in the distribution system are deeply integrated, the traditional distribution system has gradually developed into the cyber-physical distribution system (CPDS), and the failures of the cyber layer will affect the reliable and safe operation of the whole distribution system. Therefore, this paper proposes an CPDS planning method considering the reliability of the cyber-physical system. First, the reliability evaluation model of CPDS is proposed. Specifically, the functional reliability model of the cyber layer is introduced, based on which the physical equipment reliability model is further investigated. Second, an optimal planning model of CPDS considering cyber-physical random failures is developed, which is solved using the Monte Carlo Simulation technique. The proposed model is tested on the modified IEEE 33-node distribution system, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Basan, Elena, Mikhailova, Vasilisa, Shulika, Maria.  2022.  Exploring Security Testing Methods for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). :1—7.
A methodology for studying the level of security for various types of CPS through the analysis of the consequences was developed during the research process. An analysis of the architecture of cyber-physical systems was carried out, vulnerabilities and threats of specific devices were identified, a list of possible information attacks and their consequences after the exploitation of vulnerabilities was identified. The object of research is models of cyber-physical systems, including IoT devices, microcomputers, various sensors that function through communication channels, organized by cyber-physical objects. The main subjects of this investigation are methods and means of security testing of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The main objective of this investigation is to update the problem of security in cyber-physical systems, to analyze the security of these systems. In practice, the testing methodology for the cyber-physical system “Smart Factory” was implemented, which simulates the operation of a real CPS, with different types of links and protocols used.