Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-02-23
Khan, M., Rehman, O., Rahman, I. M. H., Ali, S..  2020.  Lightweight Testbed for Cybersecurity Experiments in SCADA-based Systems. 2020 International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT-1441). :1—5.

A rapid rise in cyber-attacks on Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been observed in the last decade. It becomes even more concerning that several of these attacks were on critical infrastructures that indeed succeeded and resulted into significant physical and financial damages. Experimental testbeds capable of providing flexible, scalable and interoperable platform for executing various cybersecurity experiments is highly in need by all stakeholders. A container-based SCADA testbed is presented in this work as a potential platform for executing cybersecurity experiments. Through this testbed, a network traffic containing ARP spoofing is generated that represents a Man in the middle (MITM) attack. While doing so, scanning of different systems within the network is performed which represents a reconnaissance attack. The network traffic generated by both ARP spoofing and network scanning are captured and further used for preparing a dataset. The dataset is utilized for training a network classification model through a machine learning algorithm. Performance of the trained model is evaluated through a series of tests where promising results are obtained.

2021-01-25
Lanotte, R., Merro, M., Munteanu, A..  2020.  Runtime Enforcement for Control System Security. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :246–261.
With the explosion of Industry 4.0, industrial facilities and critical infrastructures are transforming into “smart” systems that dynamically adapt to external events. The result is an ecosystem of heterogeneous physical and cyber components, such as programmable logic controllers, which are more and more exposed to cyber-physical attacks, i.e., security breaches in cyberspace that adversely affect the physical processes at the core of industrial control systems. We apply runtime enforcement techniques, based on an ad-hoc sub-class of Ligatti et al.'s edit automata, to enforce specification compliance in networks of potentially compromised controllers, formalised in Hennessy and Regan's Timed Process Language. We define a synthesis algorithm that, given an alphabet P of observable actions and an enforceable regular expression e capturing a timed property for controllers, returns a monitor that enforces the property e during the execution of any (potentially corrupted) controller with alphabet P and complying with the property e. Our monitors correct and suppress incorrect actions coming from corrupted controllers and emit actions in full autonomy when the controller under scrutiny is not able to do so in a correct manner. Besides classical properties, such as transparency and soundness, the proposed enforcement ensures non-obvious properties, such as polynomial complexity of the synthesis, deadlock- and diverge-freedom of monitored controllers, together with scalability when dealing with networks of controllers.
2021-01-11
Zhang, X., Chandramouli, K., Gabrijelcic, D., Zahariadis, T., Giunta, G..  2020.  Physical Security Detectors for Critical Infrastructures Against New-Age Threat of Drones and Human Intrusion. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Expo Workshops (ICMEW). :1—4.

Modern critical infrastructures are increasingly turning into distributed, complex Cyber-Physical systems that need proactive protection and fast restoration to mitigate physical or cyber incidents or attacks. Addressing the need for early stage threat detection against physical intrusion, the paper presents two physical security sensors developed within the DEFENDER project for detecting the intrusion of drones and humans using video analytics. The continuous stream of media data obtained from the region of vulnerability and proximity is processed using Region based Fully Connected Neural Network deep-learning model. The novelty of the pro-posed system relies in the processing of multi-threaded media input streams for achieving real-time threat identification. The video analytics solution has been validated using NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 for drone detection and NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 Max-Q Design for detecting human intruders. The experimental test bed for the validation of the proposed system has been constructed to include environments and situations that are commonly faced by critical infrastructure operators such as the area of protection, tradeoff between angle of coverage against distance of coverage.

2020-12-01
Shaikh, F., Bou-Harb, E., Neshenko, N., Wright, A. P., Ghani, N..  2018.  Internet of Malicious Things: Correlating Active and Passive Measurements for Inferring and Characterizing Internet-Scale Unsolicited IoT Devices. IEEE Communications Magazine. 56:170—177.

Advancements in computing, communication, and sensing technologies are making it possible to embed, control, and gather vital information from tiny devices that are being deployed and utilized in practically every aspect of our modernized society. From smart home appliances to municipal water and electric industrial facilities to our everyday work environments, the next Internet frontier, dubbed IoT, is promising to revolutionize our lives and tackle some of our nations' most pressing challenges. While the seamless interconnection of IoT devices with the physical realm is envisioned to bring a plethora of critical improvements in many aspects and diverse domains, it will undoubtedly pave the way for attackers that will target and exploit such devices, threatening the integrity of their data and the reliability of critical infrastructure. Further, such compromised devices will undeniably be leveraged as the next generation of botnets, given their increased processing capabilities and abundant bandwidth. While several demonstrations exist in the literature describing the exploitation procedures of a number of IoT devices, the up-to-date inference, characterization, and analysis of unsolicited IoT devices that are currently deployed "in the wild" is still in its infancy. In this article, we address this imperative task by leveraging active and passive measurements to report on unsolicited Internet-scale IoT devices. This work describes a first step toward exploring the utilization of passive measurements in combination with the results of active measurements to shed light on the Internet-scale insecurities of the IoT paradigm. By correlating results of Internet-wide scanning with Internet background radiation traffic, we disclose close to 14,000 compromised IoT devices in diverse sectors, including critical infrastructure and smart home appliances. To this end, we also analyze their generated traffic to create effective mitigation signatures that could be deployed in local IoT realms. To support largescale empirical data analytics in the context of IoT, we make available the inferred and extracted IoT malicious raw data through an authenticated front-end service. The outcomes of this work confirm the existence of such compromised devices on an Internet scale, while the generated inferences and insights are postulated to be employed for inferring other similarly compromised IoT devices, in addition to contributing to IoT cyber security situational awareness.

2020-11-16
Belesioti, M., Makri, R., Fehling-Kaschek, M., Carli, M., Kostopoulos, A., Chochliouros, I. P., Neri, A., Frosali, F..  2019.  A New Security Approach in Telecom Infrastructures: The RESISTO Concept. 2019 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :212–218.
Communications play a fundamental role in the economic and social well-being of the citizens and on operations of most of the critical infrastructures (CIs). Extreme weather events, natural disasters and criminal attacks represent a challenge due to their increase in frequency and intensity requiring smarter resilience of the Communication CIs, which are extremely vulnerable due to the ever-increasing complexity of the architecture also in light of the evolution towards 5G, the extensive use of programmable platforms and exponential growth of connected devices. In this paper, we present the aim of RESISTO H2020 EU-funded project, which constitutes an innovative solution for Communication CIs holistic situation awareness and enhanced resilience.
2020-11-04
Rajamäki, J., Nevmerzhitskaya, J., Virág, C..  2018.  Cybersecurity education and training in hospitals: Proactive resilience educational framework (Prosilience EF). 2018 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). :2042—2046.

Healthcare is a vital component of every nation's critical infrastructure, yet it is one of the most vulnerable sector for cyber-attacks. To enforce the knowledge on information security processes and data protection procedures, educational and training schemes should be establishedfor information technology (IT) staff working in healthcare settings. However, only training IT staff is not enough, as many of cybersecurity threats are caused by human errors or lack of awareness. Current awareness and training schemes are often implemented in silos, concentrating on one aspect of cybersecurity at a time. Proactive Resilience Educational Framework (Prosilience EF) provides a holistic cyber resilience and security framework for developing and delivering a multilateral educational and training scheme based on a proactive approach to cybersecurity. The framework is built on the principle that education and training must be interactive, guided, meaningful and directly relevant to the user' operational environment. The framework addresses capacity mapping, cyber resilience level measuring, utilizing available and mapping missing resources, adaptive learning technologies and dynamic content delivery. Prosilience EF launches an iterative process of awareness and training development with relevant stakeholders (end users - hospitals, healthcare authorities, cybersecurity training providers, industry members), evaluating the framework via joint exercises/workshops andfurther developing the framework.

2020-10-06
Jacobs, Nicholas, Hossain-McKenzie, Shamina, Vugrin, Eric.  2018.  Measurement and Analysis of Cyber Resilience for Control Systems: An Illustrative Example. 2018 Resilience Week (RWS). :38—46.

Control systems for critical infrastructure are becoming increasingly interconnected while cyber threats against critical infrastructure are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to defend against. Historically, cyber security has emphasized building defenses to prevent loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability in digital information and systems, but in recent years cyber attacks have demonstrated that no system is impenetrable and that control system operation may be detrimentally impacted. Cyber resilience has emerged as a complementary priority that seeks to ensure that digital systems can maintain essential performance levels, even while capabilities are degraded by a cyber attack. This paper examines how cyber security and cyber resilience may be measured and quantified in a control system environment. Load Frequency Control is used as an illustrative example to demonstrate how cyber attacks may be represented within mathematical models of control systems, to demonstrate how these events may be quantitatively measured in terms of cyber security or cyber resilience, and the differences and similarities between the two mindsets. These results demonstrate how various metrics are applied, the extent of their usability, and how it is important to analyze cyber-physical systems in a comprehensive manner that accounts for all the various parts of the system.

2020-10-05
Siddiqui, Fahad, Hagan, Matthew, Sezer, Sakir.  2019.  Establishing Cyber Resilience in Embedded Systems for Securing Next-Generation Critical Infrastructure. 2019 32nd IEEE International System-on-Chip Conference (SOCC). :218–223.

The mass integration and deployment of intelligent technologies within critical commercial, industrial and public environments have a significant impact on business operations and society as a whole. Though integration of these critical intelligent technologies pose serious embedded security challenges for technology manufacturers which are required to be systematically approached, in-line with international security regulations.This paper establish security foundation for such intelligent technologies by deriving embedded security requirements to realise the core security functions laid out by international security authorities, and proposing microarchitectural characteristics to establish cyber resilience in embedded systems. To bridge the research gap between embedded and operational security domains, a detailed review of existing embedded security methods, microarchitectures and design practises is presented. The existing embedded security methods have been found ad-hoc, passive and strongly rely on building and maintaining trust. To the best of our knowledge to date, no existing embedded security microarchitecture or defence mechanism provides continuity of data stream or security once trust has broken. This functionality is critical for embedded technologies deployed in critical infrastructure to enhance and maintain security, and to gain evidence of the security breach to effectively evaluate, improve and deploy active response and mitigation strategies. To this end, the paper proposes three microarchitectural characteristics that shall be designed and integrated into embedded architectures to establish, maintain and improve cyber resilience in embedded systems for next-generation critical infrastructure.

Murino, Giuseppina, Armando, Alessandro, Tacchella, Armando.  2019.  Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems: an Experimental Appraisal of Quantitative Measures. 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). 900:1–19.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) interconnect the physical world with digital computers and networks in order to automate production and distribution processes. Nowadays, most CPSs do not work in isolation, but their digital part is connected to the Internet in order to enable remote monitoring, control and configuration. Such a connection may offer entry-points enabling attackers to gain control silently and exploit access to the physical world at the right time to cause service disruption and possibly damage to the surrounding environment. Prevention and monitoring measures can reduce the risk brought by cyber attacks, but the residual risk can still be unacceptably high in critical infrastructures or services. Resilience - i.e., the ability of a system to withstand adverse events while maintaining an acceptable functionality - is therefore a key property for such systems. In our research, we seek a model-free, quantitative, and general-purpose evaluation methodology to extract resilience indexes from, e.g., system logs and process data. While a number of resilience metrics have already been put forward, little experimental evidence is available when it comes to the cyber security of CPSs. By using the model of a real wastewater treatment plant, and simulating attacks that tamper with a critical feedback control loop, we provide a comparison between four resilience indexes selected through a thorough literature review involving over 40 papers. Our results show that the selected indexes differ in terms of behavior and sensitivity with respect to specific attacks, but they can all summarize and extract meaningful information from bulky system logs. Our evaluation includes an approach for extracting performance indicators from observed variables which does not require knowledge of system dynamics; and a discussion about combining resilience indexes into a single system-wide measure is included. 11The authors wish to thank Leonardo S.p.A. for its financial support. The research herein presented is partially supported by project NEFERIS awarded by the Italian Ministry of Defense to Leonardo S.p.A. in partnership with the University of Genoa. This work received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 830892 for project SPARTA.
2020-09-28
Abie, Habtamu.  2019.  Cognitive Cybersecurity for CPS-IoT Enabled Healthcare Ecosystems. 2019 13th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT). :1–6.

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS)-Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare services and infrastructures improve human life, but are vulnerable to a variety of emerging cyber-attacks. Cybersecurity specialists are finding it hard to keep pace of the increasingly sophisticated attack methods. There is a critical need for innovative cognitive cybersecurity for CPS-IoT enabled healthcare ecosystem. This paper presents a cognitive cybersecurity framework for simulating the human cognitive behaviour to anticipate and respond to new and emerging cybersecurity and privacy threats to CPS-IoT and critical infrastructure systems. It includes the conceptualisation and description of a layered architecture which combines Artificial Intelligence, cognitive methods and innovative security mechanisms.

2020-07-24
Luzhnov, Vasiliy S., Sokolov, Alexander N., Barinov, Andrey E..  2019.  Simulation of Protected Industrial Control Systems Based on Reference Security Model using Weighted Oriented Graphs. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1—5.
With the increase in the number of cyber attacks on industrial control systems, especially in critical infrastructure facilities, the problem of comprehensive analysis of the security of such systems becomes urgent. This, in turn, requires the availability of fundamental mathematical, methodological and instrumental basis for modeling automated systems, modeling attacks on their information resources, which would allow realtime system protection analysis. The paper proposes a basis for simulating protected industrial control systems, based on the developed reference security model, and a model for attacks on information resources of automated systems. On the basis of these mathematical models, a complex model of a protected automated system was developed, which can be used to build protection systems for automated systems used in production.
2020-07-10
Javed Butt, Usman, Abbod, Maysam, Lors, Anzor, Jahankhani, Hamid, Jamal, Arshad, Kumar, Arvind.  2019.  Ransomware Threat and its Impact on SCADA. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :205—212.
Modern cybercrimes have exponentially grown over the last one decade. Ransomware is one of the types of malware which is the result of sophisticated attempt to compromise the modern computer systems. The governments and large corporations are investing heavily to combat this cyber threat against their critical infrastructure. It has been observed that over the last few years that Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have become the main target of Ransomware due to the sensitive operations involved in the day to day processes of these industries. As the technology is evolving, more and more traditional industrial systems are replaced with advanced industry methods involving advanced technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT). These technology shift help improve business productivity and keep the company's global competitive in an overflowing competitive market. However, the systems involved need secure measures to protect integrity and availability which will help avoid any malfunctioning to their operations due to the cyber-attacks. There have been several cyber-attack incidents on healthcare, pharmaceutical, water cleaning and energy sector. These ICS' s are operated by remote control facilities and variety of other devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) and sensors to make a network. Cyber criminals are exploring vulnerabilities in the design of these ICS's to take the command and control of these systems and disrupt daily operations until ransomware is paid. This paper will provide critical analysis of the impact of Ransomware threat on SCADA systems.
2020-07-06
Brezhniev, Yevhen.  2019.  Multilevel Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Critical Energy Infrastructure’s Cyber Resilience Assessment. 2019 10th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :213–217.
This paper presents approach for critical energy infrastructure's (CEI) cyber resilience assessment. The CEI is the vital physical system of systems, whose accidents and failures lead to damage of economy, environment, impact on health and lives of people. The analysis of cyber incidents with Ukrainian CEI confirms the importance of the task of increasing its cyber resilience to external hostile influences and keeping of the appropriate level of functionality, safety and reliability. This paper is devoted to development of approach for CEI's cyber resilience assessment considering the important capacities of its systems (adaptivity, restoration, absorbability, preventive) and interdependencies between them. This approach is based on application of multilevel fuzzy logic models (called as logic-linguistic models, LLM) taking into consideration the data available from expert's knowledge. The comparison between risk management and resilience assurance is performed. The new risk-oriented definition of resiliency is suggested.
Mikhalevich, I. F., Trapeznikov, V. A..  2019.  Critical Infrastructure Security: Alignment of Views. 2019 Systems of Signals Generating and Processing in the Field of on Board Communications. :1–5.
Critical infrastructures of all countries unites common cyberspace. In this space, there are many threats that can disrupt the security of critical infrastructure in one country, but also cause damage in other countries. This is a reality that makes it necessary to agree on intergovernmental national views on the composition of critical infrastructures, an assessment of their security and protection. The article presents an overview of views on critical infrastructures of the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and the Russian Federation, the purpose of which is to develop common positions.
2020-04-06
Kumar, Rakesh, Babu, Vignesh, Nicol, David.  2018.  Network Coding for Critical Infrastructure Networks. 2018 IEEE 26th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :436–437.
The applications in the critical infrastructure systems pose simultaneous resilience and performance requirements to the underlying computer network. To meet such requirements, the networks that use the store-and-forward paradigm poses stringent conditions on the redundancy in the network topology and results in problems that becoming computationally challenging to solve at scale. However, with the advent of programmable data-planes, it is now possible to use linear network coding (NC) at the intermediate network nodes to meet resilience requirements of the applications. To that end, we propose an architecture that realizes linear NC in programmable networks by decomposing the linear NC functions into the atomic coding primitives. We designed and implemented the primitives using the features offered by the P4 ecosystem. Using an empirical evaluation, we show that the theoretical gains promised by linear network coding can be realized with a per-packet processing cost.
2020-03-16
Mercaldo, Francesco, Martinelli, Fabio, Santone, Antonella.  2019.  Real-Time SCADA Attack Detection by Means of Formal Methods. 2019 IEEE 28th International Conference on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE). :231–236.
SCADA control systems use programmable logic controller to interface with critical machines. SCADA systems are used in critical infrastructures, for instance, to control smart grid, oil pipelines, water distribution and chemical manufacturing plants: an attacker taking control of a SCADA system could cause various damages, both to the infrastructure but also to people (for instance, adding chemical substances into a water distribution systems). In this paper we propose a method to detect attacks targeting SCADA systems. We exploit model checking, in detail we model logs from SCADA systems into a network of timed automata and, through timed temporal logic, we characterize the behaviour of a SCADA system under attack. Experiments performed on a SCADA water distribution system confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
2020-02-26
Vlachokostas, Alex, Prousalidis, John, Spathis, Dimosthenis, Nikitas, Mike, Kourmpelis, Theo, Dallas, Stefanos, Soghomonian, Zareh, Georgiou, Vassilis.  2019.  Ship-to-Grid Integration: Environmental Mitigation and Critical Infrastructure Resilience. 2019 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS). :542–547.

The United States and European Union have an increasing number of projects that are engaging end-use devices for improved grid capabilities. Areas such as building-to-grid and vehicle-to-grid are simple examples of these advanced capabilities. In this paper, we present an innovative concept study for a ship-to-grid integration. The goal of this study is to simulate a two-way power flow between ship(s) and the grid with GridLAB-D for the port of Kyllini in Greece, where a ship-to-shore interconnection was recently implemented. Extending this further, we explore: (a) the ability of ships to meet their load demand needs, while at berth, by being supplied with energy from the electric grid and thus powering off their diesel engines; and (b) the ability of ships to provide power to critical loads onshore. As a result, the ship-to-grid integration helps (a) mitigate environmental pollutants from the ships' diesel engines and (b) provide resilience to nearby communities during a power disruption due to natural disasters or man-made threats.

2020-02-17
Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos, Linnosmaa, Joonas, Alanen, Jarmo, Bashir, Ahmed Z., O'Halloran, Bryan, Van Bossuyt, Douglas L..  2019.  Early Hybrid Safety and Security Risk Assessment Based on Interdisciplinary Dependency Models. 2019 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1–7.
Safety and security of complex critical infrastructures are very important for economic, environmental and social reasons. The complexity of these systems introduces difficulties in the identification of safety and security risks that emerge from interdisciplinary interactions and dependencies. The discovery of safety and security design weaknesses late in the design process and during system operation can lead to increased costs, additional system complexity, delays and possibly undesirable compromises to address safety and security weaknesses.
Kim, Joonsoo, Kim, Kyeongho, Jang, Moonsu.  2019.  Cyber-Physical Battlefield Platform for Large-Scale Cybersecurity Exercises. 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). 900:1–19.
In this study, we propose a platform upon which a cyber security exercise environment can be built efficiently for national critical infrastructure protection, i.e. a cyber-physical battlefield (CPB), to simulate actual ICS/SCADA systems in operation. Among various design considerations, this paper mainly discusses scalability, mobility, reality, extensibility, consideration of the domain or vendor specificities, and the visualization of physical facilities and their damage as caused by cyber attacks. The main purpose of the study was to develop a platform that can maximize the coverage that encompasses such design considerations. We discuss the construction of the platform through the final design choices. The features of the platform that we attempt to achieve are closely related to the target cyber exercise format. Design choices were made considering the construction of a realistic ICS/SCADA exercise environment that meets the goals and matches the characteristics of the Cyber Conflict Exercise (CCE), an annual national exercise organized by the National Security Research Institute (NSR) of South Korea. CCE is a real-time attack-defense battlefield drill between 10 red teams who try to penetrate a multi-level organization network and 16 blue teams who try to defend the network. The exercise platform provides scalability and a significant degree of freedom in the design of a very large-scale CCE environment. It also allowed us to fuse techniques such as 3D-printing and augmented reality (AR) to achieve the exercise goals. This CPB platform can also be utilized in various ways for different types of cybersecurity exercise. The successful application of this platform in Locked Shields 2018 (LS18) is strong evidence of this; it showed the great potential of this platform to integrate high-level strategic or operational exercises effectively with low-level technical exercises. This paper also discusses several possible improvements of the platform which could be made for better integration, as well as various exercise environments that can be constructed given the scalability and extensibility of the platform.
Aranha, Helder, Masi, Massimiliano, Pavleska, Tanja, Sellitto, Giovanni Paolo.  2019.  Enabling Security-by-Design in Smart Grids: An Architecture-Based Approach. 2019 15th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). :177–179.

Energy Distribution Grids are considered critical infrastructure, hence the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have developed sophisticated engineering practices to improve their resilience. Over the last years, due to the "Smart Grid" evolution, this infrastructure has become a distributed system where prosumers (the consumers who produce and share surplus energy through the grid) can plug in distributed energy resources (DERs) and manage a bi-directional flow of data and power enabled by an advanced IT and control infrastructure. This introduces new challenges, as the prosumers possess neither the skills nor the knowledge to assess the risk or secure the environment from cyber-threats. We propose a simple and usable approach based on the Reference Model of Information Assurance & Security (RMIAS), to support the prosumers in the selection of cybesecurity measures. The purpose is to reduce the risk of being directly targeted and to establish collective responsibility among prosumers as grid gatekeepers. The framework moves from a simple risk analysis based on security goals to providing guidelines for the users for adoption of adequate security countermeasures. One of the greatest advantages of the approach is that it does not constrain the user to a specific threat model.

2020-01-21
Ikany, Joris, Jazri, Husin.  2019.  A Symptomatic Framework to Predict the Risk of Insider Threats. 2019 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1–5.
The constant changing of technologies have brought to critical infrastructure organisations numerous information security threats such as insider threat. Critical infrastructure organisations have difficulties to early detect and capture the possible vital signs of insider threats due sometimes to lack of effective methodologies or frameworks. It is from this viewpoint that, this paper proposes a symptomatic insider threat risk assessments framework known as Insider Threat Framework for Namibia Critical Infrastructure Organization (ITFNACIO), aimed to predict the probable signs of insider threat based on Symptomatic Analysis (SA), and develop a prototype as a proof of concept. A case study was successfully used to validate and implement the proposed framework; hence, qualitative methodology was employed throughout the whole research process where two (2) insider threats were captured. The proposed insider threat framework can be further developed in multiple cases and a more automated system able to trigger an early warning system of possible insider threat events.
2020-01-20
Tedeschi, Pietro, Sciancalepore, Savio.  2019.  Edge and Fog Computing in Critical Infrastructures: Analysis, Security Threats, and Research Challenges. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :1–10.

The increasing integration of information and communication technologies has undoubtedly boosted the efficiency of Critical Infrastructures (CI). However, the first wave of IoT devices, together with the management of enormous amount of data generated by modern CIs, has created serious architectural issues. While the emerging Fog and Multi-Access Edge Computing (FMEC) paradigms can provide a viable solution, they also bring inherent security issues, that can cause dire consequences in the context of CIs. In this paper, we analyze the applications of FMEC solutions in the context of CIs, with a specific focus on related security issues and threats for the specific while broad scenarios: a smart airport, a smart port, and a smart offshore oil and gas extraction field. Leveraging these scenarios, a set of general security requirements for FMEC is derived, together with crucial research challenges whose further investigation is cornerstone for a successful adoption of FMEC in CIs.

2019-12-18
Elliott, David.  2011.  Deterring Strategic Cyberattack. IEEE Security Privacy. 9:36–40.
Protecting critical infrastructure from cyberattacks by other nations is a matter of considerable concern. Can deterrence play a role in such protection? Can lessons from nuclear deterrence-the most elaborated and successful version of deterrence-be adapted to the cyber case? Currently, little overlap exists between the two, although that might change in the aftermath of an extensive, destructive cyberattack. The most effective way to protect the cyber-dependent infrastructure is a comprehensive defense (deterrence by denial), which was impractical in the nuclear regime. However, this approach presents challenges. Existing legal norms, particularly those related to controlling collateral damage, might provide some deterrence. Another option might be a new international agreement, but that would involve several difficult issues.
2019-12-02
Ibarra, Jaime, Javed Butt, Usman, Do, Anh, Jahankhani, Hamid, Jamal, Arshad.  2019.  Ransomware Impact to SCADA Systems and its Scope to Critical Infrastructure. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1–12.
SCADA systems are being constantly migrated to modern information and communication technologies (ICT) -based systems named cyber-physical systems. Unfortunately, this allows attackers to execute exploitation techniques into these architectures. In addition, ransomware insertion is nowadays the most popular attacking vector because it denies the availability of critical files and systems until attackers receive the demanded ransom. In this paper, it is analysed the risk impact of ransomware insertion into SCADA systems and it is suggested countermeasures addressed to the protection of SCADA systems and its components to reduce the impact of ransomware insertion.
2019-09-05
Panfili, M., Giuseppi, A., Fiaschetti, A., Al-Jibreen, H. B., Pietrabissa, A., Priscoli, F. Delli.  2018.  A Game-Theoretical Approach to Cyber-Security of Critical Infrastructures Based on Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning. 2018 26th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED). :460-465.

This paper presents a control strategy for Cyber-Physical System defense developed in the framework of the European Project ATENA, that concerns Critical Infrastructure (CI) protection. The aim of the controller is to find the optimal security configuration, in terms of countermeasures to implement, in order to address the system vulnerabilities. The attack/defense problem is modeled as a multi-agent general sum game, where the aim of the defender is to prevent the most damage possible by finding an optimal trade-off between prevention actions and their costs. The problem is solved utilizing Reinforcement Learning and simulation results provide a proof of the proposed concept, showing how the defender of the protected CI is able to minimize the damage caused by his her opponents by finding the Nash equilibrium of the game in the zero-sum variant, and, in a more general scenario, by driving the attacker in the position where the damage she/he can cause to the infrastructure is lower than the cost it has to sustain to enforce her/his attack strategy.