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2021-06-30
Biroon, Roghieh A., Pisu, Pierluigi, Abdollahi, Zoleikha.  2020.  Real-time False Data Injection Attack Detection in Connected Vehicle Systems with PDE modeling. 2020 American Control Conference (ACC). :3267—3272.
Connected vehicles as a promising concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), are a potential solution to address some of the existing challenges of emission, traffic congestion as well as fuel consumption. To achieve these goals, connectivity among vehicles through the wireless communication network is essential. However, vehicular communication networks endure from reliability and security issues. Cyber-attacks with purposes of disrupting the performance of the connected vehicles, lead to catastrophic collision and traffic congestion. In this study, we consider a platoon of connected vehicles equipped with Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) which are subjected to a specific type of cyber-attack namely "False Data Injection" attack. We developed a novel method to model the attack with ghost vehicles injected into the connected vehicles network to disrupt the performance of the whole system. To aid the analysis, we use a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model. Furthermore, we present a PDE model-based diagnostics scheme capable of detecting the false data injection attack and isolating the injection point of the attack in the platoon system. The proposed scheme is designed based on a PDE observer with measured velocity and acceleration feedback. Lyapunov stability theory has been utilized to verify the analytically convergence of the observer under no attack scenario. Eventually, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with simulation study.
2021-03-29
Halabi, T., Wahab, O. A., Zulkernine, M..  2020.  A Game-Theoretic Approach for Distributed Attack Mitigation in Intelligent Transportation Systems. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1–6.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) play a vital role in the development of smart cities. They enable various road safety and efficiency applications such as optimized traffic management, collision avoidance, and pollution control through the collection and evaluation of traffic data from Road Side Units (RSUs) and connected vehicles in real time. However, these systems are highly vulnerable to data corruption attacks which can seriously influence their decision-making abilities. Traditional attack detection schemes do not account for attackers' sophisticated and evolving strategies and ignore the ITS's constraints on security resources. In this paper, we devise a security game model that allows the defense mechanism deployed in the ITS to optimize the distribution of available resources for attack detection while considering mixed attack strategies, according to which the attacker targets multiple RSUs in a distributed fashion. In our security game, the utility of the ITS is quantified in terms of detection rate, attack damage, and the relevance of the information transmitted by the RSUs. The proposed approach will enable the ITS to mitigate the impact of attacks and increase its resiliency. The results show that our approach reduces the attack impact by at least 20% compared to the one that fairly allocates security resources to RSUs indifferently to attackers' strategies.
2021-02-23
Olowononi, F. O., Rawat, D. B., Liu, C..  2020.  Dependable Adaptive Mobility in Vehicular Networks for Resilient Mobile Cyber Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

Improved safety, high mobility and environmental concerns in transportation systems across the world and the corresponding developments in information and communication technologies continue to drive attention towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This is evident in advanced driver-assistance systems such as lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance. However, in connected and autonomous vehicles, the efficient functionality of these applications depends largely on the ability of a vehicle to accurately predict it operating parameters such as location and speed. The ability to predict the immediate future/next location (or speed) of a vehicle or its ability to predict neighbors help in guaranteeing integrity, availability and accountability, thus boosting safety and resiliency of the Vehicular Network for Mobile Cyber Physical Systems (VCPS). In this paper, we proposed a secure movement-prediction for connected vehicles by using Kalman filter. Specifically, Kalman filter predicts the locations and speeds of individual vehicles with reference to already observed and known information such posted legal speed limit, geographic/road location, direction etc. The aim is to achieve resilience through the predicted and exchanged information between connected moving vehicles in an adaptive manner. By being able to predict their future locations, the following vehicle is able to adjust its position more accurately to avoid collision and to ensure optimal information exchange among vehicles.

2020-11-23
Dong, C., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Shi, P., Shao, X., Ma, C..  2018.  Abnormal Bus Data Detection of Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Based on Neural Network. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE). :171–176.
In the paper, our research of abnormal bus data analysis of intelligent and connected vehicle aims to detect the abnormal data rapidly and accurately generated by the hackers who send malicious commands to attack vehicles through three patterns, including remote non-contact, short-range non-contact and contact. The research routine is as follows: Take the bus data of 10 different brands of intelligent and connected vehicles through the real vehicle experiments as the research foundation, set up the optimized neural network, collect 1000 sets of the normal bus data of 15 kinds of driving scenarios and the other 300 groups covering the abnormal bus data generated by attacking the three systems which are most common in the intelligent and connected vehicles as the training set. In the end after repeated amendments, with 0.5 seconds per detection, the intrusion detection system has been attained in which for the controlling system the abnormal bus data is detected at the accuracy rate of 96% and the normal data is detected at the accuracy rate of 90%, for the body system the abnormal one is 87% and the normal one is 80%, for the entertainment system the abnormal one is 80% and the normal one is 65%.
2020-11-02
Fraiji, Yosra, Ben Azzouz, Lamia, Trojet, Wassim, Saidane, Leila Azouz.  2018.  Cyber security issues of Internet of electric vehicles. 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—6.

The use of Electric Vehicle (EV) is growing rapidly due to its environmental benefits. However, the major problem of these vehicles is their limited battery, the lack of charging stations and the re-charge time. Introducing Information and Communication Technologies, in the field of EV, will improve energy efficiency, energy consumption predictions, availability of charging stations, etc. The Internet of Vehicles based only on Electric Vehicles (IoEV) is a complex system. It is composed of vehicles, humans, sensors, road infrastructure and charging stations. All these entities communicate using several communication technologies (ZigBee, 802.11p, cellular networks, etc). IoEV is therefore vulnerable to significant attacks such as DoS, false data injection, modification. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the development and the wide deployment of Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV). In this paper, we present an overview of security issues of the IoEV architecture and we highlight open issues that make the IoEV security a challenging research area in the future.

Sharma, Sachin, Ghanshala, Kamal Kumar, Mohan, Seshadri.  2018.  A Security System Using Deep Learning Approach for Internet of Vehicles (IoV). 2018 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :1—5.

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) will connect not only mobile devices with vehicles, but it will also connect vehicles with each other, and with smart offices, buildings, homes, theaters, shopping malls, and cities. The IoV facilitates optimal and reliable communication services to connected vehicles in smart cities. The backbone of connected vehicles communication is the critical V2X infrastructures deployment. The spectrum utilization depends on the demand by the end users and the development of infrastructure that includes efficient automation techniques together with the Internet of Things (IoT). The infrastructure enables us to build smart environments for spectrum utilization, which we refer to as Smart Spectrum Utilization (SSU). This paper presents an integrated system consisting of SSU with IoV. However, the tasks of securing IoV and protecting it from cyber attacks present considerable challenges. This paper introduces an IoV security system using deep learning approach to develop secure applications and reliable services. Deep learning composed of unsupervised learning and supervised learning, could optimize the IoV security system. The deep learning methodology is applied to monitor security threats. Results from simulations show that the monitoring accuracy of the proposed security system is superior to that of the traditional system.

Ivanov, I, Maple, C, Watson, T, Lee, S.  2018.  Cyber security standards and issues in V2X communications for Internet of Vehicles. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—6.

Significant developments have taken place over the past few years in the area of vehicular communication systems in the ITS environment. It is vital that, in these environments, security is considered in design and implementation since compromised vulnerabilities in one vehicle can be propagated to other vehicles, especially given that V2X communication is through an ad-hoc type network. Recently, many standardisation organisations have been working on creating international standards related to vehicular communication security and the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV). This paper presents a discussion of current V2X communications cyber security issues and standardisation approaches being considered by standardisation bodies such as the ISO, the ITU, the IEEE, and the ETSI.

2020-10-19
Sharma, Sachin, Ghanshala, Kamal Kumar, Mohan, Seshadri.  2019.  Blockchain-Based Internet of Vehicles (IoV): An Efficient Secure Ad Hoc Vehicular Networking Architecture. 2019 IEEE 2nd 5G World Forum (5GWF). :452–457.
With the transformation of connected vehicles into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), the time is now ripe for paving the way for the next generation of connected vehicles with novel applications and innovative security measures. The connected vehicles are experiencing prenominal growth in the auto industry, but are still studded with many security and privacy vulnerabilities. Today's IoV applications are part of cyber physical communication systems that collect useful information from thousands of smart sensors associated with the connected vehicles. The technology advancement has paved the way for connected vehicles to share significant information among drivers, auto manufacturers, auto insurance companies and operational and maintenance service providers for various applications. The critical issues in engineering the IoV applications are effective to use of the available spectrum and effective allocation of good channels an opportunistic manner to establish connectivity among vehicles, and the effective utilization of the infrastructure under various traffic conditions. Security and privacy in information sharing are the main concerns in a connected vehicle communication network. Blockchain technology facilitates secured communication among users in a connected vehicles network. Originally, blockchain technology was developed and employed with the cryptocurrency. Bitcoin, to provide increased trust, reliability, and security among users based on peer-to-peer networks for transaction sharing. In this paper, we propose to integrate blockchain technology into ad hoc vehicular networking so that the vehicles can share network resources with increased trust, reliability, and security using distributed access control system and can benefit a wider scope of scalable IoV applications scenarios for decision making. The proposed architecture is the faithful environment for information sharing among connected vehicles. Blockchain technology allows multiple copies of data storage at the distribution cloud. Distributed access control system is significantly more secure than a traditional centralized system. This paper also describes how important of ad hoc vehicular networking in human life, possibilities in real-world implementation and its future trends. The ad hoc vehicular networking may become one of the most trendy networking concepts in the future that has the perspective to bring out much ease human beneficial and secured applications.
2020-09-28
Evans, David, Calvo, Daniel, Arroyo, Adrian, Manilla, Alejandro, Gómez, David.  2019.  End-to-end security assessment framework for connected vehicles. 2019 22nd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). :1–6.
To increase security and to offer user experiences according to the requirements of a hyper-connected world, modern vehicles are integrating complex electronic systems, being transformed into systems of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). While a great diversity of heterogeneous hardware and software components must work together and control in real-time crucial functionalities, cybersecurity for the automotive sector is still in its infancy. This paper provides an analysis of the most common vulnerabilities and risks of connected vehicles, using a real example based on industrial and market-ready technologies. Several components have been implemented to inject and simulate multiple attacks, which enable security services and mitigation actions to be developed and validated.
2020-08-28
Iqbal, Shahrear, Haque, Anwar, Zulkernine, Mohammad.  2019.  Towards a Security Architecture for Protecting Connected Vehicles from Malware. 2019 IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Spring). :1—5.

Vehicles are becoming increasingly connected to the outside world. We can connect our devices to the vehicle's infotainment system and internet is being added as a functionality. Therefore, security is a major concern as the attack surface has become much larger than before. Consequently, attackers are creating malware that can infect vehicles and perform life-threatening activities. For example, a malware can compromise vehicle ECUs and cause unexpected consequences. Hence, ensuring the security of connected vehicle software and networks is extremely important to gain consumer confidence and foster the growth of this emerging market. In this paper, we propose a characterization of vehicle malware and a security architecture to protect vehicle from these malware. The architecture uses multiple computational platforms and makes use of the virtualization technique to limit the attack surface. There is a real-time operating system to control critical vehicle functionalities and multiple other operating systems for non-critical functionalities (infotainment, telematics, etc.). The security architecture also describes groups of components for the operating systems to prevent malicious activities and perform policing (monitor, detect, and control). We believe this work will help automakers guard their systems against malware and provide a clear guideline for future research.

2020-07-20
Urien, Pascal.  2019.  Designing Attacks Against Automotive Control Area Network Bus and Electronic Control Units. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–4.
Security is a critical issue for new car generation targeting intelligent transportation systems (ITS), involving autonomous and connected vehicles. In this work we designed a low cost CAN probe and defined analysis tools in order to build attack scenarios. We reuse some threats identified by a previous work. Future researches will address new security protocols.
2020-04-24
Rodriguez, Manuel, Fathy, Hosam.  2019.  Self-Synchronization of Connected Vehicles in Traffic Networks: What Happens When We Think of Vehicles as Waves? 2019 American Control Conference (ACC). :2651—2657.

In this paper we consider connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) in a traffic network as moving waves defined by their frequency and phase. This outlook allows us to develop a multi-layer decentralized control strategy that achieves the following desirable behaviors: (1) safe spacing between vehicles traveling down the same road, (2) coordinated safe crossing at intersections of conflicting flows, (3) smooth velocity profiles when traversing adjacent intersections. The approach consist of using the Kuramoto equation to synchronize the phase and frequency of agents in the network. The output of this layer serves as the reference trajectory for a back-stepping controller that interfaces the first-order dynamics of the phase-domain layer and the second order dynamics of the vehicle. We show the performance of the strategy for a single intersection and a small urban grid network. The literature has focused on solving the intersection coordination problem in both a centralized and decentralized manner. Some authors have even used the Kuramoto equation to achieve synchronization of traffic lights. Our proposed strategy falls in the rubric of a decentralized approach, but unlike previous work, it defines the vehicles as the oscillating agents, and leverages their inter-connectivity to achieve network-wide synchronization. In this way, it combines the benefits of coordinating the crossing of vehicles at individual intersections and synchronizing flow from adjacent junctions.

2020-04-13
Ruehrup, Stefan, Krenn, Stephan.  2019.  Towards Privacy in Geographic Message Dissemination for Connected Vehicles. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE). :1–6.
With geographic message dissemination, connected vehicles can be served with traffic information in their proximity, thereby positively impacting road safety, traffic management, or routing. Since such messages are typically relevant in a small geographic area, servers only distribute messages to affected vehicles for efficiency reasons. One main challenge is to maintain scalability of the server infrastructure when collecting location updates from vehicles and determining the relevant group of vehicles when messages are distributed to a geographic relevance area, while at the same time respecting the individual user's privacy in accordance with legal regulations. In this paper, we present a framework for geographic message dissemination following the privacy-by-design and privacy-by-default principles, without having to accept efficiency drawbacks compared to conventional server-client based approaches.
2020-03-09
Moukahal, Lama, Zulkernine, Mohammad.  2019.  Security Vulnerability Metrics for Connected Vehicles. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :17–23.

Software integration in modern vehicles is continuously expanding. This is due to the fact that vehicle manufacturers are always trying to enhance and add more innovative and competitive features that may rely on complex software functionalities. However, these features come at a cost. They amplify the security vulnerabilities in vehicles and lead to more security issues in today's automobiles. As a result, the need for identifying vulnerable components in a vehicle software system has become crucial. Security experts need to know which components of the vehicle software system can be exploited for attacks and should focus their testing and inspection efforts on it. Nevertheless, it is a challenging and costly task to identify these weak components in a vehicle's system. In this paper, we propose some security vulnerability metrics for connected vehicles that aim to assist software testers during the development life-cycle in order to identify the frail links that put the vehicle at highsecurity risks. Vulnerable function assessment can give software testers a good idea about which components in a connected vehicle need to be prioritized in order to mitigate the risk and hence secure the vehicle. The proposed metrics were applied to OpenPilot - a software that provides Autopilot feature - and has been integrated with 48 different vehicles.. The application shows how the defined metrics can be effectively used to quantitatively measure the vulnerabilities of a vehicle software system.

Xiaoxin, LOU, Xiulan, SONG, Defeng, HE, Liming, MENG.  2019.  Secure estimation for intelligent connected vehicle systems against sensor attacks. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6658–6662.
Intelligent connected vehicle system tightly integrates computing, communication, and control strategy. It can increase the traffic throughput, minimize the risk of accidents and reduce the energy consumption. However, because of the openness of the vehicular ad hoc network, the system is vulnerable to cyber-attacks and may result in disastrous consequences. Hence, it is interesting in design of the connected vehicular systems to be resilient to the sensor attacks. The paper focuses on the estimation and control of the intelligent connected vehicle systems when the sensors or the wireless channels of the system are attacked by attackers. We give the upper bound of the corrupted sensors that can be corrected and design the state estimator to reconstruct the initial state by designing a closed-loop controller. Finally, we verify the algorithm for the connected vehicle system by some classical simulations.
2020-02-17
Jolfaei, Alireza, Kant, Krishna.  2019.  Privacy and Security of Connected Vehicles in Intelligent Transportation System. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks – Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :9–10.
The paper considers data security and privacy issues in intelligent transportation systems which involve data streams coming out from individual vehicles to road side units. In this environment, there are issues in regards to the scalability of key management and computation limitations at the edge of the network. To address these issues, we suggest the formation of groups in the vehicular layer, where a group leader is assigned to communicate with group members and the road side unit. We propose a lightweight permutation mechanism for preserving the confidentiality and privacy of sensory data.
2019-10-22
Hagan, Matthew, Siddiqui, Fahad, Sezer, Sakir.  2018.  Policy-Based Security Modelling and Enforcement Approach for Emerging Embedded Architectures. 2018 31st IEEE International System-on-Chip Conference (SOCC). :84–89.
Complex embedded systems often contain hard to find vulnerabilities which, when exploited, have potential to cause severe damage to the operating environment and the user. Given that threats and vulnerabilities can exist within any layer of the complex eco-system, OEMs face a major challenge to ensure security throughout the device life-cycle To lower the potential risk and damage that vulnerabilities may cause, OEMs typically perform application threat analysis and security modelling. This process typically provides a high level guideline to solving security problems which can then be implemented during design and development. However, this concept presents issues where new threats or unknown vulnerability has been discovered. To address this issue, we propose a policy-based security modelling approach, which utilises a configurable policy engine to apply new policies that counter serious threats. By utilising this approach, the traditional security modelling approaches can be enhanced and the consequences of a new threat greatly reduced. We present a realistic use case of connected car, applying several attack scenarios. By utilising STRIDE threat modelling and DREAD risk assessment model, adequate policies are derived to protect the car assets. This approach poses advantages over the standard approach, allowing a policy update to counter a new threat, which may have otherwise required a product redesign to alleviate the issue under the traditional approach.
2018-05-30
Joy, Joshua, Gerla, Mario.  2017.  Privacy Risks in Vehicle Grids and Autonomous Cars. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on Smart, Autonomous, and Connected Vehicular Systems and Services. :19–23.

Traditionally, the vehicle has been the extension of the manual ambulatory system, docile to the drivers' commands. Recent advances in communications, controls and embedded systems have changed this model, paving the way to the Intelligent Vehicle Grid. The car is now a formidable sensor platform, absorbing information from the environment, from other cars (and from the driver) and feeding it to other cars and infrastructure to assist in safe navigation, pollution control and traffic management. The next step in this evolution is just around the corner: the Internet of Autonomous Vehicles. Like other important instantiations of the Internet of Things (e.g., the smart building, etc), the Internet of Vehicles will not only upload data to the Internet with V2I. It will also use V2V communications, storage, intelligence, and learning capabilities to anticipate the customers' intentions and learn from other peers. V2I and V2V are essential to the autonomous vehicle, but carry the risk of attacks. This paper will address the privacy attacks to which vehicles are exposed when they upload private data to Internet Servers. It will also outline efficient methods to preserve privacy.

2018-02-02
Villarreal-Vasquez, M., Bhargava, B., Angin, P..  2017.  Adaptable Safety and Security in V2X Systems. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Internet of Things (ICIOT). :17–24.

With the advances in the areas of mobile computing and wireless communications, V2X systems have become a promising technology enabling deployment of applications providing road safety, traffic efficiency and infotainment. Due to their increasing popularity, V2X networks have become a major target for attackers, making them vulnerable to security threats and network conditions, and thus affecting the safety of passengers, vehicles and roads. Existing research in V2X does not effectively address the safety, security and performance limitation threats to connected vehicles, as a result of considering these aspects separately instead of jointly. In this work, we focus on the analysis of the tradeoffs between safety, security and performance of V2X systems and propose a dynamic adaptability approach considering all three aspects jointly based on application needs and context to achieve maximum safety on the roads using an Internet of vehicles. Experiments with a simple V2V highway scenario demonstrate that an adaptive safety/security approach is essential and V2X systems have great potential for providing low reaction times.

2017-05-22
Lima, Antonio, Rocha, Francisco, Völp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2016.  Towards Safe and Secure Autonomous and Cooperative Vehicle Ecosystems. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Privacy. :59–70.

Semi-autonomous driver assists are already widely deployed and fully autonomous cars are progressively leaving the realm of laboratories. This evolution coexists with a progressive connectivity and cooperation, creating important safety and security challenges, the latter ranging from casual hackers to highly-skilled attackers, requiring a holistic analysis, under the perspective of fully-fledged ecosystems of autonomous and cooperative vehicles. This position paper attempts at contributing to a better understanding of the global threat plane and the specific threat vectors designers should be attentive to. We survey paradigms and mechanisms that may be used to overcome or at least mitigate the potential risks that may arise through the several threat vectors analyzed.