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Li, Sichun, Jin, Xin, Yao, Sibing, Yang, Shuyu.  2020.  Underwater Small Target Recognition Based on Convolutional Neural Network. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—7.
With the increasingly extensive use of diver and unmanned underwater vehicle in military, it has posed a serious threat to the security of the national coastal area. In order to prevent the underwater diver's impact on the safety of water area, it is of great significance to identify underwater small targets in time to make early warning for it. In this paper, convolutional neural network is applied to underwater small target recognition. The recognition targets are diver, whale and dolphin. Due to the time-frequency spectrum can reflect the essential features of underwater target, convolutional neural network can learn a variety of features of the acoustic signal through the image processed by the time-frequency spectrum, time-frequency image is input to convolutional neural network to recognize the underwater small targets. According to the study of learning rate and pooling mode, the network parameters and structure suitable for underwater small target recognition in this paper are selected. The results of data processing show that the method can identify underwater small targets accurately.
Zhang, Han, Song, Zhihua, Feng, Boyu, Zhou, Zhongliang, Liu, Fuxian.  2020.  Technology of Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based on Adversarial Training. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :77–80.
Steganography has made great progress over the past few years due to the advancement of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which has caused severe problems in the network security field. Ensuring the accuracy of steganalysis is becoming increasingly difficult. In this paper, we designed a two-channel generative adversarial network (TGAN), inspired by the idea of adversarial training that is based on our previous work. The TGAN consisted of three parts: The first hiding network had two input channels and one output channel. For the second extraction network, the input was a hidden image embedded with the secret image. The third detecting network had two input channels and one output channel. Experimental results on two independent image data sets showed that the proposed TGAN performed well and had better detecting capability compared to other algorithms, thus having important theoretical significance and engineering value.
Liu, Shuyong, Jiang, Hongrui, Li, Sizhao, Yang, Yang, Shen, Linshan.  2020.  A Feature Compression Technique for Anomaly Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :39–42.
Anomaly detection classification technology based on deep learning is one of the crucial technologies supporting network security. However, as the data increasing, this traditional model cannot guarantee that the false alarm rate is minimized while meeting the high detection rate. Additionally, distribution of imbalanced abnormal samples will lead to an increase in the error rate of the classification results. In this work, since CNN is effective in network intrusion classification, we embed a compressed feature layer in CNN (Convolutional Neural Networks). The purpose is to improve the efficiency of network intrusion detection. After our model was trained for 55 epochs and we set the learning rate of the model to 0.01, the detection rate reaches over 98%.
Li, Yizhi.  2020.  Research on Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Intrusion Detection. 2020 7th International Forum on Electrical Engineering and Automation (IFEEA). :720–723.
At present, our life is almost inseparable from the network, the network provides a lot of convenience for our life. However, a variety of network security incidents occur very frequently. In recent years, with the continuous development of neural network technology, more and more researchers have applied neural network to intrusion detection, which has developed into a new research direction in intrusion detection. As long as the neural network is provided with input data including network data packets, through the process of self-learning, the neural network can separate abnormal data features and effectively detect abnormal data. Therefore, the article innovatively proposes an intrusion detection method based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), which is used to test on public data sets. The results show that the model has a higher accuracy rate and a lower false negative rate than traditional intrusion detection methods.
Zhang, J., Liao, Y., Zhu, X., Wang, H., Ding, J..  2020.  A Deep Learning Approach in the Discrete Cosine Transform Domain to Median Filtering Forensics. IEEE Signal Processing Letters. 27:276—280.
This letter presents a novel median filtering forensics approach, based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) with an adaptive filtering layer (AFL), which is built in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. Using the proposed AFL, the CNN can determine the main frequency range closely related with the operational traces. Then, to automatically learn the multi-scale manipulation features, a multi-scale convolutional block is developed, exploring a new multi-scale feature fusion strategy based on the maxout function. The resultant features are further processed by a convolutional stream with pooling and batch normalization operations, and finally fed into the classification layer with the Softmax function. Experimental results show that our proposed approach is able to accurately detect the median filtering manipulation and outperforms the state-of-the-art schemes, especially in the scenarios of low image resolution and serious compression loss.
Pyatnisky, I. A., Sokolov, A. N..  2020.  Assessment of the Applicability of Autoencoders in the Problem of Detecting Anomalies in the Work of Industrial Control Systems.. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :234—239.

Deep learning methods are increasingly becoming solutions to complex problems, including the search for anomalies. While fully-connected and convolutional neural networks have already found their application in classification problems, their applicability to the problem of detecting anomalies is limited. In this regard, it is proposed to use autoencoders, previously used only in problems of reducing the dimension and removing noise, as a method for detecting anomalies in the industrial control system. A new method based on autoencoders is proposed for detecting anomalies in the operation of industrial control systems (ICS). Several neural networks based on auto-encoders with different architectures were trained, and the effectiveness of each of them in the problem of detecting anomalies in the work of process control systems was evaluated. Auto-encoders can detect the most complex and non-linear dependencies in the data, and as a result, can show the best quality for detecting anomalies. In some cases, auto-encoders require fewer machine resources.

Liu, F., Wen, Y., Wu, Y., Liang, S., Jiang, X., Meng, D..  2020.  MLTracer: Malicious Logins Detection System via Graph Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :715—726.

Malicious login, especially lateral movement, has been a primary and costly threat for enterprises. However, there exist two critical challenges in the existing methods. Specifically, they heavily rely on a limited number of predefined rules and features. When the attack patterns change, security experts must manually design new ones. Besides, they cannot explore the attributes' mutual effect specific to login operations. We propose MLTracer, a graph neural network (GNN) based system for detecting such attacks. It has two core components to tackle the previous challenges. First, MLTracer adopts a novel method to differentiate crucial attributes of login operations from the rest without experts' designated features. Second, MLTracer leverages a GNN model to detect malicious logins. The model involves a convolutional neural network (CNN) to explore attributes of login operations, and a co-attention mechanism to mutually improve the representations (vectors) of login attributes through learning their login-specific relation. We implement an evaluation of such an approach. The results demonstrate that MLTracer significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, MLTracer effectively detects various attack scenarios with a remarkably low false positive rate (FPR).

Singh, S., Nasoz, F..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 10th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0324—0328.

Emotions are a powerful tool in communication and one way that humans show their emotions is through their facial expressions. One of the challenging and powerful tasks in social communications is facial expression recognition, as in non-verbal communication, facial expressions are key. In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is an active research area, with several recent studies using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In this paper, we demonstrate the classification of FER based on static images, using CNNs, without requiring any pre-processing or feature extraction tasks. The paper also illustrates techniques to improve future accuracy in this area by using pre-processing, which includes face detection and illumination correction. Feature extraction is used to extract the most prominent parts of the face, including the jaw, mouth, eyes, nose, and eyebrows. Furthermore, we also discuss the literature review and present our CNN architecture, and the challenges of using max-pooling and dropout, which eventually aided in better performance. We obtained a test accuracy of 61.7% on FER2013 in a seven-classes classification task compared to 75.2% in state-of-the-art classification.

Makovetskii, A., Kober, V., Voronin, A., Zhernov, D..  2020.  Facial recognition and 3D non-rigid registration. 2020 International Conference on Information Technology and Nanotechnology (ITNT). :1—4.

One of the most efficient tool for human face recognition is neural networks. However, the result of recognition can be spoiled by facial expressions and other deviation from the canonical face representation. In this paper, we propose a resampling method of human faces represented by 3D point clouds. The method is based on a non-rigid Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. To improve the facial recognition performance, we use a combination of the proposed method and convolutional neural network (CNN). Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

Pranav, E., Kamal, S., Chandran, C. Satheesh, Supriya, M. H..  2020.  Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :317—320.

The rapid growth of artificial intelligence has contributed a lot to the technology world. As the traditional algorithms failed to meet the human needs in real time, Machine learning and deep learning algorithms have gained great success in different applications such as classification systems, recommendation systems, pattern recognition etc. Emotion plays a vital role in determining the thoughts, behaviour and feeling of a human. An emotion recognition system can be built by utilizing the benefits of deep learning and different applications such as feedback analysis, face unlocking etc. can be implemented with good accuracy. The main focus of this work is to create a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model that classifies 5 different human facial emotions. The model is trained, tested and validated using the manually collected image dataset.

Ozdemir, M. A., Elagoz, B., Soy, A. Alaybeyoglu, Akan, A..  2020.  Deep Learning Based Facial Emotion Recognition System. 2020 Medical Technologies Congress (TIPTEKNO). :1—4.

In this study, it was aimed to recognize the emotional state from facial images using the deep learning method. In the study, which was approved by the ethics committee, a custom data set was created using videos taken from 20 male and 20 female participants while simulating 7 different facial expressions (happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted, scared, and neutral). Firstly, obtained videos were divided into image frames, and then face images were segmented using the Haar library from image frames. The size of the custom data set obtained after the image preprocessing is more than 25 thousand images. The proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which is mimics of LeNet architecture has been trained with this custom dataset. According to the proposed CNN architecture experiment results, the training loss was found as 0.0115, the training accuracy was found as 99.62%, the validation loss was 0.0109, and the validation accuracy was 99.71%.

Jia, C., Li, C. L., Ying, Z..  2020.  Facial expression recognition based on the ensemble learning of CNNs. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—5.

As a part of body language, facial expression is a psychological state that reflects the current emotional state of the person. Recognition of facial expressions can help to understand others and enhance communication with others. We propose a facial expression recognition method based on convolutional neural network ensemble learning in this paper. Our model is composed of three sub-networks, and uses the SVM classifier to Integrate the output of the three networks to get the final result. The recognition accuracy of the model's expression on the FER2013 dataset reached 71.27%. The results show that the method has high test accuracy and short prediction time, and can realize real-time, high-performance facial recognition.

Xu, X., Ruan, Z., Yang, L..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition Based on Graph Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :211—214.

Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to present their emotions and intensions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition. The facial landmarks are detected for characterizing facial expressions. A graph convolutional neural network is proposed for feature extraction and facial expression recognition classification. The experiments were performed on the three facial expression databases. The result shows that the proposed FER method can achieve good recognition accuracy up to 95.85% using the proposed method.

Li, J., Wang, X., Liu, S..  2020.  Hash Retrieval Method for Recaptured Images Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 2nd World Symposium on Artificial Intelligence (WSAI). :79–83.
For the purpose of outdoor advertising market researching, AD images are recaptured and uploaded everyday for statistics. But the quality of the recaptured advertising images are often affected by conditions such as angle, distance, and light during the shooting process, which consequently reduce either the speed or the accuracy of the retrieving algorithm. In this paper, we proposed a hash retrieval method based on convolutional neural networks for recaptured images. The basic idea is to add a hash layer to the convolutional neural network and then extract the binary hash code output by the hash layer to perform image retrieval in lowdimensional Hamming space. Experimental results show that the retrieval performance is improved compared with the current commonly used hash retrieval methods.
Bi, X., Liu, X..  2020.  Chinese Character Captcha Sequential Selection System Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 International Conference on Computer Vision, Image and Deep Learning (CVIDL). :554—559.

To ensure security, Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is widely used in people's online lives. This paper presents a Chinese character captcha sequential selection system based on convolutional neural network (CNN). Captchas composed of English and digits can already be identified with extremely high accuracy, but Chinese character captcha recognition is still challenging. The task we need to complete is to identify Chinese characters with different colors and different fonts that are not on a straight line with rotation and affine transformation on pictures with complex backgrounds, and then perform word order restoration on the identified Chinese characters. We divide the task into several sub-processes: Chinese character detection based on Faster R-CNN, Chinese character recognition and word order recovery based on N-Gram. In the Chinese character recognition sub-process, we have made outstanding contributions. We constructed a single Chinese character data set and built a 10-layer convolutional neural network. Eventually we achieved an accuracy of 98.43%, and completed the task perfectly.

Yerima, S. Y., Alzaylaee, M. K..  2020.  Mobile Botnet Detection: A Deep Learning Approach Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—8.

Android, being the most widespread mobile operating systems is increasingly becoming a target for malware. Malicious apps designed to turn mobile devices into bots that may form part of a larger botnet have become quite common, thus posing a serious threat. This calls for more effective methods to detect botnets on the Android platform. Hence, in this paper, we present a deep learning approach for Android botnet detection based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Our proposed botnet detection system is implemented as a CNN-based model that is trained on 342 static app features to distinguish between botnet apps and normal apps. The trained botnet detection model was evaluated on a set of 6,802 real applications containing 1,929 botnets from the publicly available ISCX botnet dataset. The results show that our CNN-based approach had the highest overall prediction accuracy compared to other popular machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, the performance results observed from our model were better than those reported in previous studies on machine learning based Android botnet detection.

Cui, W., Li, X., Huang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Chen, J..  2020.  Substitute Model Generation for Black-Box Adversarial Attack Based on Knowledge Distillation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :648–652.
Although deep convolutional neural network (CNN) performs well in many computer vision tasks, its classification mechanism is very vulnerable when it is exposed to the perturbation of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm to generate the substitute model of black-box CNN models by using knowledge distillation. The proposed algorithm distills multiple CNN teacher models to a compact student model as the substitution of other black-box CNN models to be attacked. The black-box adversarial samples can be consequently generated on this substitute model by using various white-box attacking methods. According to our experiments on ResNet18 and DenseNet121, our algorithm boosts the attacking success rate (ASR) by 20% by training the substitute model based on knowledge distillation.
Tan, R., Khan, N., Guan, L..  2020.  Locality Guided Neural Networks for Explainable Artificial Intelligence. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
In current deep network architectures, deeper layers in networks tend to contain hundreds of independent neurons which makes it hard for humans to understand how they interact with each other. By organizing the neurons by correlation, humans can observe how clusters of neighbouring neurons interact with each other. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for back propagation, called Locality Guided Neural Network (LGNN) for training networks that preserves locality between neighbouring neurons within each layer of a deep network. Heavily motivated by Self-Organizing Map (SOM), the goal is to enforce a local topology on each layer of a deep network such that neighbouring neurons are highly correlated with each other. This method contributes to the domain of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), which aims to alleviate the black-box nature of current AI methods and make them understandable by humans. Our method aims to achieve XAI in deep learning without changing the structure of current models nor requiring any post processing. This paper focuses on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), but can theoretically be applied to any type of deep learning architecture. In our experiments, we train various VGG and Wide ResNet (WRN) networks for image classification on CIFAR100. In depth analyses presenting both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our method is capable of enforcing a topology on each layer while achieving a small increase in classification accuracy.
Al-Emadi, S., Al-Mohannadi, A., Al-Senaid, F..  2020.  Using Deep Learning Techniques for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Informatics, IoT, and Enabling Technologies (ICIoT). :171—176.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in network intrusion attacks which raises a great concern from the privacy and security aspects. Due to the advancement of the technology, cyber-security attacks are becoming very complex such that the current detection systems are not sufficient enough to address this issue. Therefore, an implementation of an intelligent and effective network intrusion detection system would be crucial to solve this problem. In this paper, we use deep learning techniques, namely, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to design an intelligent detection system which is able to detect different network intrusions. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using different evaluation matrices and we present a comparison between the results of our proposed solution to find the best model for the network intrusion detection system.
Rathi, P., Adarsh, P., Kumar, M..  2020.  Deep Learning Approach for Arbitrary Image Style Fusion and Transformation using SANET model. 2020 4th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI)(48184). :1049–1057.
For real-time applications of arbitrary style transformation, there is a trade-off between the quality of results and the running time of existing algorithms. Hence, it is required to maintain the equilibrium of the quality of generated artwork with the speed of execution. It's complicated for the present arbitrary style-transformation procedures to preserve the structure of content-image while blending with the design and pattern of style-image. This paper presents the implementation of a network using SANET models for generating impressive artworks. It is flexible in the fusion of new style characteristics while sustaining the semantic-structure of the content-image. The identity-loss function helps to minimize the overall loss and conserves the spatial-arrangement of content. The results demonstrate that this method is practically efficient, and therefore it can be employed for real-time fusion and transformation using arbitrary styles.
Lei, M., Jin, M., Huang, T., Guo, Z., Wang, Q., Wu, Z., Chen, Z., Chen, X., Zhang, J..  2020.  Ultra-wideband Fingerprinting Positioning Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 International Conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS). :1—5.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) can determine the position of any person or object on earth based on satellite signals. But when inside the building, the GPS cannot receive signals, the indoor positioning system will determine the precise position. How to achieve more precise positioning is the difficulty of an indoor positioning system now. In this paper, we proposed an ultra-wideband fingerprinting positioning method based on a convolutional neural network (CNN), and we collect the dataset in a room to test the model, then compare our method with the existing method. In the experiment, our method can reach an accuracy of 98.36%. Compared with other fingerprint positioning methods our method has a great improvement in robustness. That results show that our method has good practicality while achieves higher accuracy.

Molek, V., Hurtik, P..  2020.  Training Neural Network Over Encrypted Data. 2020 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Stream Mining Processing (DSMP). :23–27.
We are answering the question whenever systems with convolutional neural network classifier trained over plain and encrypted data keep the ordering according to accuracy. Our motivation is need for designing convolutional neural network classifiers when data in their plain form are not accessible because of private company policy or sensitive data gathered by police. We propose to use a combination of fully connected autoencoder together with a convolutional neural network classifier. The autoencoder transforms the data info form that allows the convolutional classifier to be trained. We present three experiments that show the ordering of systems over plain and encrypted data. The results show that the systems indeed keep the ordering, and thus a NN designer can select appropriate architecture over encrypted data and later let data owner train or fine-tune the system/CNN classifier on the plain data.
Brockschmidt, J., Shang, J., Wu, J..  2019.  On the Generality of Facial Forgery Detection. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems Workshops (MASSW). :43—47.
A variety of architectures have been designed or repurposed for the task of facial forgery detection. While many of these designs have seen great success, they largely fail to address challenges these models may face in practice. A major challenge is posed by generality, wherein models must be prepared to perform in a variety of domains. In this paper, we investigate the ability of state-of-the-art facial forgery detection architectures to generalize. We first propose two criteria for generality: reliably detecting multiple spoofing techniques and reliably detecting unseen spoofing techniques. We then devise experiments which measure how a given architecture performs against these criteria. Our analysis focuses on two state-of-the-art facial forgery detection architectures, MesoNet and XceptionNet, both being convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our experiments use samples from six state-of-the-art facial forgery techniques: Deepfakes, Face2Face, FaceSwap, GANnotation, ICface, and X2Face. We find MesoNet and XceptionNet show potential to generalize to multiple spoofing techniques but with a slight trade-off in accuracy, and largely fail against unseen techniques. We loosely extrapolate these results to similar CNN architectures and emphasize the need for better architectures to meet the challenges of generality.
Mihanpour, A., Rashti, M. J., Alavi, S. E..  2020.  Human Action Recognition in Video Using DB-LSTM and ResNet. 2020 6th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :133—138.

Human action recognition in video is one of the most widely applied topics in the field of image and video processing, with many applications in surveillance (security, sports, etc.), activity detection, video-content-based monitoring, man-machine interaction, and health/disability care. Action recognition is a complex process that faces several challenges such as occlusion, camera movement, viewpoint move, background clutter, and brightness variation. In this study, we propose a novel human action recognition method using convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep bidirectional LSTM (DB-LSTM) networks, using only raw video frames. First, deep features are extracted from video frames using a pre-trained CNN architecture called ResNet152. The sequential information of the frames is then learned using the DB-LSTM network, where multiple layers are stacked together in both forward and backward passes of DB-LSTM, to increase depth. The evaluation results of the proposed method using PyTorch, compared to the state-of-the-art methods, show a considerable increase in the efficiency of action recognition on the UCF 101 dataset, reaching 95% recognition accuracy. The choice of the CNN architecture, proper tuning of input parameters, and techniques such as data augmentation contribute to the accuracy boost in this study.

Fomin, I., Burin, V., Bakhshiev, A..  2020.  Research on Neural Networks Integration for Object Classification in Video Analysis Systems. 2020 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1—5.

Object recognition with the help of outdoor video surveillance cameras is an important task in the context of ensuring the security at enterprises, public places and even private premises. There have long existed systems that allow detecting moving objects in the image sequence from a video surveillance system. Such a system is partially considered in this research. It detects moving objects using a background model, which has certain problems. Due to this some objects are missed or detected falsely. We propose to combine the moving objects detection results with the classification, using a deep neural network. This will allow determining whether a detected object belongs to a certain class, sorting out false detections, discarding the unnecessary ones (sometimes individual classes are unwanted), to divide detected people into the employees in the uniform and all others, etc. The authors perform a network training in the Keras developer-friendly environment that provides for quick building, changing and training of network architectures. The performance of the Keras integration into a video analysis system, using direct Python script execution techniques, is between 6 and 52 ms, while the precision is between 59.1% and 97.2% for different architectures. The integration, made by freezing a selected network architecture with weights, is selected after testing. After that, frozen architecture can be imported into video analysis using the TensorFlow interface for C++. The performance of such type of integration is between 3 and 49 ms. The precision is between 63.4% and 97.8% for different architectures.