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Verdoliva, Luisa.  2018.  Deep Learning in Multimedia Forensics. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security. :3–3.
With the widespread diffusion of powerful media editing tools, falsifying images and videos has become easier and easier in the last few years. Fake multimedia, often used to support fake news, represents a growing menace in many fields of life, notably in politics, journalism, and the judiciary. In response to this threat, the signal processing community has produced a major research effort. A large number of methods have been proposed for source identification, forgery detection and localization, relying on the typical signal processing tools. The advent of deep learning, however, is changing the rules of the game. On one hand, new sophisticated methods based on deep learning have been proposed to accomplish manipulations that were previously unthinkable. On the other hand, deep learning provides also the analyst with new powerful forensic tools. Given a suitably large training set, deep learning architectures ensure usually a significant performance gain with respect to conventional methods, and a much higher robustness to post-processing and evasions. In this talk after reviewing the main approaches proposed in the literature to ensure media authenticity, the most promising solutions relying on Convolutional Neural Networks will be explored with special attention to realistic scenarios, such as when manipulated images and videos are spread out over social networks. In addition, an analysis of the efficacy of adversarial attacks on such methods will be presented.
Kim, C. H., Kabanga, E. K., Kang, S..  2018.  Classifying Malware Using Convolutional Gated Neural Network. 2018 20th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :40-44.

Malware or Malicious Software, are an important threat to information technology society. Deep Neural Network has been recently achieving a great performance for the tasks of malware detection and classification. In this paper, we propose a convolutional gated recurrent neural network model that is capable of classifying malware to their respective families. The model is applied to a set of malware divided into 9 different families and that have been proposed during the Microsoft Malware Classification Challenge in 2015. The model shows an accuracy of 92.6% on the available dataset.

Kalash, M., Rochan, M., Mohammed, N., Bruce, N. D. B., Wang, Y., Iqbal, F..  2018.  Malware Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1-5.

In this paper, we propose a deep learning framework for malware classification. There has been a huge increase in the volume of malware in recent years which poses a serious security threat to financial institutions, businesses and individuals. In order to combat the proliferation of malware, new strategies are essential to quickly identify and classify malware samples so that their behavior can be analyzed. Machine learning approaches are becoming popular for classifying malware, however, most of the existing machine learning methods for malware classification use shallow learning algorithms (e.g. SVM). Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), a deep learning approach, have shown superior performance compared to traditional learning algorithms, especially in tasks such as image classification. Motivated by this success, we propose a CNN-based architecture to classify malware samples. We convert malware binaries to grayscale images and subsequently train a CNN for classification. Experiments on two challenging malware classification datasets, Malimg and Microsoft malware, demonstrate that our method achieves better than the state-of-the-art performance. The proposed method achieves 98.52% and 99.97% accuracy on the Malimg and Microsoft datasets respectively.

Kornish, D., Geary, J., Sansing, V., Ezekiel, S., Pearlstein, L., Njilla, L..  2018.  Malware Classification Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. 2018 IEEE Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop (AIPR). :1-6.

In recent years, deep convolution neural networks (DCNNs) have won many contests in machine learning, object detection, and pattern recognition. Furthermore, deep learning techniques achieved exceptional performance in image classification, reaching accuracy levels beyond human capability. Malware variants from similar categories often contain similarities due to code reuse. Converting malware samples into images can cause these patterns to manifest as image features, which can be exploited for DCNN classification. Techniques for converting malware binaries into images for visualization and classification have been reported in the literature, and while these methods do reach a high level of classification accuracy on training datasets, they tend to be vulnerable to overfitting and perform poorly on previously unseen samples. In this paper, we explore and document a variety of techniques for representing malware binaries as images with the goal of discovering a format best suited for deep learning. We implement a database for malware binaries from several families, stored in hexadecimal format. These malware samples are converted into images using various approaches and are used to train a neural network to recognize visual patterns in the input and classify malware based on the feature vectors. Each image type is assessed using a variety of learning models, such as transfer learning with existing DCNN architectures and feature extraction for support vector machine classifier training. Each technique is evaluated in terms of classification accuracy, result consistency, and time per trial. Our preliminary results indicate that improved image representation has the potential to enable more effective classification of new malware.

Kravchik, Moshe, Shabtai, Asaf.  2018.  Detecting Cyber Attacks in Industrial Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and PrivaCy. :72-83.

This paper presents a study on detecting cyber attacks on industrial control systems (ICS) using convolutional neural networks. The study was performed on a Secure Water Treatment testbed (SWaT) dataset, which represents a scaled-down version of a real-world industrial water treatment plant. We suggest a method for anomaly detection based on measuring the statistical deviation of the predicted value from the observed value. We applied the proposed method by using a variety of deep neural network architectures including different variants of convolutional and recurrent networks. The test dataset included 36 different cyber attacks. The proposed method successfully detected 31 attacks with three false positives thus improving on previous research based on this dataset. The results of the study show that 1D convolutional networks can be successfully used for anomaly detection in industrial control systems and outperform recurrent networks in this setting. The findings also suggest that 1D convolutional networks are effective at time series prediction tasks which are traditionally considered to be best solved using recurrent neural networks. This observation is a promising one, as 1D convolutional neural networks are simpler, smaller, and faster than the recurrent neural networks.

Chen, S., Chen, Y., Tzeng, W..  2018.  Effective Botnet Detection Through Neural Networks on Convolutional Features. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :372-378.

Botnet is one of the major threats on the Internet for committing cybercrimes, such as DDoS attacks, stealing sensitive information, spreading spams, etc. It is a challenging issue to detect modern botnets that are continuously improving for evading detection. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based botnet detection system that is shown to be effective in identifying P2P botnets. Our approach extracts convolutional version of effective flow-based features, and trains a classification model by using a feed-forward artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the accuracy of detection using the convolutional features is better than the ones using the traditional features. It can achieve 94.7% of detection accuracy and 2.2% of false positive rate on the known P2P botnet datasets. Furthermore, our system provides an additional confidence testing for enhancing performance of botnet detection. It further classifies the network traffic of insufficient confidence in the neural network. The experiment shows that this stage can increase the detection accuracy up to 98.6% and decrease the false positive rate up to 0.5%.

Stein, G., Peng, Q..  2018.  Low-Cost Breaking of a Unique Chinese Language CAPTCHA Using Curriculum Learning and Clustering. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0595–0600.

Text-based CAPTCHAs are still commonly used to attempt to prevent automated access to web services. By displaying an image of distorted text, they attempt to create a challenge image that OCR software can not interpret correctly, but a human user can easily determine the correct response to. This work focuses on a CAPTCHA used by a popular Chinese language question-and-answer website and how resilient it is to modern machine learning methods. While the majority of text-based CAPTCHAs focus on transcription tasks, the CAPTCHA solved in this work is based on localization of inverted symbols in a distorted image. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was created to evaluate the likelihood of a region in the image belonging to an inverted character. It is used with a feature map and clustering to identify potential locations of inverted characters. Training of the CNN was performed using curriculum learning and compared to other potential training methods. The proposed method was able to determine the correct response in 95.2% of cases of a simulated CAPTCHA and 67.6% on a set of real CAPTCHAs. Potential methods to increase difficulty of the CAPTCHA and the success rate of the automated solver are considered.

Liu, F., Li, Z., Li, X., Lv, T..  2018.  A Text-Based CAPTCHA Cracking System with Generative Adversarial Networks. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM). :192–193.
As a multimedia security mechanism, CAPTCHAs are completely automated public turing test to tell computers and humans apart. Although cracking CAPTCHA has been explored for many years, it is still a challenging problem for real practice. In this demo, we present a text based CAPTCHA cracking system by using convolutional neural networks(CNN). To solve small sample problem, we propose to combine conditional deep convolutional generative adversarial networks(cDCGAN) and CNN, which makes a tremendous progress in accuracy. In addition, we also select multiple models with low pearson correlation coefficients for majority voting ensemble, which further improves the accuracy. The experimental results show that the system has great advantages and provides a new mean for cracking CAPTCHAs.
Zhang, T., Zheng, H., Zhang, L..  2018.  Verification CAPTCHA Based on Deep Learning. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :9056–9060.
At present, the captcha is widely used in the Internet. The method of captcha recognition using the convolutional neural networks was introduced in this paper. It was easier to apply the convolution neural network model of simple training to segment the captcha, and the network structure was established imitating VGGNet model. and the correct rate can be reached more than 90%. For the more difficult segmentation captcha, it can be used the end-to-end thought to the captcha as a whole to training, In this way, the recognition rate of the more difficult segmentation captcha can be reached about 85%.
Lin, W., Lin, H., Wang, P., Wu, B., Tsai, J..  2018.  Using Convolutional Neural Networks to Network Intrusion Detection for Cyber Threats. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Applied System Invention (ICASI). :1107-1110.
In practice, Defenders need a more efficient network detection approach which has the advantages of quick-responding learning capability of new network behavioural features for network intrusion detection purpose. In many applications the capability of Deep Learning techniques has been confirmed to outperform classic approaches. Accordingly, this study focused on network intrusion detection using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based on LeNet-5 to classify the network threats. The experiment results show that the prediction accuracy of intrusion detection goes up to 99.65% with samples more than 10,000. The overall accuracy rate is 97.53%.
Go, Wooyoung, Lee, Daewoo.  2018.  Toward Trustworthy Deep Learning in Security. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2219–2221.
In the security area, there has been an increasing tendency to apply deep learning, which is perceived as a black box method because of the lack of understanding of its internal functioning. Can we trust deep learning models when they achieve high test accuracy? Using a visual explanation method, we find that deep learning models used in security tasks can easily focus on semantically non-discriminative parts of input data even though they produce the right answers. Furthermore, when a model is re-trained without any change in the learning procedure (i.e., no change in training/validation data, initialization/optimization methods and hyperparameters), it can focus on significantly different parts of many samples while producing the same answers. For trustworthy deep learning in security, therefore, we argue that it is necessary to verify the classification criteria of deep learning models before deploying them, even though they successfully achieve high test accuracy.
Popovac, M., Karanovic, M., Sladojevic, S., Arsenovic, M., Anderla, A..  2018.  Convolutional Neural Network Based SMS Spam Detection. 2018 26th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1–4.
SMS spam refers to undesired text message. Machine Learning methods for anti-spam filters have been noticeably effective in categorizing spam messages. Dataset used in this research is known as Tiago's dataset. Crucial step in the experiment was data preprocessing, which involved reducing text to lower case, tokenization, removing stopwords. Convolutional Neural Network was the proposed method for classification. Overall model's accuracy was 98.4%. Obtained model can be used as a tool in many applications.
Georgakopoulos, Spiros V., Tasoulis, Sotiris K., Vrahatis, Aristidis G., Plagianakos, Vassilis P..  2018.  Convolutional Neural Networks for Toxic Comment Classification. Proceedings of the 10th Hellenic Conference on Artificial Intelligence. :35:1-35:6.
Flood of information is produced in a daily basis through the global internet usage arising from the online interactive communications among users. While this situation contributes significantly to the quality of human life, unfortunately it involves enormous dangers, since online texts with high toxicity can cause personal attacks, online harassment and bullying behaviors. This has triggered both industrial and research community in the last few years while there are several attempts to identify an efficient model for online toxic comment prediction. However, these steps are still in their infancy and new approaches and frameworks are required. On parallel, the data explosion that appears constantly, makes the construction of new machine learning computational tools for managing this information, an imperative need. Thankfully advances in hardware, cloud computing and big data management allow the development of Deep Learning approaches appearing very promising performance so far. For text classification in particular the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have recently been proposed approaching text analytics in a modern manner emphasizing in the structure of words in a document. In this work, we employ this approach to discover toxic comments in a large pool of documents provided by a current Kaggle's competition regarding Wikipedia's talk page edits. To justify this decision we choose to compare CNNs against the traditional bag-of-words approach for text analysis combined with a selection of algorithms proven to be very effective in text classification. The reported results provide enough evidence that CNN enhance toxic comment classification reinforcing research interest towards this direction.
Murray, B., Islam, M. A., Pinar, A. J., Havens, T. C., Anderson, D. T., Scott, G..  2018.  Explainable AI for Understanding Decisions and Data-Driven Optimization of the Choquet Integral. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
To date, numerous ways have been created to learn a fusion solution from data. However, a gap exists in terms of understanding the quality of what was learned and how trustworthy the fusion is for future-i.e., new-data. In part, the current paper is driven by the demand for so-called explainable AI (XAI). Herein, we discuss methods for XAI of the Choquet integral (ChI), a parametric nonlinear aggregation function. Specifically, we review existing indices, and we introduce new data-centric XAI tools. These various XAI-ChI methods are explored in the context of fusing a set of heterogeneous deep convolutional neural networks for remote sensing.
Chelaramani, S., Jha, A., Namboodiri, A. M..  2018.  Cross-Modal Style Transfer. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :2157–2161.
We, humans, have the ability to easily imagine scenes that depict sentences such as ``Today is a beautiful sunny day'' or ``There is a Christmas feel, in the air''. While it is hard to precisely describe what one person may imagine, the essential high-level themes associated with such sentences largely remains the same. The ability to synthesize novel images that depict the feel of a sentence is very useful in a variety of applications such as education, advertisement, and entertainment. While existing papers tackle this problem given a style image, we aim to provide a far more intuitive and easy to use solution that synthesizes novel renditions of an existing image, conditioned on a given sentence. We present a method for cross-modal style transfer between an English sentence and an image, to produce a new image that imbibes the essential theme of the sentence. We do this by modifying the style transfer mechanism used in image style transfer to incorporate a style component derived from the given sentence. We demonstrate promising results using the YFCC100m dataset.
Chen, Y., Lai, Y., Liu, Y..  2017.  Transforming Photos to Comics Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :2010–2014.
In this paper, inspired by Gatys's recent work, we propose a novel approach that transforms photos to comics using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). While Gatys's method that uses a pre-trained VGG network generally works well for transferring artistic styles such as painting from a style image to a content image, for more minimalist styles such as comics, the method often fails to produce satisfactory results. To address this, we further introduce a dedicated comic style CNN, which is trained for classifying comic images and photos. This new network is effective in capturing various comic styles and thus helps to produce better comic stylization results. Even with a grayscale style image, Gatys's method can still produce colored output, which is not desirable for comics. We develop a modified optimization framework such that a grayscale image is guaranteed to be synthesized. To avoid converging to poor local minima, we further initialize the output image using grayscale version of the content image. Various examples show that our method synthesizes better comic images than the state-of-the-art method.
Li, P., Zhao, L., Xu, D., Lu, D..  2018.  Incorporating Multiscale Contextual Loss for Image Style Transfer. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :241–245.
In this paper, we propose to impose a multiscale contextual loss for image style transfer based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). In the traditional optimization framework, a new stylized image is synthesized by constraining the high-level CNN features similar to a content image and the lower-level CNN features similar to a style image, which, however, appears to lost many details of the content image, presenting unpleasing and inconsistent distortions or artifacts. The proposed multiscale contextual loss, named Haar loss, is responsible for preserving the lost details by dint of matching the features derived from the content image and the synthesized image via wavelet transform. It endows the synthesized image with the characteristic to better retain the semantic information of the content image. More specifically, the unpleasant distortions can be effectively alleviated while the style can be well preserved. In the experiments, we show the visually more consistent and simultaneously well-stylized images generated by incorporating the multiscale contextual loss.
Shinya, A., Tung, N. D., Harada, T., Thawonmas, R..  2017.  Object-Specific Style Transfer Based on Feature Map Selection Using CNNs. 2017 Nicograph International (NicoInt). :88–88.
We propose a method for transferring an arbitrary style to only a specific object in an image. Style transfer is the process of combining the content of an image and the style of another image into a new image. Our results show that the proposed method can realize style transfer to specific object.
Yang, Lingxiao, Liu, Risheng, Zhang, David, Zhang, Lei.  2017.  Deep Location-Specific Tracking. Proceedings of the 25th ACM International Conference on Multimedia. :1309–1317.

Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based methods have shown significant performance gains in the problem of visual tracking in recent years. Due to many uncertain changes of objects online, such as abrupt motion, background clutter and large deformation, the visual tracking is still a challenging task. We propose a novel algorithm, namely Deep Location-Specific Tracking, which decomposes the tracking problem into a localization task and a classification task, and trains an individual network for each task. The localization network exploits the information in the current frame and provides a specific location to improve the probability of successful tracking, while the classification network finds the target among many examples generated around the target location in the previous frame, as well as the one estimated from the localization network in the current frame. CNN based trackers often have massive number of trainable parameters, and are prone to over-fitting to some particular object states, leading to less precision or tracking drift. We address this problem by learning a classification network based on 1 × 1 convolution and global average pooling. Extensive experimental results on popular benchmark datasets show that the proposed tracker achieves competitive results without using additional tracking videos for fine-tuning. The code is available at

Zhu, Yi, Liu, Sen, Newsam, Shawn.  2017.  Large-Scale Mapping of Human Activity Using Geo-Tagged Videos. Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. :68:1–68:4.

This paper is the first work to perform spatio-temporal mapping of human activity using the visual content of geo-tagged videos. We utilize a recent deep-learning based video analysis framework, termed hidden two-stream networks, to recognize a range of activities in YouTube videos. This framework is efficient and can run in real time or faster which is important for recognizing events as they occur in streaming video or for reducing latency in analyzing already captured video. This is, in turn, important for using video in smart-city applications. We perform a series of experiments to show our approach is able to map activities both spatially and temporally.

Song, Baolin, Jiang, Hao, Zhao, Li, Huang, Chengwei.  2017.  A Bimodal Biometric Verification System Based on Deep Learning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Video and Image Processing. :89–93.

In order to improve the limitation of single-mode biometric identification technology, a bimodal biometric verification system based on deep learning is proposed in this paper. A modified CNN architecture is used to generate better facial feature for bimodal fusion. The obtained facial feature and acoustic feature extracted by the acoustic feature extraction model are fused together to form the fusion feature on feature layer level. The fusion feature obtained by this method are used to train a neural network of identifying the target person who have these corresponding features. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority and high performance of our bimodal biometric in comparison with single-mode biometrics for identity authentication, which are tested on a bimodal database consists of data coherent from TED-LIUM and CASIA-WebFace. Compared with using facial feature or acoustic feature alone, the classification accuracy of fusion feature obtained by our method is increased obviously.

Sim, H., Nguyen, D., Lee, J., Choi, K..  2017.  Scalable stochastic-computing accelerator for convolutional neural networks. 2017 22nd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). :696–701.

Stochastic Computing (SC) is an alternative design paradigm particularly useful for applications where cost is critical. SC has been applied to neural networks, as neural networks are known for their high computational complexity. However previous work in this area has critical limitations such as the fully-parallel architecture assumption, which prevent them from being applicable to recent ones such as convolutional neural networks, or ConvNets. This paper presents the first SC architecture for ConvNets, shows its feasibility, with detailed analyses of implementation overheads. Our SC-ConvNet is a hybrid between SC and conventional binary design, which is a marked difference from earlier SC-based neural networks. Though this might seem like a compromise, it is a novel feature driven by the need to support modern ConvNets at scale, which commonly have many, large layers. Our proposed architecture also features hybrid layer composition, which helps achieve very high recognition accuracy. Our detailed evaluation results involving functional simulation and RTL synthesis suggest that SC-ConvNets are indeed competitive with conventional binary designs, even without considering inherent error resilience of SC.

Yang, L., Murmann, B..  2017.  SRAM voltage scaling for energy-efficient convolutional neural networks. 2017 18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED). :7–12.

State-of-the-art convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) are now able to achieve near human performance on a wide range of classification tasks. Unfortunately, current hardware implementations of ConvNets are memory power intensive, prohibiting deployment in low-power embedded systems and IoE platforms. One method of reducing memory power is to exploit the error resilience of ConvNets and accept bit errors under reduced supply voltages. In this paper, we extensively study the effectiveness of this idea and show that further savings are possible by injecting bit errors during ConvNet training. Measurements on an 8KB SRAM in 28nm UTBB FD-SOI CMOS demonstrate supply voltage reduction of 310mV, which results in up to 5.4× leakage power reduction and up to 2.9× memory access power reduction at 99% of floating-point classification accuracy, with no additional hardware cost. To our knowledge, this is the first silicon-validated study on the effect of bit errors in ConvNets.

Deliu, I., Leichter, C., Franke, K..  2017.  Extracting Cyber Threat Intelligence from Hacker Forums: Support Vector Machines versus Convolutional Neural Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3648–3656.

Hacker forums and other social platforms may contain vital information about cyber security threats. But using manual analysis to extract relevant threat information from these sources is a time consuming and error-prone process that requires a significant allocation of resources. In this paper, we explore the potential of Machine Learning methods to rapidly sift through hacker forums for relevant threat intelligence. Utilizing text data from a real hacker forum, we compared the text classification performance of Convolutional Neural Network methods against more traditional Machine Learning approaches. We found that traditional machine learning methods, such as Support Vector Machines, can yield high levels of performance that are on par with Convolutional Neural Network algorithms.

Wang, Y., Pulgar-Painemal, H., Sun, K..  2017.  Online Analysis of Voltage Security in a Microgrid Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

Although connecting a microgrid to modern power systems can alleviate issues arising from a large penetration of distributed generation, it can also cause severe voltage instability problems. This paper presents an online method to analyze voltage security in a microgrid using convolutional neural networks. To transform the traditional voltage stability problem into a classification problem, three steps are considered: 1) creating data sets using offline simulation results; 2) training the model with dimensional reduction and convolutional neural networks; 3) testing the online data set and evaluating performance. A case study in the modified IEEE 14-bus system shows the accuracy of the proposed analysis method increases by 6% compared to back-propagation neural network and has better performance than decision tree and support vector machine. The proposed algorithm has great potential in future applications.