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Wagner, Torrey J., Ford, Thomas C..  2020.  Metrics to Meet Security amp; Privacy Requirements with Agile Software Development Methods in a Regulated Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :17—23.
This work examines metrics that can be used to measure the ability of agile software development methods to meet security and privacy requirements of communications applications. Many implementations of communication protocols, including those in vehicular networks, occur within regulated environments where agile development methods are traditionally discouraged. We propose a framework and metrics to measure adherence to security, quality and software effectiveness regulations if developers desire the cost and schedule benefits of agile methods. After providing an overview of specific challenges that a regulated environment imposes on communications software development, we proceed to examine the 12 agile principles and how they relate to a regulatory environment. From this review we identify two metrics to measure performance of three key regulatory attributes of software for communications applications, and then recommend an approach of either tools, agile methods or DevOps that is best positioned to satisfy its regulated environment attributes. By considering the recommendations in this paper, managers of software-dominant communications programs in a regulated environment can gain insight into leveraging the benefits of agile methods.
Alsmadi, Izzat, Zarrad, Anis, Yassine, Abdulrahmane.  2020.  Mutation Testing to Validate Networks Protocols. 2020 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—8.
As networks continue to grow in complexity using wired and wireless technologies, efficient testing solutions should accommodate such changes and growth. Network simulators provide a network-independent environment to provide different types of network testing. This paper is motivated by the observation that, in many cases in the literature, the success of developed network protocols is very sensitive to the initial conditions and assumptions of the testing scenarios. Network services are deployed in complex environments; results of testing and simulation can vary from one environment to another and sometimes in the same environment at different times. Our goal is to propose mutation-based integration testing that can be deployed with network protocols and serve as Built-in Tests (BiT).This paper proposes an integrated mutation testing framework to achieve systematic test cases' generation for different scenario types. Scenario description and variables' setting should be consistent with the protocol specification and the simulation environment. We focused on creating test cases for critical scenarios rather than preliminary or simplified scenarios. This will help users to report confident simulation results and provide credible protocol analysis. The criticality is defined as a combination of network performance metrics and critical functions' coverage. The proposed solution is experimentally proved to obtain accurate evaluation results with less testing effort by generating high-quality testing scenarios. Generated test scenarios will serve as BiTs for the network simulator. The quality of the test scenarios is evaluated from three perspectives: (i) code coverage, (ii) mutation score and (iii) testing effort. In this work, we implemented the testing framework in NS2, but it can be extended to any other simulation environment.
ISSN: 2472-9647
Čečil, Roman, Šetka, Vlastimil, Tolar, David, Sikora, Axel.  2020.  RETIS – Real-Time Sensitive Wireless Communication Solution for Industrial Control Applications. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Smart and Wireless Systems within the Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems (IDAACS-SWS). :1—9.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) has been always a vital component of many industrial applications. The paper proposes a new wireless URLLC solution called RETIS, which is suitable for factory automation and fast process control applications, where low latency, low jitter, and high data exchange rates are mandatory. In the paper, we describe the communication protocol as well as the hardware structure of the network nodes for implementing the required functionality. Many techniques enabling fast, reliable wireless transmissions are used - short Transmission Time Interval (TTI), TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), MIMO, optional duplicated data transfer, Forward Error Correction (FEC), ACK mechanism. Preliminary tests show that reliable endto-end latency down to 350 μs and packet exchange rate up to 4 kHz can be reached (using quadruple MIMO and standard IEEE 802.15.4 PHY at 250 kbit/s).
Zhao, Zhao, Hou, Yanzhao, Tang, Xiaosheng, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2020.  Demo Abstract: Cross-layer Authentication Based on Physical Channel Information using OpenAirInterface. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1334—1335.

The time-varying properties of the wireless channel are a powerful source of information that can complement and enhance traditional security mechanisms. Therefore, we propose a cross-layer authentication mechanism that combines physical layer channel information and traditional authentication mechanism in LTE. To verify the feasibility of the proposed mechanism, we build a cross-layer authentication system that extracts the phase shift information of a typical UE and use the ensemble learning method to train the fingerprint map based on OAI LTE. Experimental results show that our cross-layer authentication mechanism can effectively prompt the security of LTE system.

Morapitiya, Sumali S., Furqan Ali, Mohammad, Rajkumar, Samikkannu, Wijayasekara, Sanika K., Jayakody, Dushantha Nalin K., Weerasuriya, R.U..  2020.  A SLIPT-assisted Visible Light Communication Scheme. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :368–375.
Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) technique is introduced in Radio Frequency (RF) communication to carry both information and power in same medium. In this approach, the energy can be harvested while decoding the information carries in an RF wave. Recently, the same concept applied in Visible Light Communication (VLC) namely Simultaneous Light Wave Information and Power Transfer (SLIPT), which is highly recommended in an indoor applications to overcome the problem facing in RF communication. Thus, SLIPT is introduced to transmit the power through a Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaries. In this work, we compare both SWIPT and SLIPT technologies and realize SLIPT technology archives increased performance in terms of the amount of harvested energy, outage probability and error rate performance.
Shen, Chao.  2020.  Laser-based high bit-rate visible light communications and underwater optical wireless network. 2020 Photonics North (PN). :1–1.
This talk presents an overview of the latest visible light communication (VLC) and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) research and development from the device to the system level. The utilization of laser-based devices and systems for LiFi and underwater Internet of Things (IoT) has been discussed.
Hachimi, Marouane, Kaddoum, Georges, Gagnon, Ghyslain, Illy, Poulmanogo.  2020.  Multi-stage Jamming Attacks Detection using Deep Learning Combined with Kernelized Support Vector Machine in 5G Cloud Radio Access Networks. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—5.

In 5G networks, the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is considered a promising future architecture in terms of minimizing energy consumption and allocating resources efficiently by providing real-time cloud infrastructures, cooperative radio, and centralized data processing. Recently, given their vulnerability to malicious attacks, the security of C-RAN networks has attracted significant attention. Among various anomaly-based intrusion detection techniques, the most promising one is the machine learning-based intrusion detection as it learns without human assistance and adjusts actions accordingly. In this direction, many solutions have been proposed, but they show either low accuracy in terms of attack classification or they offer just a single layer of attack detection. This research focuses on deploying a multi-stage machine learning-based intrusion detection (ML-IDS) in 5G C-RAN that can detect and classify four types of jamming attacks: constant jamming, random jamming, deceptive jamming, and reactive jamming. This deployment enhances security by minimizing the false negatives in C-RAN architectures. The experimental evaluation of the proposed solution is carried out using WSN-DS (Wireless Sensor Networks DataSet), which is a dedicated wireless dataset for intrusion detection. The final classification accuracy of attacks is 94.51% with a 7.84% false negative rate.

Raj A.G.R., Rahul, Sunitha, R., Prasad, H.B..  2020.  Mitigating DDoS Flooding Attacks with Dynamic Path Identifiers in Wireless Network. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :869–874.
The usage of wireless devices is increased from last decade due to its reliable, fast and easy transfer of data. Ensuring the security to these networks is a crucial thing. There are several types of network attacks, in this paper, DDoS attacks on networks and techniques, consequences, effects and prevention methods are focused on. The DDoS attack is carried out by multiple attackers on a system which floods the system with a greater number of incoming requests to the system. The destination system cannot immediately respond to the huge requests, due to this server crashes or halts. To detect, or to avoid such scenarios Intrusion prevention system is designed. The IPS block the network attacker at its first hop and thus reduce the malicious traffic near its source. Intrusion detection system prevents the attack without the prior knowledge of the attacker. The attack is detected at the router side and path is changed to transfer the files. The proposed model is designed to obtain the dynamic path for efficient transmission in wireless neworks.
Zhu, Fangzhou, Liu, Liang, Meng, Weizhi, Lv, Ting, Hu, Simin, Ye, Renjun.  2020.  SCAFFISD: A Scalable Framework for Fine-Grained Identification and Security Detection of Wireless Routers. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1194–1199.

The security of wireless network devices has received widespread attention, but most existing schemes cannot achieve fine-grained device identification. In practice, the security vulnerabilities of a device are heavily depending on its model and firmware version. Motivated by this issue, we propose a universal, extensible and device-independent framework called SCAFFISD, which can provide fine-grained identification of wireless routers. It can generate access rules to extract effective information from the router admin page automatically and perform quick scans for known device vulnerabilities. Meanwhile, SCAFFISD can identify rogue access points (APs) in combination with existing detection methods, with the purpose of performing a comprehensive security assessment of wireless networks. We implement the prototype of SCAFFISD and verify its effectiveness through security scans of actual products.

Hayes, J. Huffman, Payne, J., Essex, E., Cole, K., Alverson, J., Dekhtyar, A., Fang, D., Bernosky, G..  2020.  Towards Improved Network Security Requirements and Policy: Domain-Specific Completeness Analysis via Topic Modeling. 2020 IEEE Seventh International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Requirements Engineering (AIRE). :83—86.

Network security policies contain requirements - including system and software features as well as expected and desired actions of human actors. In this paper, we present a framework for evaluation of textual network security policies as requirements documents to identify areas for improvement. Specifically, our framework concentrates on completeness. We use topic modeling coupled with expert evaluation to learn the complete list of important topics that should be addressed in a network security policy. Using these topics as a checklist, we evaluate (students) a collection of network security policies for completeness, i.e., the level of presence of these topics in the text. We developed three methods for topic recognition to identify missing or poorly addressed topics. We examine network security policies and report the results of our analysis: preliminary success of our approach.

Wagner, T. J., Ford, T. C..  2020.  Metrics to Meet Security Privacy Requirements with Agile Software Development Methods in a Regulated Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :17—23.

This work examines metrics that can be used to measure the ability of agile software development methods to meet security and privacy requirements of communications applications. Many implementations of communication protocols, including those in vehicular networks, occur within regulated environments where agile development methods are traditionally discouraged. We propose a framework and metrics to measure adherence to security, quality and software effectiveness regulations if developers desire the cost and schedule benefits of agile methods. After providing an overview of specific challenges that a regulated environment imposes on communications software development, we proceed to examine the 12 agile principles and how they relate to a regulatory environment. From this review we identify two metrics to measure performance of three key regulatory attributes of software for communications applications, and then recommend an approach of either tools, agile methods or DevOps that is best positioned to satisfy its regulated environment attributes. By considering the recommendations in this paper, managers of software-dominant communications programs in a regulated environment can gain insight into leveraging the benefits of agile methods.

Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
Bloch, M., Barros, J., Rodrigues, M. R. D., McLaughlin, S. W..  2008.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 54:2515–2534.
This paper considers the transmission of confidential data over wireless channels. Based on an information-theoretic formulation of the problem, in which two legitimates partners communicate over a quasi-static fading channel and an eavesdropper observes their transmissions through a second independent quasi-static fading channel, the important role of fading is characterized in terms of average secure communication rates and outage probability. Based on the insights from this analysis, a practical secure communication protocol is developed, which uses a four-step procedure to ensure wireless information-theoretic security: (i) common randomness via opportunistic transmission, (ii) message reconciliation, (iii) common key generation via privacy amplification, and (iv) message protection with a secret key. A reconciliation procedure based on multilevel coding and optimized low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is introduced, which allows to achieve communication rates close to the fundamental security limits in several relevant instances. Finally, a set of metrics for assessing average secure key generation rates is established, and it is shown that the protocol is effective in secure key renewal-even in the presence of imperfect channel state information.
Chrysikos, T., Dagiuklas, T., Kotsopoulos, S..  2010.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for moving users in autonomic networks. 2010 IFIP Wireless Days. :1–5.
This paper studies Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for low-speed mobility in autonomic networks. More specifically, the impact of user movement on the Probability of Non-Zero Secrecy Capacity and Outage Secrecy Capacity for different channel conditions has been investigated. This is accomplished by establishing a link between different user locations and the boundaries of information-theoretic secure communication. Human mobility scenarios are considered, and its impact on physical layer security is examined, considering quasi-static Rayleigh channels for the fading phenomena. Simulation results have shown that the Secrecy Capacity depends on the relative distance of legitimate and illegitimate (eavesdropper) users in reference to the given transmitter.
Bodhe, A., Sangale, A..  2020.  Network Parameter Analysis; ad hoc WSN for Security Protocol with Fuzzy Logic. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :960—963.

The wireless communication has become very vast, important and easy to access nowadays because of less cost associated and easily available mobile devices. It creates a potential threat for the community while accessing some secure information like banking passwords on the unsecured network. This proposed research work expose such a potential threat such as Rogue Access Point (RAP) detection using soft computing prediction tool. Fuzzy logic is used to implement the proposed model to identify the presence of RAP existence in the network.

Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Chai, L., Ren, P., Du, Q..  2020.  A Secure Transmission Scheme Based on Efficient Transmission Fountain Code. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :600–604.

Improving the security of data transmission in wireless channels is a key and challenging problem in wireless communication. This paper presents a data security transmission scheme based on high efficiency fountain code. If the legitimate receiver can decode all the original files before the eavesdropper, it can guarantee the safe transmission of the data, so we use the efficient coding scheme of the fountain code to ensure the efficient transmission of the data, and add the feedback mechanism to the transmission of the fountain code so that the coding scheme can be updated dynamically according to the decoding situation of the legitimate receiver. Simulation results show that the scheme has high security and transmitter transmission efficiency in the presence of eavesdropping scenarios.

Seymen, B., Altop, D. K., Levi, A..  2020.  Augmented Randomness for Secure Key Agreement using Physiological Signals. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

With the help of technological advancements in the last decade, it has become much easier to extensively and remotely observe medical conditions of the patients through wearable biosensors that act as connected nodes on Body Area Networks (BANs). Sensitive nature of the critical data captured and communicated via wireless medium makes it extremely important to process it as securely as possible. In this regard, lightweight security mechanisms are needed to overcome the hardware resource restrictions of biosensors. Random and secure cryptographic key generation and agreement among the biosensors take place at the core of these security mechanisms. In this paper, we propose the SKA-PSAR (Augmented Randomness for Secure Key Agreement using Physiological Signals) system to produce highly random cryptographic keys for the biosensors to secure communication in BANs. Similar to its predecessor SKA-PS protocol by Karaoglan Altop et al., SKA-PSAR also employs physiological signals, such as heart rate and blood pressure, as inputs for the keys and utilizes the set reconciliation mechanism as basic building block. Novel quantization and binarization methods of the proposed SKA-PSAR system distinguish it from SKA-PS by increasing the randomness of the generated keys. Additionally, SKA-PSAR generated cryptographic keys have distinctive and time variant characteristics as well as long enough bit sizes that provides resistance against cryptographic attacks. Moreover, correct key generation rate is above 98% with respect to most of the system parameters, and false key generation rate of 0% have been obtained for all system parameters.

Stępień, K., Poniszewska-Marańda, A..  2020.  Security methods against Black Hole attacks in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–4.
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) are liable to the Black, Worm and Gray Hole attacks because of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and a lack of authority standards. Black Hole attack covers the situation when a malicious node uses its routing protocol in order to publicize itself for having the shortest route to the destination node. This aggressive node publicizes its availability of fresh routes regardless of checking its routing table. The consequences of these attacks could lead not only to the broken infrastructure, but could cause hammering people's lives. This paper aims to investigate and compare methods for preventing such types of attacks in a VANET.
Helluy-Lafont, É, Boé, A., Grimaud, G., Hauspie, M..  2020.  Bluetooth devices fingerprinting using low cost SDR. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :289—294.
Physical fingerprinting is a trending domain in wireless security. Those methods aim at identifying transmitters based on the subtle variations existing in their handling of a communication protocol. They can provide an additional authentication layer, hard to emulate, to improve the security of systems. Software Defined Radios (SDR) are a tool of choice for the fingerprinting, as they virtually enable the analysis of any wireless communication scheme. However, they require expensive computations, and are still complex to handle by newcomers. In this paper, we use low cost SDR to propose a physical-layer fingerprinting approach, that allows recognition of the model of a device performing a Bluetooth scan, with more than 99.8% accuracy in a set of ten devices.
Kasah, N. b H., Aman, A. H. b M., Attarbashi, Z. S. M., Fazea, Y..  2020.  Investigation on 6LoWPAN Data Security for Internet of Things. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–5.
Low-power wireless network technology is one of the main key characteristics in communication systems that are needed by the Internet of Things (IoT). Nowadays, the 6LoWPAN standard is one of the communication protocols which has been identified as an important protocol in IoT applications. Networking technology in 6LoWPAN transfer IPv6 packets efficiently in link-layer framework that is well-defined by IEEE 802.14.5 protocol. 6Lo WPAN development is still having problems such as threats and entrust crises. The most important part when developing this new technology is the challenge to secure the network. Data security is viewed as a major consideration in this network communications. Many researchers are working to secure 6LoWPAN communication by analyzing the architecture and network features. 6LoWPAN security weakness or vulnerability is exposed to various forms of network attack. In this paper, the security solutions for 6LoWPAN have been investigated. The requirements of safety in 6LoWPAN are also presented.
Dung, L. T., Tran, H. T. K., Hoa, N. T. T., Choi, S..  2019.  Analysis of Local Secure Connectivity of Legitimate User in Stochastic Wireless Networks. 2019 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :155—159.
In this paper, we investigate the local secure connectivity in terms of the probability of existing a secure wireless connection between two legitimate users and the isolated security probability of a legitimate user in stochastic wireless networks. Specifically, the closed-form expressions of the probability that there is a secure wireless communication between two legitimate users are derived first. Then, based on these equations, the corresponding isolated secure probability are given. The characteristics of local secure connectivity are examined in four scenarios combined from two wireless channel conditions (deterministic/Rayleigh fading) and two eavesdropper configurations (non-colluding/colluding). All the derived mathematical equations are validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The obtained numerical results in this paper reveal some interesting features of the impact of eavesdropper collusion, wireless channel fading, and density ratio on the secure connection probability and the isolated security probability of legitimate user in stochastic networks.
Tomar, Ravi, Awasthi, Yogesh.  2019.  Prevention Techniques Employed in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering (ICOASE). :192—197.
The paper emphasizes the various aspects of ad-hoc networks. The different types of attacks that affect the system and are prevented by various algorithms mentioned in this paper. Since Ad-hoc wireless networks have no infrastructure and are always unreliable therefore they are subject to many attacks. The black hole attack is seen as one of the dangerous attacks of them. In this attack the malicious node usually absorbs each data packets that are similar to separate holes in everything. Likewise all packets in the network are dropped. For this reason various prevention measures should be employed in the form of routing finding first then the optimization followed by the classification.