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Zhao, Guowei, Zhao, Rui, Wang, Qiang, Xue, Hui, Luo, Fang.  2019.  Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm for Self-Healing of Distribution Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1442–1445.
This paper focuses on how to provide virtual network (VN) with the survivability of node failure. In the SVNE that responds to node failures, the backup mechanism provided by the VN initial mapping method should be as flexible as possible, so that backup resources can be shared among the VNs, thereby providing survivability support for the most VNs with the least backup overhead, which can improve The utilization of backup resources can also improve the survivability of VN to deal with multi-node failures. For the remapping method of virtual networks, it needs to be higher because it involves both remapping of virtual nodes and remapping of related virtual links. The remapping efficiency, so as to restore the affected VN to a normal state as soon as possible, to avoid affecting the user's business experience. Considering that the SVNE method that actively responds to node failures always has a certain degree of backup resource-specific phenomenon, this section provides a SVNE method that passively responds to node failures. This paper mainly introduces the survivability virtual network initial mapping method based on physical node recoverability in this method.
Nguyen, Trinh, Le, Cuong, Yoo, Myungsik.  2019.  A Self-Healing Mechanism for NFV By Leveraging Resource Information Indexing Technique. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :802–804.
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) enables network operators to develop and deploy services to the market in a flexible and timely manner which has never been achieved before. Though NFV has revolutionized the telco industry with many advantages of virtualization technologies, there are challenges need to be taken into account especially the fault recovery. Current implementation of NFV systems offers limited self-healing features such as ping for health check and the recovery procedure is expensive by taking down the whole virtual machine and replacing with a new one. This article proposes a new self-healing mechanism for NFV by leveraging the resource information indexing technique.
Murudkar, Chetana V., Gitlin, Richard D..  2019.  QoE-Driven Anomaly Detection in Self-Organizing Mobile Networks Using Machine Learning. 2019 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS). :1–5.
Current procedures for anomaly detection in self-organizing mobile communication networks use network-centric approaches to identify dysfunctional serving nodes. In this paper, a user-centric approach and a novel methodology for anomaly detection is proposed, where the Quality of Experience (QoE) metric is used to evaluate the end-user experience. The system model demonstrates how dysfunctional serving eNodeBs are successfully detected by implementing a parametric QoE model using machine learning for prediction of user QoE in a network scenario created by the ns-3 network simulator. This approach can play a vital role in the future ultra-dense and green mobile communication networks that are expected to be both self- organizing and self-healing.
Maykot, Arthur S., Aranha Neto, Edison A. C., Oliva, Neimar A..  2019.  Automation of Manual Switches in Distribution Networks Focused on Self-Healing: A Step toward Smart Grids. 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America). :1–4.
This work describes the self-healing systems and their benefits in the power distribution networks, with the objective of indicating which manual switch should become, as a matter of priority, automatic. The computational tool used is based on graph theory, genetic algorithms and multicriteria evaluation. There are benefits for consumers, that will benefit from a more reliable and stable system, and for the utility, that can reduce costs with team field and financial compensations payed to consumers in case of continuity indexes violation. Data from a real distribution network from the state of Sao Paulo will be used as a case study for the application of the methodology.
Liu, Xiaobao, Wu, Qinfang, Sun, Jinhua, Xu, Xia, Wen, Yifan.  2019.  Research on Self-Healing Technology for Faults of Intelligent Distribution Network Communication System. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1404–1408.
The intelligent power communication network is closely connected with the power system, and carries the data transmission and intelligent decision in a series of key services in the power system, which is an important guarantee for the smart power service. The self-healing control (SHC) of the distribution network monitors the data of each device and node in the distribution network in real time, simulates and analyzes the data, and predicts the hidden dangers in the normal operation of the distribution network. Control, control strategies such as correcting recovery and troubleshooting when abnormal or fault conditions occur, reducing human intervention, enabling the distribution network to change from abnormal operating state to normal operating state in time, preventing event expansion and reducing the impact of faults on the grid and users.
Liu, Zhikun, Gui, Canzhi, Ma, Chao.  2019.  Design and Verification of Integrated Ship Monitoring Network with High Reliability and Zero-Time Self-Healing. 2019 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :2348–2351.
The realization principle of zero-time self-healing network communication technology is introduced. According to the characteristics of ship monitoring, an integrated ship monitoring network is designed, which integrates the information of ship monitoring equipment. By setting up a network performance test environment, the information delay of self-healing network switch is tested, and the technical characteristics of "no packet loss" are verified. Zero-time self-healing network communication technology is an innovative technology in the design of ship monitoring network. It will greatly reduce the laying of network cables, reduce the workload of information upgrade and transformation of ships, and has the characteristics of continuous maintenance of the network. It has a wide application prospect.
Leite, Leonardo H. M., do Couto Boaventura, Wallace, de Errico, Luciano, Machado Alessi, Pedro.  2019.  Self-Healing in Distribution Grids Supported by Photovoltaic Dispersed Generation in a Voltage Regulation Perspective. 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America). :1–6.
Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Systems -DGPV - connected to the power distribution grid through electronic inverters can contribute, in an aggregate scenario, to the performance of several power system control functions, notably in self-healing and voltage regulation along a distribution feeder. This paper proposes the use of an optimization method for voltage regulation, focused on reactive power injection control, based on a comprehensive architecture model that coordinates multiple photovoltaic distributed sources to support grid reconfiguration after self-healing action. A sensitivity analysis regarding the performance of voltage regulation, based on a co-simulation of PSCAD and MatLab, shows the effectiveness of using dispersed generation sources to assist grid reconfiguration after disturbances caused by severe faults.
Khalil, Kasem, Eldash, Omar, Kumar, Ashok, Bayoumi, Magdy.  2019.  Self-Healing Approach for Hardware Neural Network Architecture. 2019 IEEE 62nd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :622–625.
Neural Network is used in many applications and guarding its performance against faults is a research challenge. Self-healing neural network is a promising concept for achieving reliability, which is the ability to detect and fix a fault in the system automatically. Most of the current self-healing neural network are based on replication of hardware nodes which causes significant area overhead. The proposed self-healing approach results in a modest area overhead and it is suitable for complex neural network. The proposed method is based on a shared operation and a spare node in each layer which compensates for any faulty node in the layer. Each faulty node will be compensated by its neighbor node, and the neighbor node performs the faulty node as well as its own operations sequentially. In the case the neighbor is faulty, the spare node will compensate for it. The proposed method is implemented using VHDL and the simulation results are obtained using Altira 10 GX FPGA for a different number of nodes. The area overhead is very small for a complex network. The reliability of the proposed method is studied and compared with the traditional neural network.
Hao, Lina, Ng, Bryan.  2019.  Self-Healing Solutions for Wi-Fi Networks to Provide Seamless Handover. 2019 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM). :639–642.
The dynamic nature of the wireless channel poses a challenge to services requiring seamless and uniform network quality of service (QoS). Self-healing, a promising approach under the self-organizing networks (SON) paradigm, and has been shown to deal with unexpected network faults in cellular networks. In this paper, we use simple machine learning (ML) algorithms inspired by SON developments in cellular networks. Evaluation results show that the proposed approach identifies the faulty APs. Our proposed approach improves throughput by 63.6% and reduces packet loss rate by 16.6% compared with standard 802.11.
Firdaus, Muhammad, Haryadi, Sigit, Shalannanda, Wervyan.  2019.  Sleeping Cell Analysis in LTE Network with Self-Healing Approach. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Services, and Applications (TSSA). :261–266.
In cellular network systems, it is commonly found that many errors or failures are caused by non-functioning components or human errors. Most failures are detected by a centralized Operation and Maintenance (OAM) software which will trigger an alarm as a form of warning. In fact, there are conditions when a failure or error occurs, but it cannot be detected by OAM software, which in turn will result in many complaints coming from customers. An event like this is called a sleeping cell, which is a condition where the network has a poor performance but does not generate alarm notifications in the Operation and Maintenance Center. In this paper, sleeping cell analysis was carried out on the LTE network using a self-healing approach to speed up the cell outage detection process. The process of sleeping cell analysis was based on the database of cell performance daily for all eNodeB located in West Java, referring the uplink and downlink values as the main parameters. The acquired database would then be processed and analyzed by the measurement method based on inference statistics, where this method would process a portion of the research data (sample), to draw the conclusions regarding the characteristics of the overall data population. Furthermore, data analysis was performed with signaling ladder diagram (SLD) approach to observe the signaling flow on the network, specifically in the uplink and downlink process, which is the initial indication of a sleeping cell.
Dhanujalakshmi, R., Kartheeban, K..  2019.  Smart and Secure Group Communication in Iot Using Exponential Based Self Healing Group Key Distribution Protocol. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Techniques in Control, Optimization and Signal Processing (INCOS). :1–4.
The major role of Internet of Things is to gather and exchange large amount of data through wireless network. Unreliable wireless network creates insecure connections, so security is very much important in IoT. Self-healing group key distribution protocol can be used to mitigate security issues for unreliable wireless network. It improves communication efficiency. we can recover lost session keys using broadcast message by group members in place of group manager requiring missing key update messages to be transmitted. This study also illustrates about a new E-SGKD protocol that faces many secure problems and uses AES algorithm provides security properties with appropriate storage requirement. We have compromised session key retrieve time to reduce expenses for communication. Output of this paper and simulation is appeal to Zigbee network as it has drastic outcome in communication and storage, the results will be compared with the access polynomial self-healing protocol for analysis process.
Broomandi, Fateme, Ghasemi, Abdorasoul.  2019.  An Improved Cooperative Cell Outage Detection in Self-Healing Het Nets Using Optimal Cooperative Range. 2019 27th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). :1956–1960.
Heterogeneous Networks (Het Nets) are introduced to fulfill the increasing demands of wireless communications. To be manageable, it is expected that these networks are self-organized and in particular, self-healing to detect and relief faults autonomously. In the Cooperative Cell Outage Detection (COD), the Macro-Base Station (MBS) and a group of Femto-Base Stations (FBSs) in a specific range are cooperatively communicating to find out if each FBS is working properly or not. In this paper, we discuss the impacts of the cooperation range on the detection delay and accuracy and then conclude that there is an optimal amount for cooperation range which maximizes detection accuracy. We then derive the optimal cooperative range that improves the detection accuracy by using network parameters such as FBS's transmission power, noise power, shadowing fading factor, and path-loss exponent and investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal cooperative range. The simulation results show the optimal cooperative range that we proposed maximizes the detection accuracy.
Baranov, Nikita, Bashkin, Mikhail, Bashkin, Vladimir.  2019.  Self-Healing Anonymous Routing in Unstable Sensor Networks. 2019 7th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :88–95.
A lightweight decentralized adaptive anonymous routing scheme is presented that combines onion routing for the initial global route request and threshold-based secret sharing for the subsequent local route tuning/healing. The encrypted propagation of the partial routes information allows to handle minor network topology changes locally, without new route requests and with a limited deanonymization of participants. The intermediate node can discover/decrypt the local routing data only together with its designated neigbour (threshold-based secret sharing is used) and only in the event of a topology change.
Shaik, Altaf, Borgaonkar, Ravishankar, Park, Shinjo, Seifert, Jean-Pierre.  2018.  On the Impact of Rogue Base Stations in 4G/LTE Self Organizing Networks. Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :75–86.
Mobile network operators choose Self Organizing Network (SON) concept as a cost-effective method to deploy LTE/4G networks and meet user expectations for high quality of service and bandwidth. The main objective of SON is to introduce automation into network management activities and reduce human intervention. SON enabled LTE networks heavily rely on the information acquired from mobile phones to provide self-configuration, self-optimization, and self-healing features. However, mobile phones can be attacked over-the-air using rogue base stations. In this paper, we carefully study SON related LTE/4G security specifications and reveal several vulnerabilities. Our key idea is to introduce a rogue eNodeB that uses legitimate mobile devices as a covert channel to launch attacks against SON enabled LTE networks. We demonstrate low-cost, practical, silent and persistent Denial of Service attacks against the network and end-users by injecting fake measurement and configuration information into the SON system. An active attacker can shut down network services in 2 km2 area of a city for a certain period of time and also block network services to a selective set of mobile phones in a targeted area of 200 m to 2 km in radius. With the help of low cost tools, we design an experimental setup and evaluate these attacks on commercial networks. We present strategies to mitigate our attacks and outline possible reasons that may explain why these vulnerabilities exist in the system.
Liang, Xinyu, Chen, Xiangzhou, Ding, Huixia, Zhang, Geng, Zhen, Ni.  2018.  Research on Multi Point Self Healing Technology of Optical Channel Based on Wide Area Stability Control and Proposal of Reducing Business Risk Optimization Model. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation. :308–312.
In order to reduce the operation risk of the network and improve the self-healing ability of the real-time wide area control system, this paper presents a link break analysis model of power communication network. This model is based on the research and optimization of multi-point fault self-healing technology about the light channel and combined with the recovery method of single point of failure. According to the definition of risk assessment and the automatic rerouting of basic mechanisms which is based on ASON, the corresponding rerouting triggering mechanism and optimization model is proposed. This measure effectively reduced the operational risk of the business, then further strengthened the robustness and stability of the real-time wide area secure control system that finally ensure the stable and reliable operation of the communication network and the power grid system.
Li, Y., Guan, Z., Xu, C..  2018.  Digital Image Self Restoration Based on Information Hiding. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4368–4372.
With the rapid development of computer networks, multimedia information is widely used, and the security of digital media has drawn much attention. The revised photo as a forensic evidence will distort the truth of the case badly tampered pictures on the social network can have a negative impact on the parties as well. In order to ensure the authenticity and integrity of digital media, self-recovery of digital images based on information hiding is studied in this paper. Jarvis half-tone change is used to compress the digital image and obtain the backup data, and then spread the backup data to generate the reference data. Hash algorithm aims at generating hash data by calling reference data and original data. Reference data and hash data together as a digital watermark scattered embedded in the digital image of the low-effective bits. When the image is maliciously tampered with, the hash bit is used to detect and locate the tampered area, and the image self-recovery is performed by extracting the reference data hidden in the whole image. In this paper, a thorough rebuild quality assessment of self-healing images is performed and better performance than the traditional DCT(Discrete Cosine Transform)quantization truncation approach is achieved. Regardless of the quality of the tampered content, a reference authentication system designed according to the principles presented in this paper allows higher-quality reconstruction to recover the original image with good quality even when the large area of the image is tampered.
Refaat, S. S., Mohamed, A., Kakosimos, P..  2018.  Self-Healing control strategy; Challenges and opportunities for distribution systems in smart grid. 2018 IEEE 12th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG 2018). :1–6.
Implementation of self-healing control system in smart grid is a persisting challenge. Self-Healing control strategy is the important guarantee to implement the smart grid. In addition, it is the support of achieving the secure operation, improving the reliability and security of distribution grid, and realizing the smart distribution grid. Although self-healing control system concept is presented in smart grid context, but the complexity of distribution network structure recommended to choose advanced control and protection system using a self-healing, this system must be able to heal any disturbance in the distribution system of smart grid to improve efficiency, resiliency, continuity, and reliability of the smart grid. This review focuses mostly on the key technology of self-healing control, gives an insight into the role of self-healing in distribution system advantages, study challenges and opportunities in the prospect of utilities. The main contribution of this paper is demonstrating proposed architecture, control strategy for self-healing control system includes fault detection, fault localization, faulted area isolation, and power restoration in the electrical distribution system.
Hasan, K., Shetty, S., Hassanzadeh, A., Salem, M. B., Chen, J..  2018.  Self-Healing Cyber Resilient Framework for Software Defined Networking-Enabled Energy Delivery System. 2018 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1692–1697.
Software defined networking (SDN) is a networking paradigm to provide automated network management at run time through network orchestration and virtualization. SDN can also enhance system resilience through recovery from failures and maintaining critical operations during cyber attacks. SDN's self-healing mechanisms can be leveraged to realized autonomous attack containment, which dynamically modifies access control rules based on configurable trust levels. In this paper, we present an approach to aid in selection of security countermeasures dynamically in an SDN enabled Energy Delivery System (EDS) and achieving tradeoff between providing security and QoS. We present the modeling of security cost based on end-to-end packet delay and throughput. We propose a non-dominated sorting based multi-objective optimization framework which can be implemented within an SDN controller to address the joint problem of optimizing between security and QoS parameters by alleviating time complexity at O(M N2), where M is the number of objective functions and N is the number of population for each generation respectively. We present simulation results which illustrate how data availability and data integrity can be achieved while maintaining QoS constraints.
Jaatun, M. G., Moe, M. E. Gaup, Nordbø, P. E..  2018.  Cyber Security Considerations for Self-healing Smart Grid Networks. 2018 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–7.
Fault Location, Isolation and System Restoration (FLISR) mechanisms allow for rapid restoration of power to customers that are not directly implicated by distribution network failures. However, depending on where the logic for the FLISR system is located, deployment may have security implications for the distribution network. This paper discusses alternative FLISR placements in terms of cyber security considerations, concluding that there is a case for both local and centralized FLISR solutions.
Ali-Tolppa, J., Kocsis, S., Schultz, B., Bodrog, L., Kajo, M..  2018.  SELF-HEALING AND RESILIENCE IN FUTURE 5G COGNITIVE AUTONOMOUS NETWORKS. 2018 ITU Kaleidoscope: Machine Learning for a 5G Future (ITU K). :1–8.
In the Self-Organizing Networks (SON) concept, self-healing functions are used to detect, diagnose and correct degraded states in the managed network functions or other resources. Such methods are increasingly important in future network deployments, since ultra-high reliability is one of the key requirements for the future 5G mobile networks, e.g. in critical machine-type communication. In this paper, we discuss the considerations for improving the resiliency of future cognitive autonomous mobile networks. In particular, we present an automated anomaly detection and diagnosis function for SON self-healing based on multi-dimensional statistical methods, case-based reasoning and active learning techniques. Insights from both the human expert and sophisticated machine learning methods are combined in an iterative way. Additionally, we present how a more holistic view on mobile network self-healing can improve its performance.
Pournaras, E., Ballandies, M., Acharya, D., Thapa, M., Brandt, B..  2018.  Prototyping Self-Managed Interdependent Networks - Self-Healing Synergies against Cascading Failures. 2018 IEEE/ACM 13th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :119–129.
The interconnection of networks between several techno-socio-economic sectors such as energy, transport, and communication, questions the manageability and resilience of the digital society. System interdependencies alter the fundamental dynamics that govern isolated systems, which can unexpectedly trigger catastrophic instabilities such as cascading failures. This paper envisions a general-purpose, yet simple prototyping of self-management software systems that can turn system interdependencies from a cause of instability to an opportunity for higher resilience. Such prototyping proves to be challenging given the highly interdisciplinary scope of interdependent networks. Different system dynamics and organizational constraints such as the distributed nature of interdependent networks or the autonomy and authority of system operators over their controlled infrastructure perplex the design for a general prototyping approach, which earlier work has not yet addressed. This paper contributes such a modular design solution implemented as an open source software extension of SFINA, the Simulation Framework for Intelligent Network Adaptations. The applicability of the software artifact is demonstrated with the introduction of a novel self-healing mechanism for interdependent power networks, which optimizes power flow exchanges between a damaged and a healer network to mitigate power cascading failures. Results show a significant decrease in the damage spread by self-healing synergies, while the degree of interconnectivity between the power networks indicates a tradeoff between links survivability and load served. The contributions of this paper aspire to bring closer several research communities working on modeling and simulation of different domains with an economic and societal impact on the resilience of real-world interdependent networks.
Messai, M. L., Seba, H..  2017.  A Self-Healing Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Multi-Phase Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :144–151.

Node compromising is still the most hard attack in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It affects key distribution which is a building block in securing communications in any network. The weak point of several roposed key distribution schemes in WSNs is their lack of resilience to node compromising attacks. When a node is compromised, all its key material is revealed leading to insecure communication links throughout the network. This drawback is more harmful for long-lived WSNs that are deployed in multiple phases, i.e., Multi-phase WSNs (MPWSNs). In the last few years, many key management schemes were proposed to ensure security in WSNs. However, these schemes are conceived for single phase WSNs and their security degrades with time when an attacker captures nodes. To deal with this drawback and enhance the resilience to node compromising over the whole lifetime of the network, we propose in this paper, a new key pre-distribution scheme adapted to MPWSNs. Our scheme takes advantage of the resilience improvement of Q-composite key scheme and adds self-healing which is the ability of the scheme to decrease the effect of node compromising over time. Self-healing is achieved by pre-distributing each generation with fresh keys. The evaluation of our scheme proves that it has a good key connectivity and a high resilience to node compromising attack compared to existing key management schemes.

Mfula, H., Nurminen, J. K..  2017.  Adaptive Root Cause Analysis for Self-Healing in 5G Networks. 2017 International Conference on High Performance Computing Simulation (HPCS). :136–143.

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a common and recurring task performed by operators of cellular networks. It is done mainly to keep customers satisfied with the quality of offered services and to maximize return on investment (ROI) by minimizing and where possible eliminating the root causes of faults in cellular networks. Currently, the actual detection and diagnosis of faults or potential faults is still a manual and slow process often carried out by network experts who manually analyze and correlate various pieces of network data such as, alarms, call traces, configuration management (CM) and key performance indicator (KPI) data in order to come up with the most probable root cause of a given network fault. In this paper, we propose an automated fault detection and diagnosis solution called adaptive root cause analysis (ARCA). The solution uses measurements and other network data together with Bayesian network theory to perform automated evidence based RCA. Compared to the current common practice, our solution is faster due to automation of the entire RCA process. The solution is also cheaper because it needs fewer or no personnel in order to operate and it improves efficiency through domain knowledge reuse during adaptive learning. As it uses a probabilistic Bayesian classifier, it can work with incomplete data and it can handle large datasets with complex probability combinations. Experimental results from stratified synthesized data affirmatively validate the feasibility of using such a solution as a key part of self-healing (SH) especially in emerging self-organizing network (SON) based solutions in LTE Advanced (LTE-A) and 5G.

Fan, Z., Wu, H., Xu, J., Tang, Y..  2017.  An Optimization Algorithm for Spatial Information Network Self-Healing Based on Software Defined Network. 2017 12th International Conference on Computer Science and Education (ICCSE). :369–374.

Spatial information network is an important part of the integrated space-terrestrial information network, its bearer services are becoming increasingly complex, and real-time requirements are also rising. Due to the structural vulnerability of the spatial information network and the dynamics of the network, this poses a serious challenge to how to ensure reliable and stable data transmission. The structural vulnerability of the spatial information network and the dynamics of the network brings a serious challenge of ensuring reliable and stable data transmission. Software Defined Networking (SDN), as a new network architecture, not only can quickly adapt to new business, but also make network reconfiguration more intelligent. In this paper, SDN is used to design the spatial information network architecture. An optimization algorithm for network self-healing based on SDN is proposed to solve the failure of switching node. With the guarantee of Quality of Service (QoS) requirement, the link is updated with the least link to realize the fast network reconfiguration and recovery. The simulation results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the delay caused by fault recovery.

Chang, C. H., Hu, C. H., Tsai, C. H., Hsieh, C. Y..  2017.  Three-Layer Ring Optical Fiber Sensing Network with Self-Healing Functionality. 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR). :1–2.

A novel optical fiber sensing network is proposed to eliminate the effect of multiple fiber failures. Simulation results show that if the number of breakpoint in each subnet is less than four, the optical routing paths can be reset to avoid those breakpoints by changing the status of optical switches in the remote nodes.