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2021-10-12
Sun, Yuxin, Zhang, Yingzhou, Zhu, Linlin.  2020.  An Anti-Collusion Fingerprinting based on CFF Code and RS Code. 2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :56–63.
Data security is becoming more and more important in data exchange. Once the data is leaked, it will pose a great threat to the privacy and property security of users. Copyright authentication and data provenance have become an important requirement of the information security defense mechanism. In order to solve the collusion leakage of the data distributed by organization and the low efficiency of tracking the leak provenance after the data is destroyed, this paper proposes a concatenated-group digital fingerprint coding based on CFF code and Reed-solomon (RS) that can resist collusion attacks and corresponding detection algorithm. The experiments based on an asymmetric anti-collusion fingerprint protocol show that the proposed method has better performance to resist collusion attacks than similar non-grouped fingerprint coding and effectively reduces the percentage of misjudgment, which verifies the availability of the algorithm and enriches the means of organization data security audit.
2021-10-04
Reshikeshan, Sree Subiksha M., Illindala, Mahesh S..  2020.  Systematically Encoded Polynomial Codes to Detect and Mitigate High-Status-Number Attacks in Inter-Substation GOOSE Communications. 2020 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. :1–7.
Inter-substation Generic Object Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE) communications that are used for critical protection functions have several cyber-security vulnerabilities. GOOSE messages are directly mapped to the Layer 2 Ethernet without network and transport layer headers that provide data encapsulation. The high-status-number attack is a malicious attack on GOOSE messages that allows hackers to completely take over intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) subscribing to GOOSE communications. The status-number parameter of GOOSE messages, stNum is tampered with in these attacks. Given the strict delivery time requirement of 3 ms for GOOSE messaging, it is infeasible to encrypt the GOOSE payload. This work proposes to secure the sensitive stNum parameter of the GOOSE payload using systematically encoded polynomial codes. Exploiting linear codes allows for the security features to be encoded in linear time, in contrast to complex hashing algorithms. At the subscribing IED, the security feature is used to verify that the stNum parameter has not been tampered with during transmission in the insecure medium. The decoding and verification using syndrome computation at the subscriber IED is also accomplished in linear time.
2021-09-16
Ambareen, Javeria, M, Prabhakar, Ara, Tabassum.  2020.  Edge Data Security for RFID-Based Devices. 2020 International Conference on Smart Technologies in Computing, Electrical and Electronics (ICSTCEE). :272–277.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has become a preferred technology for monitoring in industrial internet of things (IIoT) applications like supply chain, medical industry, vehicle tracking and warehouse monitoring where information is required continually. Typical security threats seen in these applications are denial of service (DOS) attack, transmission attack etc. We propose a novel edge data security schema based on spike modulation along with backscatter communication technique to modulate both sensor and identification (ID) information. It is observed that this data encoding schema works well even in a multi-tag single-reader environment. Further, it uses lower power and offers a low-cost solution for Industrial IoT applications.
2021-08-31
Shaik, Enaul haq, Rangaswamy, Nakkeeran.  2020.  Implementation of Quantum Gates based Logic Circuits using IBM Qiskit. 2020 5th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS). :1—6.
Quantum computing is an emerging field that depends upon the basic properties of quantum physics and principles of classical systems. This leads a way to develop systems to solve complex problems that a classical system cannot do. In this article, we present simple methods to implement logic circuits using quantum gates. Logic gates and circuits are defined with quantum gates using Qiskit in Python. Later, they are verified with quantum circuits created by using IBM Quantum. Moreover, we propose a way of instantiating the basic logic circuits to design high-end logic expressions. As per our knowledge, the proposed simple approach may be helpful to solve the complex logical problems in near future.
Adamov, Alexander, Carlsson, Anders.  2020.  Reinforcement Learning for Anti-Ransomware Testing. 2020 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1–5.
In this paper, we are going to verify the possibility to create a ransomware simulation that will use an arbitrary combination of known tactics and techniques to bypass an anti-malware defense. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment in which an agent was trained with the help of reinforcement learning to run the ransomware simulator in a way that can bypass anti-ransomware solution and encrypt the target files. The novelty of the proposed method lies in applying reinforcement learning to anti-ransomware testing that may help to identify weaknesses in the anti-ransomware defense and fix them before a real attack happens.
2021-07-27
Yang, Chien-Sheng, Avestimehr, A. Salman.  2020.  Coded Computing for Boolean Functions. 2020 International Symposium on Information Theory and Its Applications (ISITA). :141–145.
The growing size of modern datasets necessitates splitting a large scale computation into smaller computations and operate in a distributed manner for improving overall performance. However, adversarial servers in a distributed computing system deliberately send erroneous data in order to affect the computation for their benefit. Computing Boolean functions is the key component of many applications of interest, e.g., classification problem, verification functions in the blockchain and the design of cryptographic algorithm. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing a Boolean function in which the computation is carried out distributively across several workers with particular focus on security against Byzantine workers. We note that any Boolean function can be modeled as a multivariate polynomial which can have high degree in general. Hence, the recently proposed Lagrange Coded Computing (LCC) can be used to simultaneously provide resiliency, security, and privacy. However, the security threshold (i.e., the maximum number of adversarial workers that can be tolerated) provided by LCC can be extremely low if the degree of the polynomial is high. Our goal is to design an efficient coding scheme which achieves the optimal security threshold. We propose two novel schemes called coded Algebraic normal form (ANF) and coded Disjunctive normal form (DNF). Instead of modeling the Boolean function as a general polynomial, the key idea of the proposed schemes is to model it as the concatenation of some linear functions and threshold functions. The proposed coded ANF and coded DNF outperform LCC by providing the security threshold which is independent of the polynomial's degree.
Sengupta, Poushali, Paul, Sudipta, Mishra, Subhankar.  2020.  BUDS: Balancing Utility and Differential Privacy by Shuffling. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
Balancing utility and differential privacy by shuffling or BUDS is an approach towards crowd sourced, statistical databases, with strong privacy and utility balance using differential privacy theory. Here, a novel algorithm is proposed using one-hot encoding and iterative shuffling with the loss estimation and risk minimization techniques, to balance both the utility and privacy. In this work, after collecting one-hot encoded data from different sources and clients, a step of novel attribute shuffling technique using iterative shuffling (based on the query asked by the analyst) and loss estimation with an updation function and risk minimization produces a utility and privacy balanced differential private report. During empirical test of balanced utility and privacy, BUDS produces ε = 0.02 which is a very promising result. Our algorithm maintains a privacy bound of ε = ln[t/((n1-1)S)] and loss bound of c'\textbackslashtextbareln[t/((n1-1)S)]-1\textbackslashtextbar.
Islam, M., Rahaman, S., Meng, N., Hassanshahi, B., Krishnan, P., Yao, D. D..  2020.  Coding Practices and Recommendations of Spring Security for Enterprise Applications. 2020 IEEE Secure Development (SecDev). :49—57.
Spring security is tremendously popular among practitioners for its ease of use to secure enterprise applications. In this paper, we study the application framework misconfiguration vulnerabilities in the light of Spring security, which is relatively understudied in the existing literature. Towards that goal, we identify 6 types of security anti-patterns and 4 insecure vulnerable defaults by conducting a measurement-based approach on 28 Spring applications. Our analysis shows that security risks associated with the identified security anti-patterns and insecure defaults can leave the enterprise application vulnerable to a wide range of high-risk attacks. To prevent these high-risk attacks, we also provide recommendations for practitioners. Consequently, our study has contributed one update to the official Spring security documentation while other security issues identified in this study are being considered for future major releases by Spring security community.
2021-06-30
Wang, Xiaodong, Jiao, Wenzhe, Yang, Huan, Guo, Lin, Ye, Xiaoxue, Guo, Yangming.  2020.  Algebraic Signature Based Data Possession Checking Method with Cloud Storage. 2020 11th International Conference on Prognostics and System Health Management (PHM-2020 Jinan). :11—16.
Cloud computing has been envisioned as a next generation information technology (IT) paradigm. The risk of losing data stored with any untrustworthy service provider is the key barrier to widespread uptake of cloud computing. This paper proposes an algebraic signature based remote data possession checking (RDPC) scheme to verify the integrity of the data stored in the cloud. This scheme integrates forward error-correcting codes to enhance the data possession guarantee, which can recover the data when a small amount of file has been deleted. The scheme allows verification without the need for the auditor to compare against the original data, which reduces the communication complexity dramatically. The storage complexity of cloud user is reduced to several bytes' information. Extensive security analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly provably secure. Finally, experiment results reveal that the computation performance is effective, and bounded by disk I/O.
DelVecchio, Matthew, Flowers, Bryse, Headley, William C..  2020.  Effects of Forward Error Correction on Communications Aware Evasion Attacks. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1—7.
Recent work has shown the impact of adversarial machine learning on deep neural networks (DNNs) developed for Radio Frequency Machine Learning (RFML) applications. While these attacks have been shown to be successful in disrupting the performance of an eavesdropper, they fail to fully support the primary goal of successful intended communication. To remedy this, a communications-aware attack framework was recently developed that allows for a more effective balance between the opposing goals of evasion and intended communication through the novel use of a DNN to intelligently create the adversarial communication signal. Given the near ubiquitous usage of for-ward error correction (FEC) coding in the majority of deployed systems to correct errors that arise, incorporating FEC in this framework is a natural extension of this prior work and will allow for improved performance in more adverse environments. This work therefore provides contributions to the framework through improved loss functions and design considerations to incorporate inherent knowledge of the usage of FEC codes within the transmitted signal. Performance analysis shows that FEC coding improves the communications aware adversarial attack even if no explicit knowledge of the coding scheme is assumed and allows for improved performance over the prior art in balancing the opposing goals of evasion and intended communications.
2021-06-24
Gamagedara Arachchilage, Nalin Asanka, Hameed, Mumtaz Abdul.  2020.  Designing a Serious Game: Teaching Developers to Embed Privacy into Software Systems. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshops (ASEW). :7—12.
Software applications continue to challenge user privacy when users interact with them. Privacy practices (e.g. Data Minimisation (DM), Privacy by Design (PbD) or General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)) and related “privacy engineering” methodologies exist and provide clear instructions for developers to implement privacy into software systems they develop that preserve user privacy. However, those practices and methodologies are not yet a common practice in the software development community. There has been no previous research focused on developing “educational” interventions such as serious games to enhance software developers' coding behaviour. Therefore, this research proposes a game design framework as an educational tool for software developers to improve (secure) coding behaviour, so they can develop privacy-preserving software applications that people can use. The elements of the proposed framework were incorporated into a gaming application scenario that enhances the software developers' coding behaviour through their motivation. The proposed work not only enables the development of privacy-preserving software systems but also helping the software development community to put privacy guidelines and engineering methodologies into practice.
2021-06-01
Zhu, Luqi, Wang, Jin, Shi, Lianmin, Zhou, Jingya, Lu, Kejie, Wang, Jianping.  2020.  Secure Coded Matrix Multiplication Against Cooperative Attack in Edge Computing. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :547–556.
In recent years, the computation security of edge computing has been raised as a major concern since the edge devices are often distributed on the edge of the network, less trustworthy than cloud servers and have limited storage/ computation/ communication resources. Recently, coded computing has been proposed to protect the confidentiality of computing data under edge device's independent attack and minimize the total cost (resource consumption) of edge system. In this paper, for the cooperative attack, we design an efficient scheme to ensure the information-theory security (ITS) of user's data and further reduce the total cost of edge system. Specifically, we take matrix multiplication as an example, which is an important module appeared in many application operations. Moreover, we theoretically analyze the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of feasible scheme, prove the security and decodeability of the proposed scheme. We also prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme through considerable simulation experiments. Compared with the existing schemes, the proposed scheme further reduces the total cost of edge system. The experiments also show a trade-off between storage and communication.
2021-05-18
Feng, Qi, Feng, Chendong, Hong, Weijiang.  2020.  Graph Neural Network-based Vulnerability Predication. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME). :800–801.
Automatic vulnerability detection is challenging. In this paper, we report our in-progress work of vulnerability prediction based on graph neural network (GNN). We propose a general GNN-based framework for predicting the vulnerabilities in program functions. We study the different instantiations of the framework in representative program graph representations, initial node encodings, and GNN learning methods. The preliminary experimental results on a representative benchmark indicate that the GNN-based method can improve the accuracy and recall rates of vulnerability prediction.
2021-05-05
Jana, Angshuman, Maity, Dipendu.  2020.  Code-based Analysis Approach to Detect and Prevent SQL Injection Attacks. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—6.

Now-a-days web applications are everywhere. Usually these applications are developed by database program which are often written in popular host programming languages such as C, C++, C\#, Java, etc., with embedded Structured Query Language (SQL). These applications are used to access and process crucial data with the help of Database Management System (DBMS). Preserving the sensitive data from any kind of attacks is one of the prime factors that needs to be maintained by the web applications. The SQL injection attacks is one of the important security threat for the web applications. In this paper, we propose a code-based analysis approach to automatically detect and prevent the possible SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIA) in a query before submitting it to the underlying database. This approach analyses the user input by assigning a complex number to each input element. It has two part (i) input clustering and (ii) safe (non-malicious) input identification. We provide a details discussion of the proposal w.r.t the literature on security and execution overhead point of view.

Konwar, Kishori M., Kumar, Saptaparni, Tseng, Lewis.  2020.  Semi-Fast Byzantine-tolerant Shared Register without Reliable Broadcast. 2020 IEEE 40th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :743—753.
Shared register emulations on top of message-passing systems provide an illusion of a simpler shared memory system which can make the task of a system designer easier. Numerous shared register applications have a considerably high read-to-write ratio. Thus, having algorithms that make reads more efficient than writes is a fair trade-off.Typically, such algorithms for reads and writes are asymmetric and sacrifice the stringent consistency condition atomicity, as it is impossible to have fast reads for multi-writer atomicity. Safety is a consistency condition that has has gathered interest from both the systems and theory community as it is weaker than atomicity yet provides strong enough guarantees like "strong consistency" or read-my-write consistency. One requirement that is assumed by many researchers is that of the reliable broadcast (RB) primitive, which ensures the "all or none" property during a broadcast. One drawback is that such a primitive takes 1.5 rounds to complete and requires server-to-server communication.This paper implements an efficient multi-writer multi-reader safe register without using a reliable broadcast primitive. Moreover, we provide fast reads or one-shot reads – our read operations can be completed in one round of client-to-server communication. Of course, this comes with the price of requiring more servers when compared to prior solutions assuming reliable broadcast. However, we show that this increased number of servers is indeed necessary as we prove a tight bound on the number of servers required to implement Byzantine-fault tolerant safe registers in a system without reliable broadcast.We extend our results to data stored using erasure coding as well. We present an emulation of single-writer multi-reader safe register based on MDS codes. The usage of MDS codes reduces storage and communication costs. On the negative side, we also show that to use MDS codes and at the same time achieve one-shot reads, we need even more servers.
Zhang, Qiao-Jia, Ye, Qing, Yuan, Zhi-Min, Li, Liang.  2020.  Fast HEVC Selective Encryption Scheme Based on Improved CABAC Coding Algorithm. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1022—1028.

Context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is the only entropy coding method in HEVC. According to statistics, CABAC encoders account for more than 25% of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) coding time. Therefore, the improved CABAC algorithm can effectively improve the coding speed of HEVC. On this basis, a selective encryption scheme based on the improved CABAC algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the improved CABAC algorithm is used to optimize the regular mode encoding, and then the cryptographic algorithm is used to selectively encrypt the syntax elements in bypass mode encoding. The experimental results show that the encoding time is reduced by nearly 10% when there is great interference to the video information. The scheme is both safe and effective.

2021-05-03
Luo, Lan, Zhang, Yue, Zou, Cliff, Shao, Xinhui, Ling, Zhen, Fu, Xinwen.  2020.  On Runtime Software Security of TrustZone-M Based IoT Devices. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been increasingly integrated into our daily life. However, such smart devices suffer a broad attack surface. Particularly, attacks targeting the device software at runtime are challenging to defend against if IoT devices use resource-constrained microcontrollers (MCUs). TrustZone-M, a TrustZone extension for MCUs, is an emerging security technique fortifying MCU based IoT devices. This paper presents the first security analysis of potential software security issues in TrustZone-M enabled MCUs. We explore the stack-based buffer overflow (BOF) attack for code injection, return-oriented programming (ROP) attack, heap-based BOF attack, format string attack, and attacks against Non-secure Callable (NSC) functions in the context of TrustZone-M. We validate these attacks using the Microchip SAM L11 MCU, which uses the ARM Cortex-M23 processor with the TrustZone-M technology. Strategies to mitigate these software attacks are also discussed.
2021-04-27
Calzavara, S., Focardi, R., Grimm, N., Maffei, M., Tempesta, M..  2020.  Language-Based Web Session Integrity. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :107—122.
Session management is a fundamental component of web applications: despite the apparent simplicity, correctly implementing web sessions is extremely tricky, as witnessed by the large number of existing attacks. This motivated the design of formal methods to rigorously reason about web session security which, however, are not supported at present by suitable automated verification techniques. In this paper we introduce the first security type system that enforces session security on a core model of web applications, focusing in particular on server-side code. We showcase the expressiveness of our type system by analyzing the session management logic of HotCRP, Moodle, and phpMyAdmin, unveiling novel security flaws that have been acknowledged by software developers.
2021-04-08
Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
2021-03-15
Hwang, S., Ryu, S..  2020.  Gap between Theory and Practice: An Empirical Study of Security Patches in Solidity. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :542–553.
Ethereum, one of the most popular blockchain platforms, provides financial transactions like payments and auctions through smart contracts. Due to the immense interest in smart contracts in academia, the research community of smart contract security has made a significant improvement recently. Researchers have reported various security vulnerabilities in smart contracts, and developed static analysis tools and verification frameworks to detect them. However, it is unclear whether such great efforts from academia has indeed enhanced the security of smart contracts in reality. To understand the security level of smart contracts in the wild, we empirically studied 55,046 real-world Ethereum smart contracts written in Solidity, the most popular programming language used by Ethereum smart contract developers. We first examined how many well-known vulnerabilities the Solidity compiler has patched, and how frequently the Solidity team publishes compiler releases. Unfortunately, we observed that many known vulnerabilities are not yet patched, and some patches are not even sufficient to avoid their target vulnerabilities. Subsequently, we investigated whether smart contract developers use the most recent compiler with vulnerabilities patched. We reported that developers of more than 98% of real-world Solidity contracts still use older compilers without vulnerability patches, and more than 25% of the contracts are potentially vulnerable due to the missing security patches. To understand actual impacts of the missing patches, we manually investigated potentially vulnerable contracts that are detected by our static analyzer and identified common mistakes by Solidity developers, which may cause serious security issues such as financial loss. We detected hundreds of vulnerable contracts and about one fourth of the vulnerable contracts are used by thousands of people. We recommend the Solidity team to make patches that resolve known vulnerabilities correctly, and developers to use the latest Solidity compiler to avoid missing security patches.
Chai, L., Ren, P., Du, Q..  2020.  A Secure Transmission Scheme Based on Efficient Transmission Fountain Code. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :600–604.

Improving the security of data transmission in wireless channels is a key and challenging problem in wireless communication. This paper presents a data security transmission scheme based on high efficiency fountain code. If the legitimate receiver can decode all the original files before the eavesdropper, it can guarantee the safe transmission of the data, so we use the efficient coding scheme of the fountain code to ensure the efficient transmission of the data, and add the feedback mechanism to the transmission of the fountain code so that the coding scheme can be updated dynamically according to the decoding situation of the legitimate receiver. Simulation results show that the scheme has high security and transmitter transmission efficiency in the presence of eavesdropping scenarios.

Xiong, J., Zhang, L..  2020.  Simplified Calculation of Bhattacharyya Parameters in Polar Codes. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :169–173.
The construction of polar code refers to selecting K "most reliable polarizing channels" in N polarizing channels to WN(1)transmit information bits. For non-systematic polar code, Arikan proposed a method to measure the channel reliability for BEC channel, which is called Bhattacharyya Parameter method. The calculated complexity of this method is O(N) . In this paper, we find the complementarity of Bhattacharyya Parameter. According to the complementarity, the code construction under a certain channel condition can be quickly deduced from the complementary channel condition.
2021-03-04
Amadori, A., Michiels, W., Roelse, P..  2020.  Automating the BGE Attack on White-Box Implementations of AES with External Encodings. 2020 IEEE 10th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). :1—6.

Cloud-based payments, virtual car keys, and digital rights management are examples of consumer electronics applications that use secure software. White-box implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are important building blocks of secure software systems, and the attack of Billet, Gilbert, and Ech-Chatbi (BGE) is a well-known attack on such implementations. A drawback from the adversary’s or security tester’s perspective is that manual reverse engineering of the implementation is required before the BGE attack can be applied. This paper presents a method to automate the BGE attack on a class of white-box AES implementations with a specific type of external encoding. The new method was implemented and applied successfully to a CHES 2016 capture the flag challenge.

2021-03-01
Chakravarty, S., Hopkins, A..  2020.  LoRa Mesh Network with BeagleBone Black. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :306–311.
This paper investigates the use of BeagleBone Black Wireless single-board Linux computers with Long Range (LoRa) transceivers to send and receive information in a mesh network while one of the transmitting/receiving nodes is acting as a relay in the system. An experiment is conducted to examine how long each LoRa node needed to learn the transmission intervals of any other transmitting nodes on the network and to synchronize with the other nodes prior to transmission. The spread factor, bandwidth, and coding rate are all varied for a total of 18 different combinations. A link to the Python code used on the BeagleBone Black is provided at the end of this paper. The best parameter combinations for each individual node and for the system as a whole is investigated. Additional experiments and applications of this technology are explored in the conclusions.
2021-02-23
Zheng, L., Jiang, J., Pan, W., Liu, H..  2020.  High-Performance and Range-Supported Packet Classification Algorithm for Network Security Systems in SDN. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.
Packet classification is a key function in network security systems in SDN, which detect potential threats by matching the packet header bits and a given rule set. It needs to support multi-dimensional fields, large rule sets, and high throughput. Bit Vector-based packet classification methods can support multi-field matching and achieve a very high throughput, However, the range matching is still challenging. To address issue, this paper proposes a Range Supported Bit Vector (RSBV) algorithm for processing the range fields. RSBV uses specially designed codes to store the pre-computed results in memory, and the result of range matching is derived through pipelined Boolean operations. Through a two-dimensional modular architecture, the RSBV can operate at a high clock frequency and line-rate processing can be guaranteed. Experimental results show that for a 1K and 512-bit OpenFlow rule set, the RSBV can sustain a throughput of 520 Million Packets Per Second.