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2021-05-25
Ajorlou, Amir, Abbasfar, Aliazam.  2020.  An Optimized Structure of State Channel Network to Improve Scalability of Blockchain Algorithms. 2020 17th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :73—76.
Nowadays, blockchain is very common and widely used in various fields. The properties of blockchain-based algorithms such as being decentralized and uncontrolled by institutions and governments, are the main reasons that has attracted many applications. The security and the scalability limitations are the main challenges for the development of these systems. Using second layer network is one of the various methods proposed to improve the scalability of these systems. This network can increase the total number of transactions per second by creating extra channels between the nodes that operate in a different layer not obligated to be on consensus ledger. In this paper, the optimal structure for the second layer network has been presented. In the proposed structure we try to distribute the parameters of the second layer network as symmetrically as possible. To prove the optimality of this structure we first introduce the maximum scalability bound, and then calculate it for the proposed structure. This paper will show how the second layer method can improve the scalability without any information about the rate of transactions between nodes.
2021-05-18
Hasslinger, Gerhard, Ntougias, Konstantinos, Hasslinger, Frank, Hohlfeld, Oliver.  2020.  General Knapsack Bounds of Web Caching Performance Regarding the Properties of each Cacheable Object. 2020 IFIP Networking Conference (Networking). :821–826.
Caching strategies have been evaluated and compared in many studies, most often via simulation, but also in analytic methods. Knapsack solutions provide a general analytical approach for upper bounds on web caching performance. They assume objects of maximum (value/size) ratio being selected as cache content, with flexibility to define the caching value. Therefore the popularity, cost, size, time-to-live restrictions etc. per object can be included an overall caching goal, e.g., for reducing delay and/or transport path length in content delivery. The independent request model (IRM) leads to basic knapsack bounds for static optimum cache content. We show that a 2-dimensional (2D-)knapsack solution covers arbitrary request pattern, which selects dynamically changing content yielding maximum caching value for any predefined request sequence. Moreover, Belady's optimum strategy for clairvoyant caching is identified as a special case of our 2D-knapsack solution when all objects are unique. We also summarize a comprehensive picture of the demands and efficiency criteria for web caching, including updating speed and overheads. Our evaluations confirm significant performance gaps from LRU to advanced GreedyDual and score-based web caching methods and to the knapsack bounds.
2021-04-08
Vyetrenko, S., Khosla, A., Ho, T..  2009.  On combining information-theoretic and cryptographic approaches to network coding security against the pollution attack. 2009 Conference Record of the Forty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. :788–792.
In this paper we consider the pollution attack in network coded systems where network nodes are computationally limited. We consider the combined use of cryptographic signature based security and information theoretic network error correction and propose a fountain-like network error correction code construction suitable for this purpose.
2021-02-15
Taşkın, H. K., Cenk, M..  2020.  TMVP-Friendly Primes for Efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 2020 International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCTURKEY). :80–87.
The need for faster and practical cryptography is a research topic for decades. In case of elliptic curve cryptography, which was proposed by Koblitz and Miller in 1985 as a more efficient alternative to RSA, the applications in real life started after 2000s. Today, most of the popular applications and protocols like Whatsapp, Signal, iOS, Android, TLS, SSH, Bitcoin etc. make use of Elliptic curve cryptography. One of the important factor for high performance elliptic curve cryptography is the finite field multiplication. In this paper, we first describe how to choose proper prime fields that makes use of Topelitz-matrices to get faster field multiplication, then we give parameter choice details to select prime fields that supports Toeplitz-matrix vector product operations. Then, we introduce the safe curve selection rationale and discuss about security. We propose new curves, discuss implementation and benchmark results and conclude our work.
2020-09-18
Kleckler, Michelle, Mohajer, Soheil.  2019.  Secure Determinant Codes: A Class of Secure Exact-Repair Regenerating Codes. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :211—215.
{1 We present a construction for exact-repair regenerating codes with an information-theoretic secrecy guarantee against an eavesdropper with access to the content of (up to) ℓ nodes. The proposed construction works for the entire range of per-node storage and repair bandwidth for any distributed storage system with parameters (n
Hao, Jie, Shum, Kenneth W., Xia, Shu-Tao, Yang, Yi-Xian.  2019.  Classification of Optimal Ternary (r, δ)-Locally Repairable Codes Attaining the Singleton-like Bound. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2828—2832.
In a linear code, a code symbol with (r, δ)-locality can be repaired by accessing at most r other code symbols in case of at most δ - 1 erasures. A q-ary (n, k, r, δ) locally repairable codes (LRC) in which every code symbol has (r, δ)-locality is said to be optimal if it achieves the Singleton-like bound derived by Prakash et al.. In this paper, we study the classification of optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs (δ \textbackslashtextgreater 2). Firstly, we propose an upper bound on the minimum distance of optimal q-ary LRCs in terms of the field size. Then, we completely determine all the 6 classes of possible parameters with which optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs exist. Moreover, explicit constructions of all these 6 classes of optimal ternary LRCs are proposed in the paper.
2020-06-02
Gong, Shixun, Li, Na, Wu, Huici, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2019.  Cooperative Two-Key Generation in Source-Type Model With Partial-Trusted Helpers. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :689—694.

This paper investigates the problem of generating two secret keys (SKs) simultaneously over a five-terminal system with terminals labelled as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each of terminal 2 and terminal 3 wishes to generate an SK with terminal 1 over a public channel wiretapped by a passive eavesdropper. Terminal 4 and terminal 5 respectively act as a trusted helper and an untrusted helper to assist the SK generation. All the terminals observe correlated source sequences from discrete memoryless sources (DMS) and can exchange information over a public channel with no rate constraint that the eavesdropper has access to. Based on the considered model, key capacity region is fully characterized and a source coding scheme that can achieve the capacity region is provided. Furthermore, expression for key leakage rate is obtained to analyze the security performance of the two generated keys.

2020-05-22
Rattaphun, Munlika, Prayoonwong, Amorntip, Chiu, Chih- Yi.  2019.  Indexing in k-Nearest Neighbor Graph by Hash-Based Hill-Climbing. 2019 16th International Conference on Machine Vision Applications (MVA). :1—4.
A main issue in approximate nearest neighbor search is to achieve an excellent tradeoff between search accuracy and computation cost. In this paper, we address this issue by leveraging k-nearest neighbor graph and hill-climbing to accelerate vector quantization in the query assignment process. A modified hill-climbing algorithm is proposed to traverse k-nearest neighbor graph to find closest centroids for a query, rather than calculating the query distances to all centroids. Instead of using random seeds in the original hill-climbing algorithm, we generate high-quality seeds based on the hashing technique. It can boost the query assignment efficiency due to a better start-up in hill-climbing. We evaluate the experiment on the benchmarks of SIFT1M and GIST1M datasets, and show the proposed hashing-based seed generation effectively improves the search performance.
2020-03-23
Hayashi, Masahito.  2019.  Semi-Finite Length Analysis for Secure Random Number Generation. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :952–956.
To discuss secure key generation from imperfect random numbers, we address the secure key generation length. There are several studies for its asymptotic expansion up to the order √n or log n. However, these expansions have errors of the order o(√n) or o(log n), which does not go to zero asymptotically. To resolve this problem, we derive the asymptotic expansion up to the constant order for upper and lower bounds of these optimal values. While the expansions of upper and lower bonds do not match, they clarify the ranges of these optimal values, whose errors go to zero asymptotically.
2020-03-09
Li, Zhixin, Liu, Lei, Kong, Degang.  2019.  Virtual Machine Failure Prediction Method Based on AdaBoost-Hidden Markov Model. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data Smart City (ICITBS). :700–703.

The failure prediction method of virtual machines (VM) guarantees reliability to cloud platforms. However, the uncertainty of VM security state will affect the reliability and task processing capabilities of the entire cloud platform. In this study, a failure prediction method of VM based on AdaBoost-Hidden Markov Model was proposed to improve the reliability of VMs and overall performance of cloud platforms. This method analyzed the deep relationship between the observation state and the hidden state of the VM through the hidden Markov model, proved the influence of the AdaBoost algorithm on the hidden Markov model (HMM), and realized the prediction of the VM failure state. Results show that the proposed method adapts to the complex dynamic cloud platform environment, can effectively predict the failure state of VMs, and improve the predictive ability of VM security state.

2020-02-17
Wen, Jinming, Yu, Wei.  2019.  Exact Sparse Signal Recovery via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Prior Information. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :5003–5007.
The orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is a commonly used algorithm for recovering K-sparse signals x ∈ ℝn from linear model y = Ax, where A ∈ ℝm×n is a sensing matrix. A fundamental question in the performance analysis of OMP is the characterization of the probability that it can exactly recover x for random matrix A. Although in many practical applications, in addition to the sparsity, x usually also has some additional property (for example, the nonzero entries of x independently and identically follow the Gaussian distribution), none of existing analysis uses these properties to answer the above question. In this paper, we first show that the prior distribution information of x can be used to provide an upper bound on \textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbarx\textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbar21/\textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbarx\textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbar22, and then explore the bound to develop a better lower bound on the probability of exact recovery with OMP in K iterations. Simulation tests are presented to illustrate the superiority of the new bound.
2019-01-21
Wang, J., Lin, S., Liu, C., Wang, J., Zhu, B., Jiang, Y..  2018.  Secrecy Capacity of Indoor Visible Light Communication Channels. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1–6.
In the indoor scenario, visible light communications (VLC) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for future wireless communications. Recently, the physical layer security for indoor VLC has drawn considerable attention. In this paper, the secrecy capacity of indoor VLC is analyzed. Initially, an VLC system with a transmitter, a legitimate receiver, and an eavesdropper is established. In the system, the nonnegativity, the peak optical intensity constraint and the dimmable average optical intensity constraint are considered. Based on the principle of information theory, the closed-form expressions of the upper and the lower bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived, respectively. Numerical results show that the upper and the lower bounds on secrecy capacity are very tight, which verify the accuracy of the derived closed-form expressions.
2018-05-24
Chadha, R., Sistla, A. P., Viswanathan, M..  2017.  Verification of Randomized Security Protocols. 2017 32nd Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS). :1–12.

We consider the problem of verifying the security of finitely many sessions of a protocol that tosses coins in addition to standard cryptographic primitives against a Dolev-Yao adversary. Two properties are investigated here - secrecy, which asks if no adversary interacting with a protocol P can determine a secret sec with probability textgreater 1 - p; and indistinguishability, which asks if the probability observing any sequence 0$øverline$ in P1 is the same as that of observing 0$øverline$ in P2, under the same adversary. Both secrecy and indistinguishability are known to be coNP-complete for non-randomized protocols. In contrast, we show that, for randomized protocols, secrecy and indistinguishability are both decidable in coNEXPTIME. We also prove a matching lower bound for the secrecy problem by reducing the non-satisfiability problem of monadic first order logic without equality.

2018-02-27
Ayar, M., Trevizan, R. D., Bretas, A. S., Latchman, H., Obuz, S..  2017.  A Robust Decentralized Control Framework for Enhancing Smart Grid Transient Stability. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

In this paper, we present a decentralized nonlinear robust controller to enhance the transient stability margin of synchronous generators. Although, the trend in power system control is shifting towards centralized or distributed controller approaches, the remote data dependency of these schemes fuels cyber-physical security issues. Since the excessive delay or losing remote data affect severely the operation of those controllers, the designed controller emerges as an alternative for stabilization of Smart Grids in case of unavailability of remote data and in the presence of plant parametric uncertainties. The proposed controller actuates distributed storage systems such as flywheels in order to reduce stabilization time and it implements a novel input time delay compensation technique. Lyapunov stability analysis proves that all the tracking error signals are globally uniformly ultimately bounded. Furthermore, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller outperforms traditional local power systems controllers such as Power System Stabilizers.

2018-01-10
Wang, P., Safavi-Naini, R..  2017.  Interactive message transmission over adversarial wiretap channel II. IEEE INFOCOM 2017 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1–9.

In Wyner wiretap II model of communication, Alice and Bob are connected by a channel that can be eavesdropped by an adversary with unlimited computation who can select a fraction of communication to view, and the goal is to provide perfect information theoretic security. Information theoretic security is increasingly important because of the threat of quantum computers that can effectively break algorithms and protocols that are used in today's public key infrastructure. We consider interactive protocols for wiretap II channel with active adversary who can eavesdrop and add adversarial noise to the eavesdropped part of the codeword. These channels capture wireless setting where malicious eavesdroppers at reception distance of the transmitter can eavesdrop the communication and introduce jamming signal to the channel. We derive a new upperbound R ≤ 1 - ρ for the rate of interactive protocols over two-way wiretap II channel with active adversaries, and construct a perfectly secure protocol family with achievable rate 1 - 2ρ + ρ2. This is strictly higher than the rate of the best one round protocol which is 1 - 2ρ, hence showing that interaction improves rate. We also prove that even with interaction, reliable communication is possible only if ρ \textbackslashtextless; 1/2. An interesting aspect of this work is that our bounds will also hold in network setting when two nodes are connected by n paths, a ρ of which is corrupted by the adversary. We discuss our results, give their relations to the other works, and propose directions for future work.

Stoughton, A., Varia, M..  2017.  Mechanizing the Proof of Adaptive, Information-Theoretic Security of Cryptographic Protocols in the Random Oracle Model. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :83–99.

We report on our research on proving the security of multi-party cryptographic protocols using the EASYCRYPT proof assistant. We work in the computational model using the sequence of games approach, and define honest-butcurious (semi-honest) security using a variation of the real/ideal paradigm in which, for each protocol party, an adversary chooses protocol inputs in an attempt to distinguish the party's real and ideal games. Our proofs are information-theoretic, instead of being based on complexity theory and computational assumptions. We employ oracles (e.g., random oracles for hashing) whose encapsulated states depend on dynamically-made, nonprogrammable random choices. By limiting an adversary's oracle use, one may obtain concrete upper bounds on the distances between a party's real and ideal games that are expressed in terms of game parameters. Furthermore, our proofs work for adaptive adversaries, ones that, when choosing the value of a protocol input, may condition this choice on their current protocol view and oracle knowledge. We provide an analysis in EASYCRYPT of a three party private count retrieval protocol. We emphasize the lessons learned from completing this proof.

2017-12-28
Liu, H., Ditzler, G..  2017.  A fast information-theoretic approximation of joint mutual information feature selection. 2017 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :4610–4617.

Feature selection is an important step in data analysis to address the curse of dimensionality. Such dimensionality reduction techniques are particularly important when if a classification is required and the model scales in polynomial time with the size of the feature (e.g., some applications include genomics, life sciences, cyber-security, etc.). Feature selection is the process of finding the minimum subset of features that allows for the maximum predictive power. Many of the state-of-the-art information-theoretic feature selection approaches use a greedy forward search; however, there are concerns with the search in regards to the efficiency and optimality. A unified framework was recently presented for information-theoretic feature selection that tied together many of the works in over the past twenty years. The work showed that joint mutual information maximization (JMI) is generally the best options; however, the complexity of greedy search for JMI scales quadratically and it is infeasible on high dimensional datasets. In this contribution, we propose a fast approximation of JMI based on information theory. Our approach takes advantage of decomposing the calculations within JMI to speed up a typical greedy search. We benchmarked the proposed approach against JMI on several UCI datasets, and we demonstrate that the proposed approach returns feature sets that are highly consistent with JMI, while decreasing the run time required to perform feature selection.

2017-11-27
Chu, Z., Zhang, J., Kosut, O., Sankar, L..  2016.  Evaluating power system vulnerability to false data injection attacks via scalable optimization. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). :260–265.

Physical consequences to power systems of false data injection cyber-attacks are considered. Prior work has shown that the worst-case consequences of such an attack can be determined using a bi-level optimization problem, wherein an attack is chosen to maximize the physical power flow on a target line subsequent to re-dispatch. This problem can be solved as a mixed-integer linear program, but it is difficult to scale to large systems due to numerical challenges. Three new computationally efficient algorithms to solve this problem are presented. These algorithms provide lower and upper bounds on the system vulnerability measured as the maximum power flow subsequent to an attack. Using these techniques, vulnerability assessments are conducted for IEEE 118-bus system and Polish system with 2383 buses.

2017-11-03
Harrigan, M., Fretter, C..  2016.  The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Address Clustering. 2016 Intl IEEE Conferences on Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big Data Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World Congress (UIC/ATC/ScalCom/CBDCom/IoP/SmartWorld). :368–373.

Address clustering tries to construct the one-to-many mapping from entities to addresses in the Bitcoin system. Simple heuristics based on the micro-structure of transactions have proved very effective in practice. In this paper we describe the primary reasons behind this effectiveness: address reuse, avoidable merging, super-clusters with high centrality,, the incremental growth of address clusters. We quantify their impact during Bitcoin's first seven years of existence.

2017-02-23
H. M. Ruan, M. H. Tsai, Y. N. Huang, Y. H. Liao, C. L. Lei.  2015.  "Discovery of De-identification Policies Considering Re-identification Risks and Information Loss". 2015 10th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security. :69-76.

In data analysis, it is always a tough task to strike the balance between the privacy and the applicability of the data. Due to the demand for individual privacy, the data are being more or less obscured before being released or outsourced to avoid possible privacy leakage. This process is so called de-identification. To discuss a de-identification policy, the most important two aspects should be the re-identification risk and the information loss. In this paper, we introduce a novel policy searching method to efficiently find out proper de-identification policies according to acceptable re-identification risk while retaining the information resided in the data. With the UCI Machine Learning Repository as our real world dataset, the re-identification risk can therefore be able to reflect the true risk of the de-identified data under the de-identification policies. Moreover, using the proposed algorithm, one can then efficiently acquire policies with higher information entropy.

2015-05-06
Carter, K.M., Idika, N., Streilein, W.W..  2014.  Probabilistic Threat Propagation for Network Security. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 9:1394-1405.

Techniques for network security analysis have historically focused on the actions of the network hosts. Outside of forensic analysis, little has been done to detect or predict malicious or infected nodes strictly based on their association with other known malicious nodes. This methodology is highly prevalent in the graph analytics world, however, and is referred to as community detection. In this paper, we present a method for detecting malicious and infected nodes on both monitored networks and the external Internet. We leverage prior community detection and graphical modeling work by propagating threat probabilities across network nodes, given an initial set of known malicious nodes. We enhance prior work by employing constraints that remove the adverse effect of cyclic propagation that is a byproduct of current methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of probabilistic threat propagation on the tasks of detecting botnets and malicious web destinations.

2015-05-01
Sasidharan, B., Kumar, P.V., Shah, N.B., Rashmi, K.V., Ramachandran, K..  2014.  Optimality of the product-matrix construction for secure MSR regenerating codes. Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP), 2014 6th International Symposium on. :10-14.

In this paper, we consider the security of exact-repair regenerating codes operating at the minimum-storage-regenerating (MSR) point. The security requirement (introduced in Shah et. al.) is that no information about the stored data file must be leaked in the presence of an eavesdropper who has access to the contents of ℓ1 nodes as well as all the repair traffic entering a second disjoint set of ℓ2 nodes. We derive an upper bound on the size of a data file that can be securely stored that holds whenever ℓ2 ≤ d - k + 1. This upper bound proves the optimality of the product-matrix-based construction of secure MSR regenerating codes by Shah et. al.

2015-04-30
Ta-Yuan Liu, Mukherjee, P., Ulukus, S., Shih-Chun Lin, Hong, Y.-W.P..  2014.  Secure DoF of MIMO Rayleigh block fading wiretap channels with No CSI anywhere. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :1959-1964.

We consider the block Rayleigh fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel with no prior channel state information (CSI) available at any of the terminals. The channel gains remain constant in a coherence time of T symbols, and then change to another independent realization. The transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper have nt, nr and ne antennas, respectively. We determine the exact secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) of this system when T ≥ 2 min(nt, nr). We show that, in this case, the s.d.o.f. is exactly (min(nt, nr) - ne)+(T - min(nt, nr))/T. The first term can be interpreted as the eavesdropper with ne antennas taking away ne antennas from both the transmitter and the legitimate receiver. The second term can be interpreted as a fraction of s.d.o.f. being lost due to the lack of CSI at the legitimate receiver. In particular, the fraction loss, min(nt, nr)/T, can be interpreted as the fraction of channel uses dedicated to training the legitimate receiver for it to learn its own CSI. We prove that this s.d.o.f. can be achieved by employing a constant norm channel input, which can be viewed as a generalization of discrete signalling to multiple dimensions.

Sasidharan, B., Kumar, P.V., Shah, N.B., Rashmi, K.V., Ramachandran, K..  2014.  Optimality of the product-matrix construction for secure MSR regenerating codes. Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP), 2014 6th International Symposium on. :10-14.

In this paper, we consider the security of exact-repair regenerating codes operating at the minimum-storage-regenerating (MSR) point. The security requirement (introduced in Shah et. al.) is that no information about the stored data file must be leaked in the presence of an eavesdropper who has access to the contents of ℓ1 nodes as well as all the repair traffic entering a second disjoint set of ℓ2 nodes. We derive an upper bound on the size of a data file that can be securely stored that holds whenever ℓ2 ≤ d - k + 1. This upper bound proves the optimality of the product-matrix-based construction of secure MSR regenerating codes by Shah et. al.