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2021-09-16
Wang, Meng, Long, Yihong.  2020.  SM9 Digital Signature with Non-Repudiation. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :356–361.
SM9 is an identity-based cryptography algorithm published by the State Cryptography Administration of China. With SM9, a user's private key for signing is generated by a central system called key generation center (KGC). When the owner of the private key wants to shirk responsibility by denying that the signature was generated by himself, he can claim that the operator of KGC forged the signature using the generated private key. To address this issue, in this paper, two schemes of SM9 digital signature with non-repudiation are proposed. With the proposed schemes, the user's private key for signing is collaboratively generated by two separate components, one of which is deployed in the private key service provider's site while the other is deployed in the user's site. The private key can only be calculated in the user's site with the help of homomorphic encryption. Therefore, only the user can obtain the private key and he cannot deny that the signature was generated by himself. The proposed schemes can achieve the non-repudiation of SM9 digital signature.
2021-04-08
Imai, H., Hanaoka, G., Shikata, J., Otsuka, A., Nascimento, A. C..  2002.  Cryptography with information theoretic security. Proceedings of the IEEE Information Theory Workshop. :73–.
Summary form only given. We discuss information-theoretic methods to prove the security of cryptosystems. We study what is called, unconditionally secure (or information-theoretically secure) cryptographic schemes in search for a system that can provide long-term security and that does not impose limits on the adversary's computational power.
2021-03-30
Kuchar, K., Fujdiak, R., Blazek, P., Martinasek, Z., Holasova, E..  2020.  Simplified Method for Fast and Efficient Incident Detection in Industrial Networks. 2020 4th Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). :1—3.

This article is focused on industrial networks and their security. An industrial network typically works with older devices that do not provide security at the level of today's requirements. Even protocols often do not support security at a sufficient level. It is necessary to deal with these security issues due to digitization. It is therefore required to provide other techniques that will help with security. For this reason, it is possible to deploy additional elements that will provide additional security and ensure the monitoring of the network, such as the Intrusion Detection System. These systems recognize identified signatures and anomalies. Methods of detecting security incidents by detecting anomalies in network traffic are described. The proposed methods are focused on detecting DoS attacks in the industrial Modbus protocol and operations performed outside the standard interval in the Distributed Network Protocol 3. The functionality of the performed methods is tested in the IDS system Zeek.

2021-03-29
Malek, Z. S., Trivedi, B., Shah, A..  2020.  User behavior Pattern -Signature based Intrusion Detection. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :549—552.

Technology advancement also increases the risk of a computer's security. As we can have various mechanisms to ensure safety but still there have flaws. The main concerned area is user authentication. For authentication, various biometric applications are used but once authentication is done in the begging there was no guarantee that the computer system is used by the authentic user or not. The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a particular procedure that is used to identify intruders by analyzing user behavior in the system after the user logged in. Host-based IDS monitors user behavior in the computer and identify user suspicious behavior as an intrusion or normal behavior. This paper discusses how an expert system detects intrusions using a set of rules as a pattern recognized engine. We propose a PIDE (Pattern Based Intrusion Detection) model, which is verified previously implemented SBID (Statistical Based Intrusion Detection) model. Experiment results indicate that integration of SBID and PBID approach provides an extensive system to detect intrusion.

2021-03-22
Fan, X., Zhang, F., Turamat, E., Tong, C., Wu, J. H., Wang, K..  2020.  Provenance-based Classification Policy based on Encrypted Search. 2020 2nd International Conference on Industrial Artificial Intelligence (IAI). :1–6.
As an important type of cloud data, digital provenance is arousing increasing attention on improving system performance. Currently, provenance has been employed to provide cues regarding access control and to estimate data quality. However, provenance itself might also be sensitive information. Therefore, provenance might be encrypted and stored in the Cloud. In this paper, we provide a mechanism to classify cloud documents by searching specific keywords from their encrypted provenance, and we prove our scheme achieves semantic security. In term of application of the proposed techniques, considering that files are classified to store separately in the cloud, in order to facilitate the regulation and security protection for the files, the classification policies can use provenance as conditions to determine the category of a document. Such as the easiest sample policy goes like: the documents have been reviewed twice can be classified as “public accessible”, which can be accessed by the public.
2021-03-09
Suresh, V., Rajashree, S..  2020.  Establishing Authenticity for DICOM images using ECC algorithm. 2020 Sixth International Conference on Bio Signals, Images, and Instrumentation (ICBSII). :1—4.

Preserving medical data is of utmost importance to stake holders. There are not many laws in India about preservation, usability of patient records. When data is transmitted across the globe there are chances of data getting tampered intentionally or accidentally. Tampered data loses its authenticity for diagnostic purpose, research and various other reasons. This paper proposes an authenticity based ECDSA algorithm by signature verification to identify the tampering of medical image files and alerts by the rules of authenticity. The algorithm can be used by researchers, doctors or any other educated person in order to maintain the authenticity of the record. Presently it is applied on medical related image files like DICOM. However, it can support any other medical related image files and still preserve the authenticity.

2021-03-04
Tang, R., Yang, Z., Li, Z., Meng, W., Wang, H., Li, Q., Sun, Y., Pei, D., Wei, T., Xu, Y. et al..  2020.  ZeroWall: Detecting Zero-Day Web Attacks through Encoder-Decoder Recurrent Neural Networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2479—2488.

Zero-day Web attacks are arguably the most serious threats to Web security, but are very challenging to detect because they are not seen or known previously and thus cannot be detected by widely-deployed signature-based Web Application Firewalls (WAFs). This paper proposes ZeroWall, an unsupervised approach, which works with an existing WAF in pipeline, to effectively detecting zero-day Web attacks. Using historical Web requests allowed by an existing signature-based WAF, a vast majority of which are assumed to be benign, ZeroWall trains a self-translation machine using an encoder-decoder recurrent neural network to capture the syntax and semantic patterns of benign requests. In real-time detection, a zero-day attack request (which the WAF fails to detect), not understood well by self-translation machine, cannot be translated back to its original request by the machine, thus is declared as an attack. In our evaluation using 8 real-world traces of 1.4 billion Web requests, ZeroWall successfully detects real zero-day attacks missed by existing WAFs and achieves high F1-scores over 0.98, which significantly outperforms all baseline approaches.

2021-02-08
Fauzan, A., Sukarno, P., Wardana, A. A..  2020.  Overhead Analysis of the Use of Digital Signature in MQTT Protocol for Constrained Device in the Internet of Things System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :415–420.
This paper presents an overhead analysis of the use of digital signature mechanisms in the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol for three classes of constrained-device. Because the resources provided by constrained-devices are very limited, the purpose of this overhead analysis is to help find out the advantages and disadvantages of each class of constrained-devices after a security mechanism has been applied, namely by applying a digital signature mechanism. The objective of using this digital signature mechanism is for providing integrity, that if the payload sent and received in its destination is still original and not changed during the transmission process. The overhead analysis aspects performed are including analyzing decryption time, signature verification performance, message delivery time, memory and flash usage in the three classes of constrained-device. Based on the overhead analysis result, it can be seen that for decryption time and signature verification performance, the Class-2 device is the fastest one. For message delivery time, the smallest time needed for receiving the payload is Class-l device. For memory usage, the Class-2 device is providing the biggest available memory and flash.
Srivastava, V., Pathak, R. K., Kumar, A., Prakash, S..  2020.  Using a Blend of Brassard and Benett 84 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature for Secure Cloud Data Communication. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :738–743.

The exchange of data has expanded utilizing the web nowadays, but it is not dependable because, during communication on the cloud, any malicious client can alter or steal the information or misuse it. To provide security to the data during transmission is becoming hot research and quite challenging topic. In this work, our proposed algorithm enhances the security of the keys by increasing its complexity, so that it can't be guessed, breached or stolen by the third party and hence by this, the data will be concealed while sending between the users. The proposed algorithm also provides more security and authentication to the users during cloud communication, as compared to the previously existing algorithm.

Noel, M. D., Waziri, O. V., Abdulhamid, M. S., Ojeniyi, A. J., Okoro, M. U..  2020.  Comparative Analysis of Classical and Post-quantum Digital Signature Algorithms used in Bitcoin Transactions. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–6.

The use of public key cryptosystems ranges from securely encrypting bitcoin transactions and creating digital signatures for non-repudiation. The cryptographic systems security of public key depends on the complexity in solving mathematical problems. Quantum computers pose a threat to the current day algorithms used. This research presents analysis of two Hash-based Signature Schemes (MSS and W-OTS) and provides a comparative analysis of them. The comparisons are based on their efficiency as regards to their key generation, signature generation and verification time. These algorithms are compared with two classical algorithms (RSA and ECDSA) used in bitcoin transaction security. The results as shown in table II indicates that RSA key generation takes 0.2012s, signature generation takes 0.0778s and signature verification is 0.0040s. ECDSA key generation is 0.1378s, signature generation takes 0.0187s, and verification time for the signature is 0.0164s. The W-OTS key generation is 0.002s. To generate a signature in W-OTS, it takes 0.001s and verification time for the signature is 0.0002s. Lastly MSS Key generation, signature generation and verification has high values which are 16.290s, 17.474s, and 13.494s respectively. Based on the results, W-OTS is recommended for bitcoin transaction security because of its efficiency and ability to resist quantum computer attacks on the bitcoin network.

Jain, S., Sharma, S., Chandavarkar, B. R..  2020.  Mitigating Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Digital Signature. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
We all are living in the digital era, where the maximum of the information is available online. The digital world has made the transfer of information easy and provides the basic needs of security like authentication, integrity, nonrepudiation, etc. But, with the improvement in security, cyber-attacks have also increased. Security researchers have provided many techniques to prevent these cyber-attacks; one is a Digital Signature (DS). The digital signature uses cryptographic key pairs (public and private) to provide the message's integrity and verify the sender's identity. The private key used in the digital signature is confidential; if attackers find it by using various techniques, then this can result in an attack. This paper presents a brief introduction about the digital signature and how it is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack. Further, it discusses a technique to prevent this attack in the digital signature.
Pramanik, S., Bandyopadhyay, S. K., Ghosh, R..  2020.  Signature Image Hiding in Color Image using Steganography and Cryptography based on Digital Signature Concepts. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :665–669.
Data Transmission in network security is one of the most vital issues in today's communication world. The outcome of the suggested method is outlined over here. Enhanced security can be achieved by this method. The vigorous growth in the field of information communication has made information transmission much easier. But this type of advancement has opened up many possibilities of information being snooped. So, day-by-day maintaining of information security is becoming an inseparable part of computing and communication. In this paper, the authors have explored techniques that blend cryptography & steganography together. In steganography, information is kept hidden behind a cover image. In this paper, approaches for information hiding using both cryptography & steganography is proposed keeping in mind two considerations - size of the encrypted object and degree of security. Here, signature image information is kept hidden into cover image using private key of sender & receiver, which extracts the information from stego image using a public key. This approach can be used for message authentication, message integrity & non-repudiation purpose.
Wang, H., Yao, G., Wang, B..  2020.  A Quantum Concurrent Signature Scheme Based on the Quantum Finite Automata Signature Scheme. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :125–129.
When using digital signatures, we need to deal with the problem of fairness of information exchange. To solve this problem, Chen, etc. introduced a new conception which is named concurrent signatures in Eurocrypt'04. Using concurrent signatures scheme, two entities in the scheme can generate two ambiguous signatures until one of the entities releases additional information which is called keystone. After the keystone is released, the two ambiguous signatures will be bound to their real signers at the same time. In order to provide a method to solve the fairness problem of quantum digital signatures, we propose a new quantum concurrent signature scheme. The scheme we proposed does not use a trusted third party in a quantum computing environment, and has such advantages as no need to conduct complex quantum operations and easy to implement by a quantum circuit. Quantum concurrent signature improves the theory of quantum cryptography, and it also provides broad prospects for the specific applications of quantum cryptography.
Pandey, A., Mahajan, D., Gupta, S., Rastogi, i.  2020.  Detection of Blind Signature Using Recursive Sum. 2020 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSC). :262–265.
Digital signatures are suitable technology for public key encryption. Acceptance (non-repudiation) of digital messages and data origin authentication are one of the main usage of digital signature. Digital signature's security mainly depends on the keys (public and private). These keys are used to generate and validate digital signatures. In digital signature signing process is performed using signer's secret key. However, any attacker can present a blinded version of message encrypted with signer's public key and can get the original message. Therefore, this paper proposed a novel method to identify blinded version of digital signature. The proposed method has been tested mathematically and found to be more efficient to detect blind signatures.
Chesnokov, N. I., Korochentsev, D. A., Cherckesova, L. V., Safaryan, O. A., Chumakov, V. E., Pilipenko, I. A..  2020.  Software Development of Electronic Digital Signature Generation at Institution Electronic Document Circulation. 2020 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1–5.
the purpose of this paper is investigation of existing approaches to formation of electronic digital signatures, as well as the possibility of software developing for electronic signature generation at electronic document circulation of institution. The article considers and analyzes the existing algorithms for generating and processing electronic signatures. Authors propose the model for documented information exchanging in institution, including cryptographic module and secure key storage, blockchain storage of electronic signatures, central web-server and web-interface. Examples of the developed software are demonstrated, and recommendations are given for its implementation, integration and using in different institutions.
Van, L. X., Dung, L. H., Hoa, D. V..  2020.  Developing Root Problem Aims to Create a Secure Digital Signature Scheme in Data Transfer. 2020 International Conference on Green and Human Information Technology (ICGHIT). :25–30.
This paper presents the proposed method of building a digital signature algorithm which is based on the difficulty of solving root problem and some expanded root problems on Zp. The expanded root problem is a new form of difficult problem without the solution, also originally proposed and applied to build digital signature algorithms. This proposed method enable to build a high-security digital signature platform for practical applications.
2021-01-25
Thinn, A. A., Thwin, M. M. S..  2020.  A Hybrid Solution for Confidential Data Transfer Using PKI, Modified AES Algorithm and Image as a Secret Key. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–4.
Nowadays the provision of online services by government or business organizations has become a standard and necessary operation. Transferring data including the confidential or sensitive information via Internet or insecure network and exchange of them is also increased day by day. As a result, confidential information leakage and cyber threats are also heightened. Confidential information trading became one of the most profitable businesses. Encrypting the data is a solution to secure the data from being exposed. In this paper, we would like to propose a solution for the secure transfer of data using symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption technologies and Key Generation Server as a mixed hybrid solution. A Symmetric encryption, modified AES algorithm, is used to encrypt data. Digital certificate is used both for data encryption and digital signing to assure data integrity. Key generation server is used to generate the second secret key from the publicly recognized information of a person and this key is used as a second secret key in the modified AES. The proposed hybrid solution can be utilized in any applications that require high confidentiality, integrity of data and non-repudiation.
2021-01-20
Mehmood, Z., Qazi, K. Ashfaq, Tahir, M., Yousaf, R. Muhammad, Sardaraz, M..  2020.  Potential Barriers to Music Fingerprinting Algorithms in the Presence of Background Noise. 2020 6th Conference on Data Science and Machine Learning Applications (CDMA). :25—30.

An acoustic fingerprint is a condensed and powerful digital signature of an audio signal which is used for audio sample identification. A fingerprint is the pattern of a voice or audio sample. A large number of algorithms have been developed for generating such acoustic fingerprints. These algorithms facilitate systems that perform song searching, song identification, and song duplication detection. In this study, a comprehensive and powerful survey of already developed algorithms is conducted. Four major music fingerprinting algorithms are evaluated for identifying and analyzing the potential hurdles that can affect their results. Since the background and environmental noise reduces the efficiency of music fingerprinting algorithms, behavioral analysis of fingerprinting algorithms is performed using audio samples of different languages and under different environmental conditions. The results of music fingerprint classification are more successful when deep learning techniques for classification are used. The testing of the acoustic feature modeling and music fingerprinting algorithms is performed using the standard dataset of iKala, MusicBrainz and MIR-1K.

2021-01-18
Naganuma, K., Suzuki, T., Yoshino, M., Takahashi, K., Kaga, Y., Kunihiro, N..  2020.  New Secret Key Management Technology for Blockchains from Biometrics Fuzzy Signature. 2020 15th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security (AsiaJCIS). :54–58.

Blockchain technology is attracting attention as an innovative system for decentralized payments in fields such as financial area. On the other hand, in a decentralized environment, management of a secret key used for user authentication and digital signature becomes a big issue because if a user loses his/her secret key, he/she will also lose assets on the blockchain. This paper describes the secret key management issues in blockchain systems and proposes a solution using a biometrics-based digital signature scheme. In our proposed system, a secret key to be used for digital signature is generated from the user's biometric information each time and immediately deleted from the memory after using it. Therefore, our blockchain system has the advantage that there is no need for storage for storing secret keys throughout the system. As a result, the user does not have a risk of losing the key management devices and can prevent attacks from malware that steals the secret key.

2021-01-11
Papadogiannaki, E., Deyannis, D., Ioannidis, S..  2020.  Head(er)Hunter: Fast Intrusion Detection using Packet Metadata Signatures. 2020 IEEE 25th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1–6.
More than 75% of the Internet traffic is now encrypted, while this percentage is constantly increasing. The majority of communications are secured using common encryption protocols such as SSL/TLS and IPsec to ensure security and protect the privacy of Internet users. Yet, encryption can be exploited to hide malicious activities. Traditionally, network traffic inspection is based on techniques like deep packet inspection (DPI). Common applications for DPI include but are not limited to firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, L7 filtering and packet forwarding. The core functionality of such DPI implementations is based on pattern matching that enables searching for specific strings or regular expressions inside the packet contents. With the widespread adoption of network encryption though, DPI tools that rely on packet payload content are becoming less effective, demanding the development of more sophisticated techniques in order to adapt to current network encryption trends. In this work, we present HeaderHunter, a fast signature-based intrusion detection system even in encrypted network traffic. We generate signatures using only network packet metadata extracted from packet headers. Also, to cope with the ever increasing network speeds, we accelerate the inner computations of our proposed system using off-the-shelf GPUs.
Khandait, P., Hubballi, N., Mazumdar, B..  2020.  Efficient Keyword Matching for Deep Packet Inspection based Network Traffic Classification. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :567–570.
Network traffic classification has a range of applications in network management including QoS and security monitoring. Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is one of the effective method used for traffic classification. DPI is computationally expensive operation involving string matching between payload and application signatures. Existing traffic classification techniques perform multiple scans of payload to classify the application flows - first scan to extract the words and the second scan to match the words with application signatures. In this paper we propose an approach which can classify network flows with single scan of flow payloads using a heuristic method to achieve a sub-linear search complexity. The idea is to scan few initial bytes of payload and determine potential application signature(s) for subsequent signature matching. We perform experiments with a large dataset containing 171873 network flows and show that it has a good classification accuracy of 98%.
2020-12-28
Hynek, K., Čejka, T., Žádník, M., Kubátová, H..  2020.  Evaluating Bad Hosts Using Adaptive Blacklist Filter. 2020 9th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1—5.

Publicly available blacklists are popular tools to capture and spread information about misbehaving entities on the Internet. In some cases, their straight-forward utilization leads to many false positives. In this work, we propose a system that combines blacklists with network flow data while introducing automated evaluation techniques to avoid reporting unreliable alerts. The core of the system is formed by an Adaptive Filter together with an Evaluator module. The assessment of the system was performed on data obtained from a national backbone network. The results show the contribution of such a system to the reduction of unreliable alerts.

2020-12-21
Enkhtaivan, B., Inoue, A..  2020.  Mediating Data Trustworthiness by Using Trusted Hardware between IoT Devices and Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :314–318.
In recent years, with the progress of data analysis methods utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, concepts of smart cities collecting data from IoT devices and creating values by analyzing it have been proposed. However, making sure that the data is not tampered with is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to utilize blockchain technology to record and trace the history of the data. Park and Kim proposed ensuring the trustworthiness of the data by utilizing an IoT device with a trusted execution environment (TEE). Also, Guan et al. proposed authenticating an IoT device and mediating data using a TEE. For the authentication, they use the physically unclonable function of the IoT device. Usually, IoT devices suffer from the lack of resources necessary for creating transactions for the blockchain ledger. In this paper, we present a secure protocol in which a TEE acts as a proxy to the IoT devices and creates the necessary transactions for the blockchain. We use an authenticated encryption method on the data transmission between the IoT device and TEE to authenticate the device and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the data generated by the IoT devices.
2020-12-11
Xie, J., Zhang, M., Ma, Y..  2019.  Using Format Migration and Preservation Metadata to Support Digital Preservation of Scientific Data. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :1—6.

With the development of e-Science and data intensive scientific discovery, it needs to ensure scientific data available for the long-term, with the goal that the valuable scientific data should be discovered and re-used for downstream investigations, either alone, or in combination with newly generated data. As such, the preservation of scientific data enables that not only might experiment be reproducible and verifiable, but also new questions can be raised by other scientists to promote research and innovation. In this paper, we focus on the two main problems of digital preservation that are format migration and preservation metadata. Format migration includes both format verification and object transformation. The system architecture of format migration and preservation metadata is presented, mapping rules of object transformation are analyzed, data fixity and integrity and authenticity, digital signature and so on are discussed and an example is shown in detail.

2020-12-07
Whitefield, J., Chen, L., Sasse, R., Schneider, S., Treharne, H., Wesemeyer, S..  2019.  A Symbolic Analysis of ECC-Based Direct Anonymous Attestation. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :127–141.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a cryptographic scheme that provides Trusted Platform Module TPM-backed anonymous credentials. We develop Tamarin modelling of the ECC-based version of the protocol as it is standardised and provide the first mechanised analysis of this standard. Our analysis confirms that the scheme is secure when all TPMs are assumed honest, but reveals a break in the protocol's expected authentication and secrecy properties for all TPMs even if only one is compromised. We propose and formally verify a minimal fix to the standard. In addition to developing the first formal analysis of ECC-DAA, the paper contributes to the growing body of work demonstrating the use of formal tools in supporting standardisation processes for cryptographic protocols.