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Musca, Constantin, Mirica, Emma, Deaconescu, Razvan.  2013.  Detecting and Analyzing Zero-Day Attacks Using Honeypots. 2013 19th International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science. :543–548.
Computer networks are overwhelmed by self propagating malware (worms, viruses, trojans). Although the number of security vulnerabilities grows every day, not the same thing can be said about the number of defense methods. But the most delicate problem in the information security domain remains detecting unknown attacks known as zero-day attacks. This paper presents methods for isolating the malicious traffic by using a honeypot system and analyzing it in order to automatically generate attack signatures for the Snort intrusion detection/prevention system. The honeypot is deployed as a virtual machine and its job is to log as much information as it can about the attacks. Then, using a protected machine, the logs are collected remotely, through a safe connection, for analysis. The challenge is to mitigate the risk we are exposed to and at the same time search for unknown attacks.
Chen, L., Liu, J., Ha, W..  2018.  Cloud Service Risk in the Smart Grid. 2018 14th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :242–244.

Smart grid utilizes cloud service to realize reliable, efficient, secured, and cost-effective power management, but there are a number of security risks in the cloud service of smart grid. The security risks are particularly problematic to operators of power information infrastructure who want to leverage the benefits of cloud. In this paper, security risk of cloud service in the smart grid are categorized and analyzed characteristics, and multi-layered index system of general technical risks is established, which applies to different patterns of cloud service. Cloud service risk of smart grid can evaluate according indexes.

Nemati, H., Dagenais, M. R..  2018.  VM processes state detection by hypervisor tracing. 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–8.
The diagnosis of performance issues in cloud environments is a challenging problem, due to the different levels of virtualization, the diversity of applications and their interactions on the same physical host. Moreover, because of privacy, security, ease of deployment and execution overhead, an agent-less method, which limits its data collection to the physical host level, is often the only acceptable solution. In this paper, a precise host-based method, to recover wait state for the processes inside a given Virtual Machine (VM), is proposed. The virtual Process State Detection (vPSD) algorithm computes the state of processes through host kernel tracing. The state of a virtual Process (vProcess) is displayed in an interactive trace viewer (Trace Compass) for further inspection. Our proposed VM trace analysis algorithm has been open-sourced for further enhancements and for the benefit of other developers. Experimental evaluations were conducted using a mix of workload types (CPU, Disk, and Network), with different applications like Hadoop, MySQL, and Apache. vPSD, being based on host hypervisor tracing, brings a lower overhead (around 0.03%) as compared to other approaches.
Madhupriya, G., Shalinie, S. M., Rajeshwari, A. R..  2018.  Detecting DDoS Attack in Cloud Computing Using Local Outlier Factors. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :859–863.

Now a days, Cloud computing has brought a unbelievable change in companies, organizations, firm and institutions etc. IT industries is advantage with low investment in infrastructure and maintenance with the growth of cloud computing. The Virtualization technique is examine as the big thing in cloud computing. Even though, cloud computing has more benefits; the disadvantage of the cloud computing environment is ensuring security. Security means, the Cloud Service Provider to ensure the basic integrity, availability, privacy, confidentiality, authentication and authorization in data storage, virtual machine security etc. In this paper, we presented a Local outlier factors mechanism, which may be helpful for the detection of Distributed Denial of Service attack in a cloud computing environment. As DDoS attack becomes strong with the passing of time, and then the attack may be reduced, if it is detected at first. So we fully focused on detecting DDoS attack to secure the cloud environment. In addition, our scheme is able to identify their possible sources, giving important clues for cloud computing administrators to spot the outliers. By using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) we have analyzed our scheme with other clustering algorithm on the basis of higher detection rates and lower false alarm rate. DR-LOF would serve as a better DDoS detection tool, which helps to improve security framework in cloud computing.

Zhang, J., Zheng, L., Gong, L., Gu, Z..  2018.  A Survey on Security of Cloud Environment: Threats, Solutions, and Innovation. 2018 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :910–916.

With the extensive application of cloud computing technology developing, security is of paramount importance in Cloud Computing. In the cloud computing environment, surveys have been provided on several intrusion detection techniques for detecting intrusions. We will summarize some literature surveys of various attack taxonomy, which might cause various threats in cloud environment. Such as attacks in virtual machines, attacks on virtual machine monitor, and attacks in tenant network. Besides, we review massive existing solutions proposed in the literature, such as misuse detection techniques, behavior analysis of network traffic, behavior analysis of programs, virtual machine introspection (VMI) techniques, etc. In addition, we have summarized some innovations in the field of cloud security, such as CloudVMI, data mining techniques, artificial intelligence, and block chain technology, etc. At the same time, our team designed and implemented the prototype system of CloudI (Cloud Introspection). CloudI has characteristics of high security, high performance, high expandability and multiple functions.

Thakre, P. P., Sahare, V. N..  2017.  VM live migration time reduction using NAS based algorithm during VM live migration. 2017 Third International Conference on Sensing, Signal Processing and Security (ICSSS). :242–246.

Live migration is the process used in virtualization environment of datacenters in order to take the benefit of zero downtime during system maintenance. But during migrating live virtual machines along with system files and storage data, network traffic gets increases across network bandwidth and delays in migration time. There is need to reduce the migration time in order to maintain the system performance by analyzing and optimizing the storage overheads which mainly creates due to unnecessary duplicated data transferred during live migration. So there is need of such storage device which will keep the duplicated data residing in both the source as well as target physical host i.e. NAS. The proposed hash map based algorithm maps all I/O operations in order to track the duplicated data by assigning hash value to both NAS and RAM data. Only the unique data then will be sent data to the target host without affecting service level agreement (SLA), without affecting VM migration time, application downtime, SLA violations, VM pre-migration and downtime post migration overheads during pre and post migration of virtual machines.

Narwal, P., Singh, S. N., Kumar, D..  2017.  Game-theory based detection and prevention of DoS attacks on networking node in open stack private cloud. 2017 International Conference on Infocom Technologies and Unmanned Systems (Trends and Future Directions) (ICTUS). :481–486.

Security at virtualization level has always been a major issue in cloud computing environment. A large number of virtual machines that are hosted on a single server by various customers/client may face serious security threats due to internal/external network attacks. In this work, we have examined and evaluated these threats and their impact on OpenStack private cloud. We have also discussed the most popular DOS (Denial-of-Service) attack on DHCP server on this private cloud platform and evaluated the vulnerabilities in an OpenStack networking component, Neutron, due to which this attack can be performed through rogue DHCP server. Finally, a solution, a game-theory based cloud architecture, that helps to detect and prevent DOS attacks in OpenStack has been proposed.

Sun, J., Sun, K., Li, Q..  2017.  CyberMoat: Camouflaging Critical Server Infrastructures with Large Scale Decoy Farms. 2017 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.

Traditional deception-based cyber defenses often undertake reactive strategies that utilize decoy systems or services for attack detection and information gathering. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of these defense mechanisms has been largely constrained by the low decoy fidelity, the poor scalability of decoy platform, and the static decoy configurations, which allow the attackers to identify and bypass the deployed decoys. In this paper, we develop a decoy-enhanced defense framework that can proactively protect critical servers against targeted remote attacks through deception. To achieve both high fidelity and good scalability, our system follows a hybrid architecture that separates lightweight yet versatile front-end proxies from back-end high-fidelity decoy servers. Moreover, our system can further invalidate the attackers' reconnaissance through dynamic proxy address shuffling. To guarantee service availability, we develop a transparent connection translation strategy to maintain existing connections during shuffling. Our evaluation on a prototype implementation demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in defeating attacker reconnaissance and shows that it only introduces small performance overhead.

Liu, X., Xia, C., Wang, T., Zhong, L..  2017.  CloudSec: A Novel Approach to Verifying Security Conformance at the Bottom of the Cloud. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress). :569–576.

In the process of big data analysis and processing, a key concern blocking users from storing and processing their data in the cloud is their misgivings about the security and performance of cloud services. There is an urgent need to develop an approach that can help each cloud service provider (CSP) to demonstrate that their infrastructure and service behavior can meet the users' expectations. However, most of the prior research work focused on validating the process compliance of cloud service without an accurate description of the basic service behaviors, and could not measure the security capability. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to verify cloud service security conformance called CloudSec, which reduces the description gap between the cloud provider and customer through modeling cloud service behaviors (CloudBeh Model) and security SLA (SecSLA Model). These models enable a systematic integration of security constraints and service behavior into cloud while using UPPAAL to check the conformance, which can not only check CloudBeh performance metrics conformance, but also verify whether the security constraints meet the SecSLA. The proposed approach is validated through case study and experiments with a cloud storage service based on OpenStack, which illustrates CloudSec approach effectiveness and can be applied in real cloud scenarios.

Miramirkhani, N., Appini, M. P., Nikiforakis, N., Polychronakis, M..  2017.  Spotless Sandboxes: Evading Malware Analysis Systems Using Wear-and-Tear Artifacts. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1009–1024.

Malware sandboxes, widely used by antivirus companies, mobile application marketplaces, threat detection appliances, and security researchers, face the challenge of environment-aware malware that alters its behavior once it detects that it is being executed on an analysis environment. Recent efforts attempt to deal with this problem mostly by ensuring that well-known properties of analysis environments are replaced with realistic values, and that any instrumentation artifacts remain hidden. For sandboxes implemented using virtual machines, this can be achieved by scrubbing vendor-specific drivers, processes, BIOS versions, and other VM-revealing indicators, while more sophisticated sandboxes move away from emulation-based and virtualization-based systems towards bare-metal hosts. We observe that as the fidelity and transparency of dynamic malware analysis systems improves, malware authors can resort to other system characteristics that are indicative of artificial environments. We present a novel class of sandbox evasion techniques that exploit the "wear and tear" that inevitably occurs on real systems as a result of normal use. By moving beyond how realistic a system looks like, to how realistic its past use looks like, malware can effectively evade even sandboxes that do not expose any instrumentation indicators, including bare-metal systems. We investigate the feasibility of this evasion strategy by conducting a large-scale study of wear-and-tear artifacts collected from real user devices and publicly available malware analysis services. The results of our evaluation are alarming: using simple decision trees derived from the analyzed data, malware can determine that a system is an artificial environment and not a real user device with an accuracy of 92.86%. As a step towards defending against wear-and-tear malware evasion, we develop statistical models that capture a system's age and degree of use, which can be used to aid sandbox operators in creating system i- ages that exhibit a realistic wear-and-tear state.

Huang, C., Hou, C., He, L., Dai, H., Ding, Y..  2017.  Policy-Customized: A New Abstraction for Building Security as a Service. 2017 14th International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms and Networks 2017 11th International Conference on Frontier of Computer Science and Technology 2017 Third International Symposium of Creative Computing (ISPAN-FCST-ISCC). :203–210.

Just as cloud customers have different performance requirements, they also have different security requirements for their computations in the cloud. Researchers have suggested a "security on demand" service model for cloud computing, where secure computing environment are dynamically provisioned to cloud customers according to their specific security needs. The availability of secure computing platforms is a necessary but not a sufficient solution to convince cloud customers to move their sensitive data and code to the cloud. Cloud customers need further assurance to convince them that the security measures are indeed deployed, and are working correctly. In this paper, we present Policy-Customized Trusted Cloud Service architecture with a new remote attestation scheme and a virtual machine migration protocol, where cloud customer can custom security policy of computing environment and validate whether the current computing environment meets the security policy in the whole life cycle of the virtual machine. To prove the availability of proposed architecture, we realize a prototype that support customer-customized security policy and a VM migration protocol that support customer-customized migration policy and validation based on open source Xen Hypervisor.

Richardson, D. P., Lin, A. C., Pecarina, J. M..  2017.  Hosting distributed databases on internet of things-scale devices. 2017 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing. :352–357.

The Internet of Things (IoT) era envisions billions of interconnected devices capable of providing new interactions between the physical and digital worlds, offering new range of content and services. At the fundamental level, IoT nodes are physical devices that exist in the real world, consisting of networking, sensor, and processing components. Some application examples include mobile and pervasive computing or sensor nets, and require distributed device deployment that feed information into databases for exploitation. While the data can be centralized, there are advantages, such as system resiliency and security to adopting a decentralized architecture that pushes the computation and storage to the network edge and onto IoT devices. However, these devices tend to be much more limited in computation power than traditional racked servers. This research explores using the Cassandra distributed database on IoT-representative device specifications. Experiments conducted on both virtual machines and Raspberry Pi's to simulate IoT devices, examined latency issues with network compression, processing workloads, and various memory and node configurations in laboratory settings. We demonstrate that distributed databases are feasible on Raspberry Pi's as IoT representative devices and show findings that may help in application design.

He, Z., Zhang, T., Lee, R. B..  2017.  Machine Learning Based DDoS Attack Detection from Source Side in Cloud. 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud). :114–120.

Denial of service (DOS) attacks are a serious threat to network security. These attacks are often sourced from virtual machines in the cloud, rather than from the attacker's own machine, to achieve anonymity and higher network bandwidth. Past research focused on analyzing traffic on the destination (victim's) side with predefined thresholds. These approaches have significant disadvantages. They are only passive defenses after the attack, they cannot use the outbound statistical features of attacks, and it is hard to trace back to the attacker with these approaches. In this paper, we propose a DOS attack detection system on the source side in the cloud, based on machine learning techniques. This system leverages statistical information from both the cloud server's hypervisor and the virtual machines, to prevent network packages from being sent out to the outside network. We evaluate nine machine learning algorithms and carefully compare their performance. Our experimental results show that more than 99.7% of four kinds of DOS attacks are successfully detected. Our approach does not degrade performance and can be easily extended to broader DOS attacks.

Kabiri, M. N., Wannous, M..  2017.  An Experimental Evaluation of a Cloud-Based Virtual Computer Laboratory Using Openstack. 2017 6th IIAI International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics (IIAI-AAI). :667–672.

In previous work, we proposed a solution to facilitate access to computer science related courses and learning materials using cloud computing and mobile technologies. The solution was positively evaluated by the participants, but most of them indicated that it lacks support for laboratory activities. As it is well known that many of computer science subjects (e.g. Computer Networks, Information Security, Systems Administration, etc.) require a suitable and flexible environment where students can access a set of computers and network devices to successfully complete their hands-on activities. To achieve this criteria, we created a cloud-based virtual laboratory based on OpenStack cloud platform to facilitate access to virtual machine both locally and remotely. Cloud-based virtual labs bring a lot of advantages, such as increased manageability, scalability, high availability and flexibility, to name a few. This arrangement has been tested in a case-study exercise with a group of students as part of Computer Networks and System Administration courses at Kabul Polytechnic University in Afghanistan. To measure success, we introduced a level test to be completed by participants prior and after the experiment. As a result, the learners achieved an average of 17.1 % higher scores in the post level test after completing the practical exercises. Lastly, we distributed a questionnaire after the experiment and students provided positive feedback on the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed solution.

Nguyen, Q. L., Sood, A..  2017.  Scalability of Cloud Based SCIT-MTD. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :581–582.

In order to support large volume of transactions and number of users, as estimated by the load demand modeling, a system needs to scale in order to continue to satisfy required quality attributes. In particular, for systems exposed to the Internet, scaling up may increase the attack surface susceptible to malicious intrusions. The new proactive approach based on the concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) should be considered as a complement to current cybersecurity protection. In this paper, we analyze the scalability of the Self Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (SCIT) MTD approach using Cloud infrastructure services. By applying the model of MTD with continuous rotation and diversity to a multi-node or multi-instance system, we argue that the effectiveness of the approach is dependent on the share-nothing architecture pattern of the large system. Furthermore, adding more resources to the MTD mechanism can compensate to achieve the desired level of secure availability.

Ouffoué, G., Ortiz, A. M., Cavalli, A. R., Mallouli, W., Domingo-Ferrer, J., Sánchez, D., Zaidi, F..  2016.  Intrusion Detection and Attack Tolerance for Cloud Environments: The CLARUS Approach. 2016 IEEE 36th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW). :61–66.

The cloud has become an established and widespread paradigm. This success is due to the gain of flexibility and savings provided by this technology. However, the main obstacle to full cloud adoption is security. The cloud, as many other systems taking advantage of the Internet, is also facing threats that compromise data confidentiality and availability. In addition, new cloud-specific attacks have emerged and current intrusion detection and prevention mechanisms are not enough to protect the complex infrastructure of the cloud from these vulnerabilities. Furthermore, one of the promises of the cloud is the Quality of Service (QoS) by continuous delivery, which must be ensured even in case of intrusion. This work presents an overview of the main cloud vulnerabilities, along with the solutions proposed in the context of the H2020 CLARUS project in terms of monitoring techniques for intrusion detection and prevention, including attack-tolerance mechanisms.

August, M. A., Diallo, M. H., Graves, C. T., Slayback, S. M., Glasser, D..  2017.  AnomalyDetect: Anomaly Detection for Preserving Availability of Virtualized Cloud Services. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W). :334–340.

In this paper, we present AnomalyDetect, an approach for detecting anomalies in cloud services. A cloud service consists of a set of interacting applications/processes running on one or more interconnected virtual machines. AnomalyDetect uses the Kalman Filter as the basis for predicting the states of virtual machines running cloud services. It uses the cloud service's virtual machine historical data to forecast potential anomalies. AnomalyDetect has been integrated with the AutoMigrate framework and serves as the means for detecting anomalies to automatically trigger live migration of cloud services to preserve their availability. AutoMigrate is a framework for developing intelligent systems that can monitor and migrate cloud services to maximize their availability in case of cloud disruption. We conducted a number of experiments to analyze the performance of the proposed AnomalyDetect approach. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of AnomalyDetect as an approach to autonomic cloud availability.

Haq, M. S. Ul, Lejian, L., Lerong, M..  2016.  Transitioning Native Application into Virtual Machine by Using Hardware Virtualization Extensions. 2016 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C). :397–403.

In presence of known and unknown vulnerabilities in code and flow control of programs, virtual machine alike isolation and sandboxing to confine maliciousness of process, by monitoring and controlling the behaviour of untrusted application, is an effective strategy. A confined malicious application cannot effect system resources and other applications running on same operating system. But present techniques used for sandboxing have some drawbacks ranging from scope to methodology. Some of proposed techniques restrict specific aspect of execution e.g. system calls and file system access. In the same way techniques that truly isolate the application by providing separate execution environment either require modification in kernel or full blown operating system. Moreover these do not provide isolation from top to bottom but only virtualize operating system services. In this paper, we propose a design to confine native Linux process in virtual machine equivalent isolation by using hardware virtualization extensions with nominal initialization and acceptable execution overheads. We implemented our prototype called Process Virtual Machine that transition a native process into virtual machine, provides minimal possible execution environment, intercept and virtualize system calls to execute it on host kernel. Experimental results show effectiveness of our proposed technique.

Massonet, P., Dupont, S., Michot, A., Levin, A., Villari, M..  2016.  Enforcement of global security policies in federated cloud networks with virtual network functions. 2016 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :81–84.

Federated cloud networks are formed by federating virtual network segments from different clouds, e.g. in a hybrid cloud, into a single federated network. Such networks should be protected with a global federated cloud network security policy. The availability of network function virtualisation and service function chaining in cloud platforms offers an opportunity for implementing and enforcing global federated cloud network security policies. In this paper we describe an approach for enforcing global security policies in federated cloud networks. The approach relies on a service manifest that specifies the global network security policy. From this manifest configurations of the security functions for the different clouds of the federation are generated. This enables automated deployment and configuration of network security functions across the different clouds. The approach is illustrated with a case study where communications between trusted and untrusted clouds, e.g. public clouds, are encrypted. The paper discusses future work on implementing this architecture for the OpenStack cloud platform with the service function chaining API.

Thongthua, A., Ngamsuriyaroj, S..  2016.  Assessment of Hypervisor Vulnerabilities. 2016 International Conference on Cloud Computing Research and Innovations (ICCCRI). :71–77.

Hypervisors are the main components for managing virtual machines on cloud computing systems. Thus, the security of hypervisors is very crucial as the whole system could be compromised when just one vulnerability is exploited. In this paper, we assess the vulnerabilities of widely used hypervisors including VMware ESXi, Citrix XenServer and KVM using the NIST 800-115 security testing framework. We perform real experiments to assess the vulnerabilities of those hypervisors using security testing tools. The results are evaluated using weakness information from CWE, and using vulnerability information from CVE. We also compute the severity scores using CVSS information. All vulnerabilities found of three hypervisors will be compared in terms of weaknesses, severity scores and impact. The experimental results showed that ESXi and XenServer have common weaknesses and vulnerabilities whereas KVM has fewer vulnerabilities. In addition, we discover a new vulnerability called HTTP response splitting on ESXi Web interface.

Alobaidan, I., Mackay, M., Tso, P..  2016.  Build Trust in the Cloud Computing - Isolation in Container Based Virtualisation. 2016 9th International Conference on Developments in eSystems Engineering (DeSE). :143–148.

Cloud computing is revolutionizing many IT ecosystems through offering scalable computing resources that are easy to configure, use and inter-connect. However, this model has always been viewed with some suspicion as it raises a wide range of security and privacy issues that need to be negotiated. This research focuses on the construction of a trust layer in cloud computing to build a trust relationship between cloud service providers and cloud users. In particular, we address the rise of container-based virtualisation has a weak isolation compared to traditional VMs because of the shared use of the OS kernel and system components. Therefore, we will build a trust layer to solve the issues of weaker isolation whilst maintaining the performance and scalability of the approach. This paper has two objectives. Firstly, we propose a security system to protect containers from other guests through the addition of a Role-based Access Control (RBAC) model and the provision of strict data protection and security. Secondly, we provide a stress test using isolation benchmarking tools to evaluate the isolation in containers in term of performance.

Baloglu, B..  2016.  How to find and fix software vulnerabilities with coverity static analysis. 2016 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :153–153.
Summary form only given, as follows. The complete presentation was not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. This hands-on workshop will combine minimal instruction with strong hands-on emphasis on practical lab exercises for attendees to practice the topics covered - the expected duration will be 90 minutes. The hands-on labs will give attendees the opportunity to run real-time Coverity analysis on a number of given codebases, to find vulnerabilities in both (a) and (b) categories (buffer overruns, cross-site scripting XSS, SQL Injections etc. with actionable advice on approaches and options to eliminate them The workshop attendees will be given access to their own dedicated virtual machines in our cloud-based lab platform. The VMs will be pre-configured with all the necessary software and sample codebases. Participant should bring their laptops with Wi-Fi network card, and a contemporary browser, such as Chrome, IE, FF, Safari or similar with HTML5 support, which they should run to validate compliance with our pre-check test. At the session start, attendees will be provided with access codes to remotely connect to their virtual lab machines using the Wi-Fi connectivity provided by the IEEE Sec Dev 2016 Conference.
Lauer, H., Kuntze, N..  2016.  Hypervisor-Based Attestation of Virtual Environments. 2016 Intl IEEE Conferences on Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big Data Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World Congress (UIC/ATC/ScalCom/CBDCom/IoP/SmartWorld). :333–340.
Several years ago, virtualization technologies, hypervisors were rediscovered, today virtualization is used in a variety of applications. Network operators have discovered the cost-effectiveness, flexibility,, scalability of virtualizing network functions (NFV). However, in light of current events, security breaches related to platform software manipulation the use of Trusted Computing technologies has become not only more popular but increasingly viewed as mandatory for adequate system protection. While Trusted Computing hardware for physical platforms is currently available, widely used, analogous support for virtualized environments, virtualized platforms is rare, not suitable for larger scale virtualization scenarios. Current remote, deep attestation protocols for virtual machines can support a limited amount of virtual machines before the inefficient use of the TPM device becomes a crucial bottle neck. We propose a scalable remote attestation scheme suitable for private cloud, NFV use cases supporting large amounts of VM attestations by efficient use of the physical TPM device.
Li, Xiao-Ke, Gu, Chun-Hua, Yang, Ze-Ping, Chang, Yao-Hui.  2015.  Virtual machine placement strategy based on discrete firefly algorithm in cloud environments. 2015 12th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :61–66.

Because of poor performance of heuristic algorithms on virtual machine placement problem in cloud environments, a multi-objective constraint optimization model of virtual machine placement is presented, which taking energy consumption and resource wastage as the objective. We solve the model based on the proposed discrete firefly algorithm. It takes firefly's location as the placement result, brightness as the objective value. Its movement strategy makes darker fireflies move to brighter fireflies in solution space. The continuous position after movement is discretized by the proposed discrete strategy. In order to speed up the search for solution, the local search mechanism for the optimal solution is introduced. The experimental results in OpenStack cloud platform show that the proposed algorithm makes less energy consumption and resource wastage compared with other algorithms.

Na, L., Yunwei, D., Tianwei, C., Chao, W., Yang, G..  2015.  The Legitimacy Detection for Multilevel Hybrid Cloud Algorithm Based Data Access. Reliability and Security - Companion 2015 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality. :169–172.

In this paper a joint algorithm was designed to detect a variety of unauthorized access risks in multilevel hybrid cloud. First of all, the access history is recorded among different virtual machines in multilevel hybrid cloud using the global flow diagram. Then, the global flow graph is taken as auxiliary decision-making basis to design legitimacy detection algorithm based data access and is represented by formal representation, Finally the implement process was specified, and the algorithm can effectively detect operating against regulations such as simple unauthorized level across, beyond indirect unauthorized and other irregularities.