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Perumal, Seethalakshmi, Sujatha P, Kola.  2021.  Stacking Ensemble-based XSS Attack Detection Strategy Using Classification Algorithms. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :897–901.

The accessibility of the internet and mobile platforms has risen dramatically due to digital technology innovations. Web applications have opened up a variety of market possibilities by supplying consumers with a wide variety of digital technologies that benefit from high accessibility and functionality. Around the same time, web application protection continues to be an important challenge on the internet, and security must be taken seriously in order to secure confidential data. The threat is caused by inadequate validation of user input information, software developed without strict adherence to safety standards, vulnerability of reusable software libraries, software weakness, and so on. Through abusing a website's vulnerability, introduers are manipulating the user's information in order to exploit it for their own benefit. Then introduers inject their own malicious code, stealing passwords, manipulating user activities, and infringing on customers' privacy. As a result, information is leaked, applications malfunction, confidential data is accessed, etc. To mitigate the aforementioned issues, stacking ensemble based classifier model for Cross-site scripting (XSS) attack detection is proposed. Furthermore, the stacking ensembles technique is used in combination with different machine learning classification algorithms like k-Means, Random Forest and Decision Tree as base-learners to reliably detect XSS attack. Logistic Regression is used as meta-learner to predict the attack with greater accuracy. The classification algorithms in stacking model explore the problem in their own way and its results are given as input to the meta-learner to make final prediction, thus improving the overall detection accuracy of XSS attack in stacking than the individual models. The simulation findings demonstrate that the proposed model detects XSS attack successfully.

Padma, Bh, Chandravathi, D, Pratibha, Lanka.  2021.  Defense Against Frequency Analysis In Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using K-Means Clustering. 2021 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems (ICCCIS). :64–69.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a revolution in asymmetric key cryptography which is based on the hardness of discrete logarithms. ECC offers lightweight encryption as it presents equal security for smaller keys, and reduces processing overhead. But asymmetric schemes are vulnerable to several cryptographic attacks such as plaintext attacks, known cipher text attacks etc. Frequency analysis is a type of cipher text attack which is a passive traffic analysis scenario, where an opponent studies the frequency or occurrence of single letter or groups of letters in a cipher text to predict the plain text part. Block cipher modes are not used in asymmetric key encryption because encrypting many blocks with an asymmetric scheme is literally slow and CBC propagates transmission errors. Therefore, in this research we present a new approach to defence against frequency analysis in ECC using K-Means clustering to defence against Frequency Analysis. In this proposed methodology, security of ECC against frequency analysis is achieved by clustering the points of the curve and selecting different cluster for encoding a text each time it is encrypted. This technique destroys the regularities in the cipher text and thereby guards against cipher text attacks.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Savage, Nick.  2019.  A Ransomware Detection Method Using Fuzzy Hashing for Mitigating the Risk of Occlusion of Information Systems. 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1–6.
Today, a significant threat to organisational information systems is ransomware that can completely occlude the information system by denying access to its data. To reduce this exposure and damage from ransomware attacks, organisations are obliged to concentrate explicitly on the threat of ransomware, alongside their malware prevention strategy. In attempting to prevent the escalation of ransomware attacks, it is important to account for their polymorphic behaviour and dispersion of inexhaustible versions. However, a number of ransomware samples possess similarity as they are created by similar groups of threat actors. A particular threat actor or group often adopts similar practices or codebase to create unlimited versions of their ransomware. As a result of these common traits and codebase, it is probable that new or unknown ransomware variants can be detected based on a comparison with their originating or existing samples. Therefore, this paper presents a detection method for ransomware by employing a similarity preserving hashing method called fuzzy hashing. This detection method is applied on the collected WannaCry or WannaCryptor ransomware corpus utilising three fuzzy hashing methods SSDEEP, SDHASH and mvHASH-B to evaluate the similarity detection success rate by each method. Moreover, their fuzzy similarity scores are utilised to cluster the collected ransomware corpus and its results are compared to determine the relative accuracy of the selected fuzzy hashing methods.
Huang, Zhiyi, Liu, Jinyan.  2018.  Optimal Differentially Private Algorithms for k-Means Clustering. Proceedings of the 37th ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGAI Symposium on Principles of Database Systems. :395–408.
We consider privacy-preserving k-means clustering. For the objective of minimizing the Wasserstein distance between the output and the optimal solution, we show that there is a polynomial-time (ε,δ)-differentially private algorithm which, for any sufficiently large Φ2 well-separated datasets, outputs k centers that are within Wasserstein distance Ø(Φ2) from the optimal. This result improves the previous bounds by removing the dependence on ε, number of centers k, and dimension d. Further, we prove a matching lower bound that no (ε, δ)-differentially private algorithm can guarantee Wasserstein distance less than Ømega (Φ2) and, thus, our positive result is optimal up to a constant factor. For minimizing the k-means objective when the dimension d is bounded, we propose a polynomial-time private local search algorithm that outputs an αn-additive approximation when the size of the dataset is at least \textbackslashtextasciitildeØ (k3/2 · d · ε-1 · poly(α-1)).
Panagiotakis, C., Papadakis, H., Fragopoulou, P..  2018.  Detection of Hurriedly Created Abnormal Profiles in Recommender Systems. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Systems (IS). :499–506.

Recommender systems try to predict the preferences of users for specific items. These systems suffer from profile injection attacks, where the attackers have some prior knowledge of the system ratings and their goal is to promote or demote a particular item introducing abnormal (anomalous) ratings. The detection of both cases is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a framework to spot anomalous rating profiles (outliers), where the outliers hurriedly create a profile that injects into the system either random ratings or specific ratings, without any prior knowledge of the existing ratings. The proposed detection method is based on the unpredictable behavior of the outliers in a validation set, on the user-item rating matrix and on the similarity between users. The proposed system is totally unsupervised, and in the last step it uses the k-means clustering method automatically spotting the spurious profiles. For the cases where labeling sample data is available, a random forest classifier is trained to show how supervised methods outperforms unsupervised ones. Experimental results on the MovieLens 100k and the MovieLens 1M datasets demonstrate the high performance of the proposed schemata.

Lin, P. C., Li, P. C., Nguyen, V. L..  2017.  Inferring OpenFlow Rules by Active Probing in Software-Defined Networks. 2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :415–420.

Software-defined networking (SDN) separates the control plane from underlying devices, and allows it to control the data plane from a global view. While SDN brings conveniences to management, it also introduces new security threats. Knowing reactive rules, attackers can launch denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by sending numerous rule-matched packets which trigger packet-in packets to overburden the controller. In this work, we present a novel method ``INferring SDN by Probing and Rule Extraction'' (INSPIRE) to discover the flow rules in SDN from probing packets. We evaluate the delay time from probing packets, classify them into defined classes, and infer the rules. This method involves three relevant steps: probing, clustering and rule inference. First, forged packets with various header fields are sent to measure processing and propagation time in the path. Second, it classifies the packets into multiple classes by using k-means clustering based on packet delay time. Finally, the apriori algorithm will find common header fields in the classes to infer the rules. We show how INSPIRE is able to infer flow rules via simulation, and the accuracy of inference can be up to 98.41% with very low false-positive rates.

Su, Dong, Cao, Jianneng, Li, Ninghui, Bertino, Elisa, Jin, Hongxia.  2016.  Differentially Private K-Means Clustering. Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :26–37.

There are two broad approaches for differentially private data analysis. The interactive approach aims at developing customized differentially private algorithms for various data mining tasks. The non-interactive approach aims at developing differentially private algorithms that can output a synopsis of the input dataset, which can then be used to support various data mining tasks. In this paper we study the effectiveness of the two approaches on differentially private k-means clustering. We develop techniques to analyze the empirical error behaviors of the existing interactive and non-interactive approaches. Based on the analysis, we propose an improvement of DPLloyd which is a differentially private version of the Lloyd algorithm. We also propose a non-interactive approach EUGkM which publishes a differentially private synopsis for k-means clustering. Results from extensive and systematic experiments support our analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of our improvement on DPLloyd and the proposed EUGkM algorithm.