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Boiarkin, Veniamin, Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan.  2022.  A novel Blockchain-Based Data-Aggregation scheme for Edge-Enabled Microgrid of Prosumers. 2022 Fourth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA). :63—68.

The concept of a microgrid has emerged as a promising solution for the management of local groups of electricity consumers and producers. The use of end-users' energy usage data can help in increasing efficient operation of a microgrid. However, existing data-aggregation schemes for a microgrid suffer different cyber attacks and do not provide high level of accuracy. This work aims at designing a privacy-preserving data-aggregation scheme for a microgrid of prosumers that achieves high level of accuracy, thereby benefiting to the management and control of a microgrid. First, a novel smart meter readings data protection mechanism is proposed to ensure privacy of prosumers by hiding the real energy usage data from other parties. Secondly, a blockchain-based data-aggregation scheme is proposed to ensure privacy of the end-users, while achieving high level of accuracy in terms of the aggregated data. The proposed data-aggregation scheme is evaluated using real smart meter readings data from 100 prosumers. The results show that the proposed scheme ensures prosumers' privacy and achieves high level of accuracy, while it is secure against eavesdropping and man-in-the-middle cyber attacks.

Nightingale, James S., Wang, Yingjie, Zobiri, Fairouz, Mustafa, Mustafa A..  2022.  Effect of Clustering in Federated Learning on Non-IID Electricity Consumption Prediction. 2022 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe). :1—5.

When applied to short-term energy consumption forecasting, the federated learning framework allows for the creation of a predictive model without sharing raw data. There is a limit to the accuracy achieved by standard federated learning due to the heterogeneity of the individual clients' data, especially in the case of electricity data, where prediction of peak demand is a challenge. A set of clustering techniques has been explored in the literature to improve prediction quality while maintaining user privacy. These studies have mainly been conducted using sets of clients with similar attributes that may not reflect real-world consumer diversity. This paper explores, implements and compares these clustering techniques for privacy-preserving load forecasting on a representative electricity consumption dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the effects of electricity consumption heterogeneity on federated forecasting and a non-representative sample's impact on load forecasting.

Boni, Mounika, Ch, Tharakeswari, Alamanda, Swathi, Arasada, Bhaskara Venkata Sai Gayath, Maria, Azees.  2022.  An Efficient and Secure Anonymous Authentication Scheme for V2G Networks. 2022 6th International Conference on Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICDCS). :432—436.

The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) network has a clear advantage in terms of economic benefits, and it has grabbed the interest of powergrid and electric vehicle (EV) consumers. Many V2G techniques, at present, for example, use bilinear pairing to execute the authentication scheme, which results in significant computational costs. Furthermore, in the existing V2G techniques, the system master key is issued independently by the third parties, it is vulnerable to leaking if the third party is compromised by an attacker. This paper presents an efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for V2G networks to overcome this issue we use a lightweight authentication system for electric vehicles and smart grids. In the proposed technique, the keys are generated by the trusted authority after the successful registration of EVs in the trusted authority and the dispatching center. The suggested scheme not only enhances the verification performance of V2G networks and also protects against inbuilt hackers.

Paudel, Amrit, Sampath, Mohasha, Yang, Jiawei, Gooi, Hoay Beng.  2022.  Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading in Smart Grid Considering Power Losses and Network Fees. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—1.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading is one of the promising approaches for implementing decentralized electricity market paradigms. In the P2P trading, each actor negotiates directly with a set of trading partners. Since the physical network or grid is used for energy transfer, power losses are inevitable, and grid-related costs always occur during the P2P trading. A proper market clearing mechanism is required for the P2P energy trading between different producers and consumers. This paper proposes a decentralized market clearing mechanism for the P2P energy trading considering the privacy of the agents, power losses as well as the utilization fees for using the third party owned network. Grid-related costs in the P2P energy trading are considered by calculating the network utilization fees using an electrical distance approach. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed decentralized approach for market clearing in P2P energy trading.

Ghosh, Soumyadyuti, Chatterjee, Urbi, Dey, Soumyajit, Mukhopadhyay, Debdeep.  2022.  Is the Whole lesser than its Parts? Breaking an Aggregation based Privacy aware Metering Algorithm 2022 25th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :921—929.

Smart metering is a mechanism through which fine-grained electricity usage data of consumers is collected periodically in a smart grid. However, a growing concern in this regard is that the leakage of consumers' consumption data may reveal their daily life patterns as the state-of-the-art metering strategies lack adequate security and privacy measures. Many proposed solutions have demonstrated how the aggregated metering information can be transformed to obscure individual consumption patterns without affecting the intended semantics of smart grid operations. In this paper, we expose a complete break of such an existing privacy preserving metering scheme [10] by determining individual consumption patterns efficiently, thus compromising its privacy guarantees. The underlying methodol-ogy of this scheme allows us to - i) retrieve the lower bounds of the privacy parameters and ii) establish a relationship between the privacy preserved output readings and the initial input readings. Subsequently, we present a rigorous experimental validation of our proposed attacking methodology using real-life dataset to highlight its efficacy. In summary, the present paper queries: Is the Whole lesser than its Parts? for such privacy aware metering algorithms which attempt to reduce the information leakage of aggregated consumption patterns of the individuals.

Silva, Cátia, Faria, Pedro, Vale, Zita.  2022.  Using Supervised Learning to Assign New Consumers to Demand Response Programs According to the Context. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2022 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe). :1—6.

Active consumers have now been empowered thanks to the smart grid concept. To avoid fossil fuels, the demand side must provide flexibility through Demand Response events. However, selecting the proper participants for an event can be complex due to response uncertainty. The authors design a Contextual Consumer Rate to identify the trustworthy participants according to previous performances. In the present case study, the authors address the problem of new players with no information. In this way, two different methods were compared to predict their rate. Besides, the authors also refer to the consumer privacy testing of the dataset with and without information that could lead to the participant identification. The results found to prove that, for the proposed methodology, private information does not have a high impact to attribute a rate.

Zobiri, Fairouz, Gama, Mariana, Nikova, Svetla, Deconinck, Geert.  2022.  A Privacy-Preserving Three-Step Demand Response Market Using Multi-Party Computation. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1—5.

Demand response has emerged as one of the most promising methods for the deployment of sustainable energy systems. Attempts to democratize demand response and establish programs for residential consumers have run into scalability issues and risks of leaking sensitive consumer data. In this work, we propose a privacy-friendly, incentive-based demand response market, where consumers offer their flexibility to utilities in exchange for a financial compensation. Consumers submit encrypted offer which are aggregated using Computation Over Encrypted Data to ensure consumer privacy and the scalability of the approach. The optimal allocation of flexibility is then determined via double-auctions, along with the optimal consumption schedule for the users with respect to the day-ahead electricity prices, thus also shielding participants from high electricity prices. A case study is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Himdi, Tarik, Ishaque, Mohammed, Ikram, Muhammed Jawad.  2022.  Cyber Security Challenges in Distributed Energy Resources for Smart Cities. 2022 9th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom). :788—792.

With the proliferation of data in Internet-related applications, incidences of cyber security have increased manyfold. Energy management, which is one of the smart city layers, has also been experiencing cyberattacks. Furthermore, the Distributed Energy Resources (DER), which depend on different controllers to provide energy to the main physical smart grid of a smart city, is prone to cyberattacks. The increased cyber-attacks on DER systems are mainly because of its dependency on digital communication and controls as there is an increase in the number of devices owned and controlled by consumers and third parties. This paper analyzes the major cyber security and privacy challenges that might inflict, damage or compromise the DER and related controllers in smart cities. These challenges highlight that the security and privacy on the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, artificial intelligence, and smart grid, which are the building blocks of a smart city, must be addressed in the DER sector. It is observed that the security and privacy challenges in smart cities can be solved through the distributed framework, by identifying and classifying stakeholders, using appropriate model, and by incorporating fault-tolerance techniques.

Lazaroiu, George Cristian, Kayisli, Korhan, Roscia, Mariacristina, Steriu, Ilinca Andreaa.  2022.  Smart Contracts for Households Managed by Smart Meter Equipped with Blockchain and Chain 2. 2022 11th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Application (ICRERA). :340—345.

Managing electricity effectively also means knowing as accurately as possible when, where and how electricity is used. Detailed metering and timely allocation of consumption can help identify specific areas where energy consumption is excessive and therefore requires action and optimization. All those interested in the measurement process (distributors, sellers, wholesalers, managers, ultimately customers and new prosumer figures - producers / consumers -) have an interest in monitoring and managing energy flows more efficiently, in real time.Smart meter plays a key role in sending data containing consumer measurements to both the producer and the consumer, thanks to chain 2. It allows you to connect consumption and production, during use and the customer’s identity, allowing billing as Time-of-Use or Real-Time Pricing, and through the new two-way channel, this information is also made available to the consumer / prosumer himself, enabling new services such as awareness of energy consumption at the very moment of energy use.This is made possible by latest generation devices that "talk" with the end user, which use chain 2 and the power line for communication.However, the implementation of smart meters and related digital technologies associated with the smart grid raises various concerns, including, privacy. This paper provides a comparative perspective on privacy policies for residential energy customers, moreover, it will be possible to improve security through the blockchain for the introduction of smart contracts.

Wu, Fazong, Wang, Xin, Yang, Ming, Zhang, Heng, Wu, Xiaoming, Yu, Jia.  2022.  Stealthy Attack Detection for Privacy-preserving Real-time Pricing in Smart Grids. 2022 13th Asian Control Conference (ASCC). :2012—2017.

Over the past decade, smart grids have been widely implemented. Real-time pricing can better address demand-side management in smart grids. Real-time pricing requires managers to interact more with consumers at the data level, which raises many privacy threats. Thus, we introduce differential privacy into the Real-time pricing for privacy protection. However, differential privacy leaves more space for an adversary to compromise the robustness of the system, which has not been well addressed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel active attack detection scheme against stealthy attacks, and then give the proof of correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Further, we conduct extensive experiments with real datasets from CER to verify the detection performance of the proposed scheme.

Wang, Zhanle, Munawar, Usman, Paranjape, Raman.  2020.  Stochastic Optimization for Residential Demand Response under Time of Use. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (PESGRE2020). :1–6.
Demand response (DR) is one of the most economical methods for peak demand reduction, renewable energy integration and ancillary service support. Residential electrical energy consumption takes approximately 33% of the total electricity usage and hence has great potentials in DR applications. However, residential DR encounters various challenges such as small individual magnitude, stochastic consuming patterns and privacy issues. In this study, we propose a stochastic optimal mechanism to tackle these issues and try to reveal the benefits from residential DR implementation. Stochastic residential load (SRL) models, a generation cost prediction (GCP) model and a stochastic optimal load aggregation (SOLA) model are developed. A set of uniformly distributed scalers is introduced into the SOLA model to efficiently avoid the peak demand rebound problem in DR applications. The SOLA model is further transformed into a deterministic LP model. Time-of-Use (TOU) tariff is adopted as the price structure because of its similarity and popularity. Case studies show that the proposed mechanism can significantly reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the load profile as well as the electrical energy cost. Furthermore, the impacts of consumers' participation levels in the DR program are investigated. Simulation results show that the 50% participation level appears as the best case in terms system stability. With the participation level of 80%, consumers' electrical energy cost is minimized. The proposed mechanism can be used by a residential load aggregator (LA) or a utility to plan a DR program, predict its impacts, and aggregate residential loads to minimize the electrical energy cost.
Hou, Shiming, Li, Hongjia, Yang, Chang, Wang, Liming.  2020.  A New Privacy-Preserving Framework Based on Edge-Fog-Cloud Continuum for Load Forecasting. 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–8.
As an essential part to intelligently fine-grained scheduling, planning and maintenance in smart grid and energy internet, short-term load forecasting makes great progress recently owing to the big data collected from smart meters and the leap forward in machine learning technologies. However, the centralized computing topology of classical electric information system, where individual electricity consumption data are frequently transmitted to the cloud center for load forecasting, tends to violate electric consumers' privacy as well as to increase the pressure on network bandwidth. To tackle the tricky issues, we propose a privacy-preserving framework based on the edge-fog-cloud continuum for smart grid. Specifically, 1) we gravitate the training of load forecasting models and forecasting workloads to distributed smart meters so that consumers' raw data are handled locally, and only the forecasting outputs that have been protected are reported to the cloud center via fog nodes; 2) we protect the local forecasting models that imply electricity features from model extraction attacks by model randomization; 3) we exploit a shuffle scheme among smart meters to protect the data ownership privacy, and utilize a re-encryption scheme to guarantee the forecasting data privacy. Finally, through comprehensive simulation and analysis, we validate our proposed privacy-preserving framework in terms of privacy protection, and computation and communication efficiency.
Keko, Hrvoje, Hasse, Peter, Gabandon, Eloi, Su\v cić, Stjepan, Isakovic, Karsten, Cipriano, Jordi.  2020.  Secure Standards-Based Reference Architecture for Flexibility Activation and Democratisation. CIRED 2020 Berlin Workshop (CIRED 2020). 2020:584–587.
This study presents an open standards-based information system supporting democratisation and consumer empowerment through flexibility activation. This study describes a functional technical reference infrastructure: a secure, standard-based and viable communication backbone for flexibility activation. The infrastructure allows connection, registering, activation and reporting for different types of granular consumer flexibility. The flexibility sources can be directly controllable set points of chargers and stationary batteries, as well as controllable loads. The proposed communication system sees all these flexibility provisions as distributed energy resources in a wider sense, and the architecture allows consumer-level integration of different energy systems. This makes new flexibility sources fully available to the balancing responsible entities in a viable and realistically implementable manner. The proposed reference architecture, as implemented in the FLEXCoop project, relies on established open standards as it is based on the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) and OAuth2/OpenID standards and the corresponding IEC 62746-10 standard, and it covers interfacing towards other relevant standards. The security and access implications are addressed by the OpenID security layer built on top of the OAuth2 and integrated with the OpenADR standard. To address the data protection and privacy aspects, the architecture is designed on the least knowledge principle.
Shateri, Mohammadhadi, Messina, Francisco, Piantanida, Pablo, Labeau, Fabrice.  2020.  On the Impact of Side Information on Smart Meter Privacy-Preserving Methods. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.
Smart meters (SMs) can pose privacy threats for consumers, an issue that has received significant attention in recent years. This paper studies the impact of Side Information (SI) on the performance of possible attacks to real-time privacy-preserving algorithms for SMs. In particular, we consider a deep adversarial learning framework, in which the desired releaser, which is a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), is trained by fighting against an adversary network until convergence. To define the objective for training, two different approaches are considered: the Causal Adversarial Learning (CAL) and the Directed Information (DI)-based learning. The main difference between these approaches relies on how the privacy term is measured during the training process. The releaser in the CAL method, disposing of supervision from the actual values of the private variables and feedback from the adversary performance, tries to minimize the adversary log-likelihood. On the other hand, the releaser in the DI approach completely relies on the feedback received from the adversary and is optimized to maximize its uncertainty. The performance of these two algorithms is evaluated empirically using real-world SMs data, considering an attacker with access to SI (e.g., the day of the week) that tries to infer the occupancy status from the released SMs data. The results show that, although they perform similarly when the attacker does not exploit the SI, in general, the CAL method is less sensitive to the inclusion of SI. However, in both cases, privacy levels are significantly affected, particularly when multiple sources of SI are included.
Alkaeed, Mahdi, Soliman, Md Mohiuddin, Khan, Khaled M., Elfouly, Tarek M..  2020.  Distributed Framework via Block-Chain Smart Contracts for Smart Grid Systems against Cyber-Attacks. 2020 11th IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (ICSGRC). :100–105.
In this century, the demand for energy is increasing daily, and the need for energy resources has become urgent and inevitable. New ways of generating energy, such as renewable resources that depend on many sources, including the sun and wind energy will contribute to the future of humankind largely and effectively. These renewable sources are facing major challenges that cannot be ignored which also require more researches on appropriate solutions . This has led to the emergence of a new type of network user called prosumer, which causes new challenges such as the intermittent nature of renewable. Smart grids have emerged as a solution to integrate these distributed energy sources. It also provides a mechanism to maintain safety and security for power supply networks. The main idea of smart grids is to facilitate local production and consumption By customers and consumers.Distributed ledger technology (DLT) or Block-chain technology has evolved dramatically since 2008 that coincided with the birth of its first application Bitcoin, which is the first cryptocurrency. This innovation led to sparked in the digital revolution, which provides decentralization, security, and democratization of information storage and transfer systems across numerous sectors/industries. Block-chain can be applied for the sake of the durability and safety of energy systems. In this paper, we will propose a new distributed framework that provides protection based on block-chain technology for energy systems to enhance self-defense capability against those cyber-attacks.
Yang, Haomiao, Liang, Shaopeng, Zhou, Qixian, Li, Hongwei.  2020.  Privacy-Preserving HE-Based Clustering for Load Profiling over Encrypted Smart Meter Data. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Load profiling is to cluster power consumption data to generate load patterns showing typical behaviors of consumers, and thus it has enormous potential applications in smart grid. However, short-interval readings would generate massive smart meter data. Although cloud computing provides an excellent choice to analyze such big data, it also brings significant privacy concerns since the cloud is not fully trustworthy. In this paper, based on a modified vector homomorphic encryption (VHE), we propose a privacy-preserving and outsourced k-means clustering scheme (PPOk M) for secure load profiling over encrypted meter data. In particular, we design a similarity-measuring method that effectively and non-interactively performs encrypted distance metrics. Besides, we present an integrity verification technique to detect the sloppy cloud server, which intends to stop iterations early to save computational cost. In addition, extensive experiments and analysis show that PPOk M achieves high accuracy and performance while preserving convergence and privacy.
Kserawi, Fawaz, Malluhi, Qutaibah M..  2020.  Privacy Preservation of Aggregated Data Using Virtual Battery in the Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Dependability in Sensor, Cloud and Big Data Systems and Application (DependSys). :106–111.
Smart Meters (SM) are IoT end devices used to collect user utility consumption with limited processing power on the edge of the smart grid (SG). While SMs have great applications in providing data analysis to the utility provider and consumers, private user information can be inferred from SMs readings. For preserving user privacy, a number of methods were developed that use perturbation by adding noise to alter user load and hide consumer data. Most methods limit the amount of perturbation noise using differential privacy to preserve the benefits of data analysis. However, additive noise perturbation may have an undesirable effect on billing. Additionally, users may desire to select complete privacy without giving consent to having their data analyzed. We present a virtual battery model that uses perturbation with additive noise obtained from a virtual chargeable battery. The level of noise can be set to make user data differentially private preserving statistics or break differential privacy discarding the benefits of data analysis for more privacy. Our model uses fog aggregation with authentication and encryption that employs lightweight cryptographic primitives. We use Diffie-Hellman key exchange for symmetrical encryption of transferred data and a two-way challenge-response method for authentication.
Shateri, Mohammadhadi, Messina, Francisco, Piantanida, Pablo, Labeau, Fabrice.  2020.  Privacy-Cost Management in Smart Meters Using Deep Reinforcement Learning. 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe). :929–933.
Smart meters (SMs) play a pivotal rule in the smart grid by being able to report the electricity usage of consumers to the utility provider (UP) almost in real-time. However, this could leak sensitive information about the consumers to the UP or a third-party. Recent works have leveraged the availability of energy storage devices, e.g., a rechargeable battery (RB), in order to provide privacy to the consumers with minimal additional energy cost. In this paper, a privacy-cost management unit (PCMU) is proposed based on a model-free deep reinforcement learning algorithm, called deep double Q-learning (DDQL). Empirical results evaluated on actual SMs data are presented to compare DDQL with the state-of-the-art, i.e., classical Q-learning (CQL). Additionally, the performance of the method is investigated for two concrete cases where attackers aim to infer the actual demand load and the occupancy status of dwellings. Finally, an abstract information-theoretic characterization is provided.
Wagh, Gaurav S., Mishra, Sumita.  2020.  A Cyber-Resilient Privacy Framework for the Smart Grid with Dynamic Billing Capabilities. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.
The desired features for the smart grid include dynamic billing capabilities along with consumer privacy protection. Existing aggregation-based privacy frameworks have limitations such as centralized designs prone to single points of failure and/or a high computational overload on the smart meters due to in-network aggregation or complex algorithmic operations. Additionally, these existing schemes do not consider how dynamic billing can be implemented while consumer privacy is preserved. In this paper, a cyber-resilient framework that enables dynamic billing while focusing on consumer privacy preservation is proposed. The distributed design provides a framework for spatio-temporal aggregation and keeps the process lightweight for the smart meters. The comparative analysis of our proposed work with existing work shows a significant improvement in terms of the spatial aggregation overhead, overhead on smart meters and scalability. The paper also discusses the resilience of our framework against privacy attacks.
Das, Sima, Panda, Ganapati.  2020.  An Initiative Towards Privacy Risk Mitigation Over IoT Enabled Smart Grid Architecture. 2020 International Conference on Renewable Energy Integration into Smart Grids: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Technology Modelling and Simulation (ICREISG). :168—173.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has transformed many application domains with realtime, continuous, automated control and information transmission. The smart grid is one such futuristic application domain in execution, with a large-scale IoT network as its backbone. By leveraging the functionalities and characteristics of IoT, the smart grid infrastructure benefits not only consumers, but also service providers and power generation organizations. The confluence of IoT and smart grid comes with its own set of challenges. The underlying cyberspace of IoT, though facilitates communication (information propagation) among devices of smart grid infrastructure, it undermines the privacy at the same time. In this paper we propose a new measure for quantifying the probability of privacy leakage based on the behaviors of the devices involved in the communication process. We construct a privacy stochastic game model based on the information shared by the device, and the access to the compromised device. The existence of Nash Equilibrium strategy of the game is proved theoretically. We experimentally validate the effectiveness of the privacy stochastic game model.
Paul, S., Padhy, N. P., Mishra, S. K., Srivastava, A. K..  2019.  UUCA: Utility-User Cooperative Algorithm for Flexible Load Scheduling in Distribution System. 2019 8th International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS). :1—6.
Demand response analysis in smart grid deployment substantiated itself as an important research area in recent few years. Two-way communication between utility and users makes peak load reduction feasible by delaying the operation of deferrable appliances. Flexible appliance rescheduling is preferred to the users compared to traditional load curtailment. Again, if users' preferences are accounted into appliance transferring process, then customers concede a little discomfort to help the utility in peak reduction. This paper presents a novel Utility-User Cooperative Algorithm (UUCA) to lower total electricity cost and gross peak demand while preserving users' privacy and preferences. Main driving force in UUCA to motivate the consumers is a new cost function for their flexible appliances. As a result, utility will experience low peak and due to electricity cost decrement, users will get reduced bill. However, to maintain privacy, the behaviors of one customer have not be revealed either to other customers or to the central utility. To justify the effectiveness, UUCA is executed separately on residential, commercial and industrial customers of a distribution grid. Harmony search optimization technique has proved itself superior compared to other heuristic search techniques to prove efficacy of UUCA.
Sarochar, J., Acharya, I., Riggs, H., Sundararajan, A., Wei, L., Olowu, T., Sarwat, A. I..  2019.  Synthesizing Energy Consumption Data Using a Mixture Density Network Integrated with Long Short Term Memory. 2019 IEEE Green Technologies Conference(GreenTech). :1—4.
Smart cities comprise multiple critical infrastructures, two of which are the power grid and communication networks, backed by centralized data analytics and storage. To effectively model the interdependencies between these infrastructures and enable a greater understanding of how communities respond to and impact them, large amounts of varied, real-world data on residential and commercial consumer energy consumption, load patterns, and associated human behavioral impacts are required. The dissemination of such data to the research communities is, however, largely restricted because of security and privacy concerns. This paper creates an opportunity for the development and dissemination of synthetic energy consumption data which is inherently anonymous but holds similarities to the properties of real data. This paper explores a framework using mixture density network (MDN) model integrated with a multi-layered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network which shows promise in this area of research. The model is trained using an initial sample recorded from residential smart meters in the state of Florida, and is used to generate fully synthetic energy consumption data. The synthesized data will be made publicly available for interested users.
Semwal, S., Badoni, M., Saxena, N..  2019.  Smart Meters for Domestic Consumers: Innovative Methods for Identifying Appliances using NIALM. 2019 Women Institute of Technology Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WITCON ECE). :81—90.
A country drives by their people and the electricity energy, the availability of the electricity power reflects the strength of that country. All most everything depends on the electricity energy, So it is become very important that we use the available energy very efficiently, and here the energy management come in the picture and Non Intrusive appliance Load monitoring (NIALM) is the part of energy management, in which the energy consumption by the particular load is monitored without any intrusion of wire/circuit. In literature, NIALM has been discussed as a monitoring process for conservation of energy using single point sensing (SPS) for extraction of aggregate signal of the appliances' features, ignoring the second function of demand response (DR) assuming that it would be manual or sensor-based. This assumption is not implementable in developing countries like India, because of requirement of extra cost of sensors, and privacy concerns. Surprisingly, despite decades of research on NIALM, none of the suggested procedures has resulted in commercial application. This paper highlights the causes behind non- commercialization, and proposes a viable and easy solution worthy of commercial exploitation both for monitoring and DR management for outage reduction in respect of Indian domestic consumers. Using a approach of multi point sensing (MPS), combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA), experiments has been done in laboratory environment and CPWD specification has been followed.
Efstathopoulos, G., Grammatikis, P. R., Sarigiannidis, P., Argyriou, V., Sarigiannidis, A., Stamatakis, K., Angelopoulos, M. K., Athanasopoulos, S. K..  2019.  Operational Data Based Intrusion Detection System for Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1—6.

With the rapid progression of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and especially of Internet of Things (IoT), the conventional electrical grid is transformed into a new intelligent paradigm, known as Smart Grid (SG). SG provides significant benefits both for utility companies and energy consumers such as the two-way communication (both electricity and information), distributed generation, remote monitoring, self-healing and pervasive control. However, at the same time, this dependence introduces new security challenges, since SG inherits the vulnerabilities of multiple heterogeneous, co-existing legacy and smart technologies, such as IoT and Industrial Control Systems (ICS). An effective countermeasure against the various cyberthreats in SG is the Intrusion Detection System (IDS), informing the operator timely about the possible cyberattacks and anomalies. In this paper, we provide an anomaly-based IDS especially designed for SG utilising operational data from a real power plant. In particular, many machine learning and deep learning models were deployed, introducing novel parameters and feature representations in a comparative study. The evaluation analysis demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed IDS and the improvement due to the suggested complex data representation.

Prasad, G., Huo, Y., Lampe, L., Leung, V. C. M..  2019.  Machine Learning Based Physical-Layer Intrusion Detection and Location for the Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
Security and privacy of smart grid communication data is crucial given the nature of the continuous bidirectional information exchange between the consumer and the utilities. Data security has conventionally been ensured using cryptographic techniques implemented at the upper layers of the network stack. However, it has been shown that security can be further enhanced using physical layer (PHY) methods. To aid and/or complement such PHY and upper layer techniques, in this paper, we propose a PHY design that can detect and locate not only an active intruder but also a passive eavesdropper in the network. Our method can either be used as a stand-alone solution or together with existing techniques to achieve improved smart grid data security. Our machine learning based solution intelligently and automatically detects and locates a possible intruder in the network by reusing power line transmission modems installed in the grid for communication purposes. Simulation results show that our cost-efficient design provides near ideal intruder detection rates and also estimates its location with a high degree of accuracy.