Visible to the public Biblio

Found 102 results

Filters: Keyword is Fault tolerance  [Clear All Filters]
Hristozov, Anton, Matson, Eric, Dietz, Eric, Rogers, Marcus.  2022.  Sensor Data Protection in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 17th Conference on Computer Science and Intelligence Systems (FedCSIS). :855—859.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have a physical part that can interact with sensors and actuators. The data that is read from sensors and the one generated to drive actuators is crucial for the correct operation of this class of devices. Most implementations trust the data being read from sensors and the outputted data to actuators. Real-time validation of the input and output of data for any system is crucial for the safety of its operation. This paper proposes an architecture for handling this issue through smart data guards detached from sensors and controllers and acting solely on the data. This mitigates potential issues of malfunctioning sensors and intentional sensor and controller attacks. The data guards understand the expected data, can detect anomalies and can correct them in real-time. This approach adds more guarantees for fault-tolerant behavior in the presence of attacks and sensor failures.
Carvalho, Gonçalo, Medeiros, Nadia, Madeira, Henrique, Cabral, Bruno.  2022.  A Functional FMECA Approach for the Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Resilience. 2022 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :672—681.
The damage or destruction of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) affect societies’ sustainable functioning. Therefore, it is crucial to have effective methods to assess the risk and resilience of CIs. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) are two approaches to risk assessment and criticality analysis. However, these approaches are complex to apply to intricate CIs and associated Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). We provide a top-down strategy, starting from a high abstraction level of the system and progressing to cover the functional elements of the infrastructures. This approach develops from FMECA but estimates risks and focuses on assessing resilience. We applied the proposed technique to a real-world CI, predicting how possible improvement scenarios may influence the overall system resilience. The results show the effectiveness of our approach in benchmarking the CI resilience, providing a cost-effective way to evaluate plausible alternatives concerning the improvement of preventive measures.
Basan, Elena, Mikhailova, Vasilisa, Shulika, Maria.  2022.  Exploring Security Testing Methods for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). :1—7.
A methodology for studying the level of security for various types of CPS through the analysis of the consequences was developed during the research process. An analysis of the architecture of cyber-physical systems was carried out, vulnerabilities and threats of specific devices were identified, a list of possible information attacks and their consequences after the exploitation of vulnerabilities was identified. The object of research is models of cyber-physical systems, including IoT devices, microcomputers, various sensors that function through communication channels, organized by cyber-physical objects. The main subjects of this investigation are methods and means of security testing of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The main objective of this investigation is to update the problem of security in cyber-physical systems, to analyze the security of these systems. In practice, the testing methodology for the cyber-physical system “Smart Factory” was implemented, which simulates the operation of a real CPS, with different types of links and protocols used.
Zhang, Chen, Wu, Zhouyang, Li, Xianghua, Liang, Jian, Jiang, Zhongyao, Luo, Ceheng, Wen, Fangjun, Wang, Guangda, Dai, Wei.  2022.  Resilience Assessment Method of Integrated Electricity and Gas System Based on Hetero-functional Graph Theory. 2022 2nd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Control Science (IC2ECS). :34–39.
The resilience assessment of electric and gas networks gains importance due to increasing interdependencies caused by the coupling of gas-fired units. However, the gradually increasing scale of the integrated electricity and gas system (IEGS) poses a significant challenge to current assessment methods. The numerical analysis method is accurate but time-consuming, which may incur a significant computational cost in large-scale IEGS. Therefore, this paper proposes a resilience assessment method based on hetero-functional graph theory for IEGS to balance the accuracy with the computational complexity. In contrast to traditional graph theory, HFGT can effectively depict the coupled systems with inherent heterogeneity and can represent the structure of heterogeneous functional systems in a clear and unambiguous way. In addition, due to the advantages of modelling the system functionality, the effect of line-pack in the gas network on the system resilience is depicted more precisely in this paper. Simulation results on an IEGS with the IEEE 9-bus system and a 7-node gas system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Mohammadi, Neda, Rasoolzadegan, Abbas.  2022.  A Pattern-aware Design and Implementation Guideline for Microservice-based Systems. 2022 27th International Computer Conference, Computer Society of Iran (CSICC). :1–6.
Nowadays, microservice architecture is known as a successful and promising architecture for smart city applications. Applying microservices in the designing and implementation of systems has many advantages such as autonomy, loosely coupled, composability, scalability, fault tolerance. However, the complexity of calling between microservices leads to problems in security, accessibility, and data management in the execution of systems. In order to address these challenges, in recent years, various researchers and developers have focused on the use of microservice patterns in the implementation of microservice-based systems. Microservice patterns are the result of developers’ successful experiences in addressing common challenges in microservicebased systems. However, hitherto no guideline has been provided for an in-depth understanding of microservice patterns and how to apply them to real systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate in detail the most widely used and important microservice patterns in order to analyze the function of each pattern, extract the behavioral signatures and construct a service dependency graph for them so that researchers and enthusiasts use the provided guideline to create a microservice-based system equipped with design patterns. To construct the proposed guideline, five real open source projects have been carefully investigated and analyzed and the results obtained have been used in the process of making the guideline.
Yuan, Dandan, Cui, Shujie, Russello, Giovanni.  2022.  We Can Make Mistakes: Fault-tolerant Forward Private Verifiable Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption. 2022 IEEE 7th European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :587–605.
Verifiable Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption (VDSSE) enables users to securely outsource databases (document sets) to cloud servers and perform searches and updates. The verifiability property prevents users from accepting incorrect search results returned by a malicious server. However, we discover that the community currently only focuses on preventing malicious behavior from the server but ignores incorrect updates from the client, which are very likely to happen since there is no record on the client to check. Indeed most existing VDSSE schemes are not sufficient to tolerate incorrect updates from the client. For instance, deleting a nonexistent keyword-identifier pair can break their correctness and soundness. In this paper, we demonstrate the vulnerabilities of a type of existing VDSSE schemes that fail them to ensure correctness and soundness properties on incorrect updates. We propose an efficient fault-tolerant solution that can consider any DSSE scheme as a black-box and make them into a fault-tolerant VDSSE in the malicious model. Forward privacy is an important property of DSSE that prevents the server from linking an update operation to previous search queries. Our approach can also make any forward secure DSSE scheme into a fault-tolerant VDSSE without breaking the forward security guarantee. In this work, we take FAST [1] (TDSC 2020), a forward secure DSSE, as an example, implement a prototype of our solution, and evaluate its performance. Even when compared with the previous fastest forward private construction that does not support fault tolerance, the experiments show that our construction saves 9× client storage and has better search and update efficiency.
Wang, Yingsen, Li, Yixiao, Zhao, Juanjuan, Wang, Guibin, Jiao, Weihan, Qiang, Yan, Li, Keqin.  2022.  A Fast and Secured Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Using Blockchain Consensus. 2022 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS). :1–8.
The architecture and functioning of the electricity markets are rapidly evolving in favour of solutions based on real-time data sharing and decentralised, distributed, renewable energy generation. Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy markets allow two individuals to transact with one another without the need of intermediaries, reducing the load on the power grid during peak hours. However, such a P2P energy market is prone to various cyber attacks. Blockchain technology has been proposed to implement P2P energy trading to support this change. One of the most crucial components of blockchain technology in energy trading is the consensus mechanism. It determines the effectiveness and security of the blockchain for energy trading. However, most of the consensus used in energy trading today are traditional consensus such as Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT). These traditional mechanisms cannot be directly adopted in P2P energy trading due to their huge computational power, low throughput, and high latency. Therefore, we propose the Block Alliance Consensus (BAC) mechanism based on Hashgraph. In a massive P2P energy trading network, BAC can keep Hashgraph's throughput while resisting Sybil attacks and supporting the addition and deletion of energy participants. The high efficiency and security of BAC and the blockchain-based energy trading platform are verified through experiments: our improved BAC has an average throughput that is 2.56 times more than regular BFT, 5 times greater than PoW, and 30% greater than the original BAC. The improved BAC has an average latency that is 41% less than BAC and 81% less than original BFT. Our energy trading blockchain (ETB)'s READ performance can achieve the most outstanding throughput of 1192 tps at a workload of 1200 tps, while WRITE can achieve 682 tps at a workload of 800 tps with a success rate of 95% and 0.18 seconds of latency.
ISSN: 2576-702X
Boni, Mounika, Ch, Tharakeswari, Alamanda, Swathi, Arasada, Bhaskara Venkata Sai Gayath, Maria, Azees.  2022.  An Efficient and Secure Anonymous Authentication Scheme for V2G Networks. 2022 6th International Conference on Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICDCS). :432—436.

The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) network has a clear advantage in terms of economic benefits, and it has grabbed the interest of powergrid and electric vehicle (EV) consumers. Many V2G techniques, at present, for example, use bilinear pairing to execute the authentication scheme, which results in significant computational costs. Furthermore, in the existing V2G techniques, the system master key is issued independently by the third parties, it is vulnerable to leaking if the third party is compromised by an attacker. This paper presents an efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for V2G networks to overcome this issue we use a lightweight authentication system for electric vehicles and smart grids. In the proposed technique, the keys are generated by the trusted authority after the successful registration of EVs in the trusted authority and the dispatching center. The suggested scheme not only enhances the verification performance of V2G networks and also protects against inbuilt hackers.

Alkoudsi, Mohammad Ibrahim, Fohler, Gerhard, Völp, Marcus.  2022.  Tolerating Resource Exhaustion Attacks in the Time-Triggered Architecture. 2022 XII Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC). :1—8.
The Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA) presents a blueprint for building safe and real-time constrained distributed systems, based on a set of orthogonal concepts that make extensive use of the availability of a globally consistent notion of time and a priori knowledge of events. Although the TTA tolerates arbitrary failures of any of its nodes by architectural means (active node replication, a membership service, and bus guardians), the design of these means considers only accidental faults. However, distributed safety- and real-time critical systems have been emerging into more open and interconnected systems, operating autonomously for prolonged times and interfacing with other possibly non-real-time systems. Therefore, the existence of vulnerabilities that adversaries may exploit to compromise system safety cannot be ruled out. In this paper, we discuss potential targeted attacks capable of bypassing TTA's fault-tolerance mechanisms and demonstrate how two well-known recovery techniques - proactive and reactive rejuvenation - can be incorporated into TTA to reduce the window of vulnerability for attacks without introducing extensive and costly changes.
Bogatyrev, Vladimir A., Bogatyrev, Stanislav V., Bogatyrev, Anatoly V..  2022.  Choosing the Discipline of Restoring Computer Systems with Acceptable Degradation with Consolidation of Node Resources Saved After Failures. 2022 International Conference on Information, Control, and Communication Technologies (ICCT). :1—4.
An approach to substantiating the choice of a discipline for the maintenance of a redundant computer system, with the possible use of node resources saved after failures, is considered. The choice is aimed at improving the reliability and profitability of the system, taking into account the operational costs of restoring nodes. Models of reliability of systems with service disciplines are proposed, providing both the possibility of immediate recovery of nodes after failures, and allowing degradation of the system when using node resources stored after failures in it. The models take into account the conditions of the admissibility or inadmissibility of the loss of information accumulated during the operation of the system. The operating costs are determined, taking into account the costs of restoring nodes for the system maintenance disciplines under consideration
Liu, Chun, Shi, Yue.  2022.  Anti-attack Fault-tolerant Control of Multi-agent Systems with Complicated Actuator Faults and Cyber Attacks. 2022 5th International Symposium on Autonomous Systems (ISAS). :1—5.
This study addresses the coordination issue of multi-agent systems under complicated actuator faults and cyber attacks. Distributed fault-tolerant design is developed with the estimated and output neighboring information in decentralized estimation observer. Criteria of reaching the exponential coordination of multi-agent systems with cyber attacks is obtained with average dwelling time and chattering bound method. Simulations validate the efficiency of the anti-attack fault-tolerant design.
Han, May Pyone, Htet, Soe Ye, Wuttisttikulkij, Lunchakorn.  2022.  Hybrid GNS3 and Mininet-WiFi Emulator for SDN Backbone Network Supporting Wireless IoT Traffic. 2022 37th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). :768-771.

In the IoT (Internet of Things) domain, it is still a challenge to modify the routing behavior of IoT traffic at the decentralized backbone network. In this paper, centralized and flexible software-defined networking (SDN) is utilized to route the IoT traffic. The management of IoT data transmission through the SDN core network gives the chance to choose the path with the lowest delay, minimum packet loss, or hops. Therefore, fault-tolerant delay awareness routing is proposed for the emulated SDN-based backbone network to handle delay-sensitive IoT traffic. Besides, the hybrid form of GNS3 and Mininet-WiFi emulation is introduced to collaborate the SDN-based backbone network in GNS3 and the 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Network) sensor network in Mininet-WiFi.

Spyrou, Theofilos, El-Sayed, Sarah A., Afacan, Engin, Camuñas-Mesa, Luis A., Linares-Barranco, Bernabé, Stratigopoulos, Haralampos-G..  2021.  Neuron Fault Tolerance in Spiking Neural Networks. 2021 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE). :743–748.
The error-resiliency of Artificial Intelligence (AI) hardware accelerators is a major concern, especially when they are deployed in mission-critical and safety-critical applications. In this paper, we propose a neuron fault tolerance strategy for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs). It is optimized for low area and power overhead by leveraging observations made from a large-scale fault injection experiment that pinpoints the critical fault types and locations. We describe the fault modeling approach, the fault injection framework, the results of the fault injection experiment, the fault-tolerance strategy, and the fault-tolerant SNN architecture. The idea is demonstrated on two SNNs that we designed for two SNN-oriented datasets, namely the N-MNIST and IBM's DVS128 gesture datasets.
Zhao, Junyi, Tang, Tao, Bu, Bing, Li, Qichang.  2021.  A Three-dimension Resilience State Space-based Approach to Resilience Assessment of CBTC system. 2021 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC). :3673—3678.
Traditional passive defense methods cannot resist the constantly updated and evolving cyber attacks. The concept of resilience is introducing to measure the ability of the system to maintain its function under attack. It matters in evaluating the security of modern industrial systems. This paper presents a 3D Resilience State Space method to assess Communication-based train control (CBTC) system resilience under malware attack. We model the spread of malware as two functions: the communicability function \$f\$(x) and the susceptibility function 9 (x). We describe the characteristics of these two function in the CBTC complex network by using the percolation theory. Then we use a perturbation formalism to analyze the impact of malware attack on information flow and use it as an indicator of the cyber layer state. The CBTC cyber-physical system resilience metric formalizes as the system state transitions in three-dimensional state space. The three dimensions respectively represent the cyber layer state, the physical layer state, and the transmission layer state. The simulation results reveal that the proposed framework can effectively assess the resilience of the CBTC system. And the anti-malware programs can prevent the spread of malware and improve CBTC system resilience.
Owoade, Ayoade Akeem, Osunmakinde, Isaac Olusegun.  2021.  Fault-tolerance to Cascaded Link Failures of Video Traffic on Attacked Wireless Networks. 2021 IST-Africa Conference (IST-Africa). :1–11.
Research has been conducted on wireless network single link failures. However, cascaded link failures due to fraudulent attacks have not received enough attention, whereas this requires solutions. This research developed an enhanced genetic algorithm (EGA) focused on capacity efficiency and fast restoration to rapidly resolve link-link failures. On complex nodes network, this fault-tolerant model was tested for such failures. Optimal alternative routes and the bandwidth required for quick rerouting of video traffic were generated by the proposed model. Increasing cascaded link failures increases bandwidth usage and causes transmission delay, which slows down video traffic routing. The proposed model outperformed popular Dijkstra models, in terms of time complexity. The survived solution paths demonstrate that the proposed model works well in maintaining connectivity despite cascaded link failures and would therefore be extremely useful in pandemic periods on emergency matters. The proposed technology is feasible for current business applications that require high-speed broadband networks.
Yu, Siyu, Chen, Ningjiang, Liang, Birui.  2021.  Predicting gray fault based on context graph in container-based cloud. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :224–234.
Distributed Container-based cloud system has the advantages of rapid deployment, efficient virtualization, simplified configuration, and well-scalability. However, good scalability may slow down container-based cloud because it is more vulnerable to gray faults. As a new fault model similar with fail-slow and limping, gray fault has so many root causes that current studies focus only on a certain type of fault are not sufficient. And unlike traditional cloud, container is a black box provided by service providers, making it difficult for traditional API intrusion-based diagnosis methods to implement. A better approach should shield low-level causes from high-level processing. A Gray Fault Prediction Strategy based on Context Graph is proposed according to the correlation between gray faults and application scenarios. From historical data, the performance metrics related to how above context evolve to fault scenarios are established, and scenarios represented by corresponding data are stored in a graph. A scenario will be predicted as a fault scenario, if its isomorphic scenario is found in the graph. The experimental results show that the success rate of prediction is stable at more than 90%, and it is verified the overhead is optimized well.
Trestioreanu, Lucian, Nita-Rotaru, Cristina, Malhotra, Aanchal, State, Radu.  2021.  SPON: Enabling Resilient Inter-Ledgers Payments with an Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay. 2021 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :92–100.
Payment systems are a critical component of everyday life in our society. While in many situations payments are still slow, opaque, siloed, expensive or even fail, users expect them to be fast, transparent, cheap, reliable and global. Recent technologies such as distributed ledgers create opportunities for near-real-time, cheaper and more transparent payments. However, in order to achieve a global payment system, payments should be possible not only within one ledger, but also across different ledgers and geographies.In this paper we propose Secure Payments with Overlay Networks (SPON), a service that enables global payments across multiple ledgers by combining the transaction exchange provided by the Interledger protocol with an intrusion-tolerant overlay of relay nodes to achieve (1) improved payment latency, (2) fault-tolerance to benign failures such as node failures and network partitions, and (3) resilience to BGP hijacking attacks. We discuss the design goals and present an implementation based on the Interledger protocol and Spines overlay network. We analyze the resilience of SPON and demonstrate through experimental evaluation that it is able to improve payment latency, recover from path outages, withstand network partition attacks, and disseminate payments fairly across multiple ledgers. We also show how SPON can be deployed to make the communication between different ledgers resilient to BGP hijacking attacks.
Khan, Maher, Babay, Amy.  2021.  Toward Intrusion Tolerance as a Service: Confidentiality in Partially Cloud-Based BFT Systems. 2021 51st Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :14–25.
Recent work on intrusion-tolerance has shown that resilience to sophisticated network attacks requires system replicas to be deployed across at least three geographically distributed sites. While commodity data centers offer an attractive solution for hosting these sites due to low cost and management overhead, their use raises significant confidentiality concerns: system operators may not want private data or proprietary algorithms exposed to servers outside their direct control. We present a new model for Byzantine Fault Tolerant replicated systems that moves toward “intrusion tolerance as a service”. Under this model, application logic and data are only exposed to servers hosted on the system operator's premises. Additional offsite servers hosted in data centers can support the needed resilience without executing application logic or accessing unencrypted state. We have implemented this approach in the open-source Spire system, and our evaluation shows that the performance overhead of providing confidentiality can be less than 4% in terms of latency.
Liu, Yizhong, Xia, Yu, Liu, Jianwei, Hei, Yiming.  2021.  A Secure and Decentralized Reconfiguration Protocol For Sharding Blockchains. 2021 7th IEEE Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :111–116.
Most present reconfiguration methods in sharding blockchains rely on a secure randomness, whose generation might be complicated. Besides, a reference committee is usually in charge of the reconfiguration, making the process not decentralized. To address the above issues, this paper proposes a secure and decentralized shard reconfiguration protocol, which allows each shard to complete the selection and confirmation of its own shard members in turn. The PoW mining puzzle is calculated using the public key hash value in the member list confirmed by the last shard. Through the mining and shard member list commitment process, each shard can update its members safely and efficiently once in a while. Furthermore, it is proved that our protocol satisfies the safety, consistency, liveness, and decentralization properties. The honest member proportion in each confirmed shard member list is guaranteed to exceed a certain safety threshold, and all honest nodes have an identical view on the list. The reconfiguration is ensured to make progress, and each node has the same right to participate in the process. Our secure and decentralized shard reconfiguration protocol could be applied to all committee-based sharding blockchains.
Wu, Peiyan, Chen, Wenbin, Wu, Hualin, Qi, Ke, Liu, Miao.  2021.  Enhanced Game Theoretical Spectrum Sharing Method Based on Blockchain Consensus. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–7.
The limited spectrum resources need to provide safe and efficient spectrum service for the intensive users. Malicious spectrum work nodes will affect the normal operation of the entire system. Using the blockchain model, consensus algorithm Praft based on optimized Raft is to solve the consensus problem in Byzantine environment. Message digital signatures give the spectrum node some fault tolerance and tamper resistance. Spectrum sharing among spectrum nodes is carried out in combination with game theory. The existing game theoretical algorithm does not consider the influence of spectrum occupancy of primary users and cognitive users on primary users' utility and enthusiasm at the same time. We elicits a reinforcement factor and analyzes the effect of the reinforcement factor on strategy performance. This scheme optimizes the previous strategy so that the profits of spectrum nodes are improved and a good Nash equilibrium is shown, while Praft solves the Byzantine problem left by Raft.
Tantawy, Ashraf.  2021.  Automated Malware Design for Cyber Physical Systems. 2021 9th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—6.

The design of attacks for cyber physical systems is critical to assess CPS resilience at design time and run-time, and to generate rich datasets from testbeds for research. Attacks against cyber physical systems distinguish themselves from IT attacks in that the main objective is to harm the physical system. Therefore, both cyber and physical system knowledge are needed to design such attacks. The current practice to generate attacks either focuses on the cyber part of the system using IT cyber security existing body of knowledge, or uses heuristics to inject attacks that could potentially harm the physical process. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to automatically generate integrity attacks from the CPS safety and control specifications, without knowledge of the physical system or its dynamics. The generated attacks violate the system operational and safety requirements, hence present a genuine test for system resilience. We present an algorithm to automate the malware payload development. Several examples are given throughout the paper to illustrate the proposed approach.

Wang, Weidong, Zheng, Yufu, Bao, Yeling, Shui, Shengkun, Jiang, Tao.  2021.  Modulated Signal Recognition Based on Feature-Multiplexed Convolutional Neural Networks. 2021 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information Technology, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA). 2:621–624.
Modulated signal identification plays a crucial role in both military reconnaissance and civilian signal regulation. Traditionally, modulated signal identification is based on high-order statistics, but this approach has many drawbacks. With the development of deep learning, its advantages are fully exploited by combining it with modulated signals to avoid the complex process of computing a priori knowledge while having good fault tolerance. In this paper, ten digital modulated signals are classified and recognized, and improvements are made on the basis of convolutional neural networks, using feature reuse to increase the depth of the convolutional layer and extract signal features with better results. After experimental analysis, the recognition accuracy increases with the rise of the signal-to-noise ratio, and can reach 90% and above when the signal-to-noise ratio is 30dB.
Silva, Douglas Simões, Graczyk, Rafal, Decouchant, Jérémie, Völp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2021.  Threat Adaptive Byzantine Fault Tolerant State-Machine Replication. 2021 40th International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS). :78–87.
Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense systems rely on threat level detectors that synchronously inform them of changing threat levels. However, to have a BFT-SMR protocol operate unattended, the state-of-the-art is still to configure them to withstand the highest possible number of faulty replicas \$f\$ they might encounter, which limits their performance, or to make the strong assumption that a trusted external reconfiguration service is available, which introduces a single point of failure. In this work, we present ThreatAdaptive the first BFT-SMR protocol that is automatically strengthened or optimized by its replicas in reaction to threat level changes. We first determine under which conditions replicas can safely reconfigure a BFT-SMR system, i.e., adapt the number of replicas \$n\$ and the fault threshold \$f\$ so as to outpace an adversary. Since replicas typically communicate with each other using an asynchronous network they cannot rely on consensus to decide how the system should be reconfigured. ThreatAdaptive avoids this pitfall by proactively preparing the reconfiguration that may be triggered by an increasing threat when it optimizes its performance. Our evaluation shows that ThreatAdaptive can meet the latency and throughput of BFT baselines configured statically for a particular level of threat, and adapt 30% faster than previous methods, which make stronger assumptions to provide safety.
Najafi, Maryam, Khoukhi, Lyes, Lemercier, Marc.  2021.  A Multidimensional Trust Model for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks. 2021 IEEE 46th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :419–422.
In this paper, we propose a multidimensional trust model for vehicular networks. Our model evaluates the trustworthiness of each vehicle using two main modes: 1) Direct Trust Computation DTC related to a direct connection between source and target nodes, 2) Indirect Trust Computation ITC related to indirectly communication between source and target nodes. The principal characteristics of this model are flexibility and high fault tolerance, thanks to an automatic trust scores assessment. In our extensive simulations, we use Total Cost Rate to affirm the performance of the proposed trust model.
Piatkowska, Ewa, Gavriluta, Catalin, Smith, Paul, Andrén, Filip Pröstl.  2020.  Online Reasoning about the Root Causes of Software Rollout Failures in the Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
An essential ingredient of the smart grid is software-based services. Increasingly, software is used to support control strategies and services that are critical to the grid's operation. Therefore, its correct operation is essential. For various reasons, software and its configuration needs to be updated. This update process represents a significant overhead for smart grid operators and failures can result in financial losses and grid instabilities. In this paper, we present a framework for determining the root causes of software rollout failures in the smart grid. It uses distributed sensors that indicate potential issues, such as anomalous grid states and cyber-attacks, and a causal inference engine based on a formalism called evidential networks. The aim of the framework is to support an adaptive approach to software rollouts, ensuring that a campaign completes in a timely and secure manner. The framework is evaluated for a software rollout use-case in a low voltage distribution grid. Experimental results indicate it can successfully discriminate between different root causes of failure, supporting an adaptive rollout strategy.