Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is iobt  [Clear All Filters]
Coleman, Jared, Kiamari, Mehrdad, Clark, Lillian, D'Souza, Daniel, Krishnamachari, Bhaskar.  2022.  Graph Convolutional Network-based Scheduler for Distributing Computation in the Internet of Robotic Things. MILCOM 2022 - 2022 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1070—1075.
Existing solutions for scheduling arbitrarily complex distributed applications on networks of computational nodes are insufficient for scenarios where the network topology is changing rapidly. New Internet of Things (IoT) domains like the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) and the Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) demand solutions that are robust and efficient in environments that experience constant and/or rapid change. In this paper, we demonstrate how recent advancements in machine learning (in particular, in graph convolutional neural networks) can be leveraged to solve the task scheduling problem with decent performance and in much less time than traditional algorithms.
Golam, Mohtasin, Akter, Rubina, Naufal, Revin, Doan, Van-Sang, Lee, Jae-Min, Kim, Dong-Seong.  2022.  Blockchain Inspired Intruder UAV Localization Using Lightweight CNN for Internet of Battlefield Things. MILCOM 2022 - 2022 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :342—349.
On the Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide significant operational advantages. However, the exploitation of the UAV by an untrustworthy entity might lead to security violations or possibly the destruction of crucial IoBT network functionality. The IoBT system has substantial issues related to data tampering and fabrication through illegal access. This paper proposes the use of an intelligent architecture called IoBT-Net, which is built on a convolution neural network (CNN) and connected with blockchain technology, to identify and trace illicit UAV in the IoBT system. Data storage on the blockchain ledger is protected from unauthorized access, data tampering, and invasions. Conveniently, this paper presents a low complexity and robustly performed CNN called LRCANet to estimate AOA for object localization. The proposed LRCANet is efficiently designed with two core modules, called GFPU and stacks, which are cleverly organized with regular and point convolution layers, a max pool layer, and a ReLU layer associated with residual connectivity. Furthermore, the effectiveness of LRCANET is evaluated by various network and array configurations, RMSE, and compared with the accuracy and complexity of the existing state-of-the-art. Additionally, the implementation of tailored drone-based consensus is evaluated in terms of three major classes and compared with the other existing consensus.
Rivera, Abel O. Gomez, White, Evan M., Acosta, Jaime C., Tosh, Deepak.  2022.  Enabling Device Trustworthiness for SDN-Enabled Internet -of- Battlefield Things. 2022 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—7.
Military networks consist of heterogeneous devices that provide soldiers with real-time terrain and mission intel-ligence. The development of next-generation Software Defined Networks (SDN)-enabled devices is enabling the modernization of traditional military networks. Commonly, traditional military networks take the trustworthiness of devices for granted. How-ever, the recent modernization of military networks introduces cyber attacks such as data and identity spoofing attacks. Hence, it is crucial to ensure the trustworthiness of network traffic to ensure the mission's outcome. This work proposes a Continuous Behavior-based Authentication (CBA) protocol that integrates network traffic analysis techniques to provide robust and efficient network management flow by separating data and control planes in SDN-enabled military networks. The evaluation of the CBA protocol aimed to measure the efficiency of the proposed protocol in realistic military networks. Furthermore, we analyze the overall network overhead of the CBA protocol and its accuracy to detect rogue network traffic data from field devices.
Figueira, Nina, Pochmann, Pablo, Oliveira, Abel, de Freitas, Edison Pignaton.  2022.  A C4ISR Application on the Swarm Drones Context in a Low Infrastructure Scenario. 2022 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Energy Technologies (ICECET). :1—7.
The military operations in low communications infrastructure scenarios employ flexible solutions to optimize the data processing cycle using situational awareness systems, guaranteeing interoperability and assisting in all processes of decision-making. This paper presents an architecture for the integration of Command, Control, Computing, Communication, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems (C4ISR), developed within the scope of the Brazilian Ministry of Defense, in the context of operations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) - swarm drones - and the Internet-to-the-battlefield (IoBT) concept. This solution comprises the following intelligent subsystems embedded in UAV: STFANET, an SDN-Based Topology Management for Flying Ad Hoc Network focusing drone swarms operations, developed by University of Rio Grande do Sul; Interoperability of Command and Control (INTERC2), an intelligent communication middleware developed by Brazilian Navy; A Mission-Oriented Sensors Array (MOSA), which provides the automatization of data acquisition, data fusion, and data sharing, developed by Brazilian Army; The In-Flight Awareness Augmentation System (IFA2S), which was developed to increase the safety navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), developed by Brazilian Air Force; Data Mining Techniques to optimize the MOSA with data patterns; and an adaptive-collaborative system, composed of a Software Defined Radio (SDR), to solve the identification of electromagnetic signals and a Geographical Information System (GIS) to organize the information processed. This research proposes, as a main contribution in this conceptual phase, an application that describes the premises for increasing the capacity of sensing threats in the low structured zones, such as the Amazon rainforest, using existing communications solutions of Brazilian defense monitoring systems.
Ding, Haihao, Zhao, Qingsong.  2022.  Multilayer Network Modeling and Stability Analysis of Internet of Battlefield Things. 2022 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—6.
Intelligent service network under the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) uses sensor and network communication technology to realize the interconnection of everything and real-time communication between devices. Under the background of combat, all kinds of sensor devices and equipment units need to be highly networked to realize interconnection and information sharing, which makes the Internet of Things technology hopeful to be applied in the battlefield to interconnect these entities to form the Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT). This paper analyzes the related concepts of IoBT, and constructs the IoBT multilayer dependency network model according to the typical characteristics and topology of IoBT, then constructs the weighted super-adjacency matrix according to the coupling weights within and between different layers, and the stability model of IoBT is analyzed and derived. Finally, an example of IoBT network is given to provide a reference for analyzing the stability factors of IoBT network.
Liu, Dongxin, Abdelzaher, Tarek, Wang, Tianshi, Hu, Yigong, Li, Jinyang, Liu, Shengzhong, Caesar, Matthew, Kalasapura, Deepti, Bhattacharyya, Joydeep, Srour, Nassy et al..  2022.  IoBT-OS: Optimizing the Sensing-to-Decision Loop for the Internet of Battlefield Things. 2022 International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—10.
Recent concepts in defense herald an increasing degree of automation of future military systems, with an emphasis on accelerating sensing-to-decision loops at the tactical edge, reducing their network communication footprint, and improving the inference quality of intelligent components in the loop. These requirements pose resource management challenges, calling for operating-system-like constructs that optimize the use of limited computational resources at the tactical edge. This paper describes these challenges and presents IoBT-OS, an operating system for the Internet of Battlefield Things that aims to optimize decision latency, improve decision accuracy, and reduce corresponding resource demands on computational and network components. A simple case-study with initial evaluation results is shown from a target tracking application scenario.
Abdelzaher, Tarek, Bastian, Nathaniel D., Jha, Susmit, Kaplan, Lance, Srivastava, Mani, Veeravalli, Venugopal V..  2022.  Context-aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference in IoBTs. MILCOM 2022 - 2022 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1053—1058.
IoBTs must feature collaborative, context-aware, multi-modal fusion for real-time, robust decision-making in adversarial environments. The integration of machine learning (ML) models into IoBTs has been successful at solving these problems at a small scale (e.g., AiTR), but state-of-the-art ML models grow exponentially with increasing temporal and spatial scale of modeled phenomena, and can thus become brittle, untrustworthy, and vulnerable when interpreting large-scale tactical edge data. To address this challenge, we need to develop principles and methodologies for uncertainty-quantified neuro-symbolic ML, where learning and inference exploit symbolic knowledge and reasoning, in addition to, multi-modal and multi-vantage sensor data. The approach features integrated neuro-symbolic inference, where symbolic context is used by deep learning, and deep learning models provide atomic concepts for symbolic reasoning. The incorporation of high-level symbolic reasoning improves data efficiency during training and makes inference more robust, interpretable, and resource-efficient. In this paper, we identify the key challenges in developing context-aware collaborative neuro-symbolic inference in IoBTs and review some recent progress in addressing these gaps.
Cobb, Adam D., Jalaian, Brian A., Bastian, Nathaniel D., Russell, Stephen.  2021.  Robust Decision-Making in the Internet of Battlefield Things Using Bayesian Neural Networks. 2021 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC). :1–12.
The Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) is a dynamically composed network of intelligent sensors and actuators that operate as a command and control, communications, computers, and intelligence complex-system with the aim to enable multi-domain operations. The use of artificial intelligence can help transform the IoBT data into actionable insight to create information and decision advantage on the battlefield. In this work, we focus on how accounting for uncertainty in IoBT systems can result in more robust and safer systems. Human trust in these systems requires the ability to understand and interpret how machines make decisions. Most real-world applications currently use deterministic machine learning techniques that cannot incorporate uncertainty. In this work, we focus on the machine learning task of classifying vehicles from their audio recordings, comparing deterministic convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with Bayesian CNNs to show that correctly estimating the uncertainty can help lead to robust decision-making in IoBT.
Anwar, Ahmed H., Leslie, Nandi O., Kamhoua, Charles A..  2021.  Honeypot Allocation for Cyber Deception in Internet of Battlefield Things Systems. MILCOM 2021 - 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1005–1010.
Cyber deception plays an important role in both proactive and reactive defense systems. Internet of Battlefield things connecting smart devices of any military tactical network is of great importance. The goal of cyber deception is to provide false information regarding the network state, and topology to protect the IoBT's network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel deceptive approach based on game theory that takes into account the topological aspects of the network and the criticality of each device. To find the optimal deceptive strategy, we formulate a two-player game to study the interactions between the network defender and the adversary. The Nash equilibrium of the game model is characterized. Moreover, we propose a scalable game-solving algorithm to overcome the curse of dimensionality. This approach is based on solving a smaller in-size subgame per node. Our numerical results show that the proposed deception approach effectively reduced the impact and the reward of the attacker
Fang, Shiwei, Huang, Jin, Samplawski, Colin, Ganesan, Deepak, Marlin, Benjamin, Abdelzaher, Tarek, Wigness, Maggie B..  2021.  Optimizing Intelligent Edge-clouds with Partitioning, Compression and Speculative Inference. MILCOM 2021 - 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :892–896.
Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBTs) are well positioned to take advantage of recent technology trends that have led to the development of low-power neural accelerators and low-cost high-performance sensors. However, a key challenge that needs to be dealt with is that despite all the advancements, edge devices remain resource-constrained, thus prohibiting complex deep neural networks from deploying and deriving actionable insights from various sensors. Furthermore, deploying sophisticated sensors in a distributed manner to improve decision-making also poses an extra challenge of coordinating and exchanging data between the nodes and server. We propose an architecture that abstracts away these thorny deployment considerations from an end-user (such as a commander or warfighter). Our architecture can automatically compile and deploy the inference model into a set of distributed nodes and server while taking into consideration of the resource availability, variation, and uncertainties.
Olowononi, Felix O., Anwar, Ahmed H., Rawat, Danda B., Acosta, Jaime C., Kamhoua, Charles A..  2021.  Deep Learning for Cyber Deception in Wireless Networks. 2021 17th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :551–558.
Wireless communications networks are an integral part of intelligent systems that enhance the automation of various activities and operations embarked by humans. For example, the development of intelligent devices imbued with sensors leverages emerging technologies such as machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI), which have proven to enhance military operations through communication, control, intelligence gathering, and situational awareness. However, growing concerns in cybersecurity imply that attackers are always seeking to take advantage of the widened attack surface to launch adversarial attacks which compromise the activities of legitimate users. To address this challenge, we leverage on deep learning (DL) and the principle of cyber-deception to propose a method for defending wireless networks from the activities of jammers. Specifically, we use DL to regulate the power allocated to users and the channel they use to communicate, thereby luring jammers into attacking designated channels that are considered to guarantee maximum damage when attacked. Furthermore, by directing its energy towards the attack on a specific channel, other channels are freed up for actual transmission, ensuring secure communication. Through simulations and experiments carried out, we conclude that this approach enhances security in wireless communication systems.
Papakostas, Dimitrios, Kasidakis, Theodoros, Fragkou, Evangelia, Katsaros, Dimitrios.  2021.  Backbones for Internet of Battlefield Things. 2021 16th Annual Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services Conference (WONS). :1–8.
The Internet of Battlefield Things is a relatively new cyberphysical system and even though it shares a lot of concepts from the Internet of Things and wireless ad hoc networking in general, a lot of research is required to address its scale and peculiarities. In this article we examine a fundamental problem pertaining to the routing/dissemination of information, namely the construction of a backbone. We model an IoBT ad hoc network as a multilayer network and employ the concept of domination for multilayer networks which is a complete departure from the volume of earlier works, in order to select sets of nodes that will support the routing of information. Even though there is huge literature on similar topics during the past many years, the problem in military (IoBT) networks is quite different since these wireless networks are multilayer networks and treating them as a single (flat) network or treating each layer in isolation and calculating dominating set produces submoptimal or bad solutions; thus all the past literature which deals with single layer (flat) networks is in principle inappropriate. We design a new, distributed algorithm for calculating connected dominating sets which produces dominating sets of small cardinality. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on synthetic topologies, and compare it against the only two existing competitors. The proposed algorithm establishes itself as the clear winner in all experiments.
Fadul, Mohamed K. M., Reising, Donald R., Arasu, K. T., Clark, Michael R..  2021.  Adversarial Machine Learning for Enhanced Spread Spectrum Communications. MILCOM 2021 - 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :783–788.
Recently deep learning has demonstrated much success within the fields of image and natural language processing, facial recognition, and computer vision. The success is attributed to large, accessible databases and deep learning's ability to learn highly accurate models. Thus, deep learning is being investigated as a viable end-to-end approach to digital communications design. This work investigates the use of adversarial deep learning to ensure that a radio can communicate covertly, via Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), with another while a third (the adversary) is actively attempting to detect, intercept and exploit their communications. The adversary's ability to detect and exploit the DSSS signals is hindered by: (i) generating a set of spreading codes that are balanced and result in low side lobes as well as (ii) actively adapting the encoding scheme. Lastly, DSSS communications performance is assessed using energy constrained devices to accurately portray IoT and IoBT device limitations.
Cismas, Alexandru, Matei, Ioana, Popescu, Decebal.  2021.  Condensed Survey On Wearable IoBT Devices. 2021 International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB). :1–4.
This document paper presents a critical and condensed analyze on series of devices that are intended for the military field, making an overview analysis of the technical solutions presented and that identifying those aspects that are really important for the military field or that offering a new approach. We currently have a wide range of medical devices that can be adapted for use in the military, but this adaptation must follow some well-defined aspects. A device that does not offer 100% reliability will be difficult to adopt in a military system, where mistakes are not allowed.
Karim, Hassan, Rawat, Danda B..  2021.  Evaluating Machine Learning Classifiers for Data Sharing in Internet of Battlefield Things. 2021 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :01–07.
The most widely used method to prevent adversaries from eavesdropping on sensitive sensor, robot, and war fighter communications is mathematically strong cryptographic algorithms. However, prevailing cryptographic protocol mandates are often made without consideration of resource constraints of devices in the internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT). In this article, we address the challenges of IoBT sensor data exchange in contested environments. Battlefield IoT (Internet of Things) devices need to exchange data and receive feedback from other devices such as tanks and command and control infrastructure for analysis, tracking, and real-time engagement. Since data in IoBT systems may be massive or sparse, we introduced a machine learning classifier to determine what type of data to transmit under what conditions. We compared Support Vector Machine, Bayes Point Match, Boosted Decision Trees, Decision Forests, and Decision Jungles on their abilities to recommend the optimal confidentiality preserving data and transmission path considering dynamic threats. We created a synthesized dataset that simulates platoon maneuvers and IED detection components. We found Decision Jungles to produce the most accurate results while requiring the least resources during training to produce those results. We also introduced the JointField blockchain network for joint and allied force data sharing. With our classifier, strategists, and system designers will be able to enable adaptive responses to threats while engaged in real-time field conflict.
Gupta, Ragini, Nahrstedt, Klara, Suri, Niranjan, Smith, Jeffrey.  2021.  SVAD: End-to-End Sensory Data Analysis for IoBT-Driven Platforms. 2021 IEEE 7th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :903–908.
The rapid advancement of IoT technologies has led to its flexible adoption in battle field networks, known as Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) networks. One important application of IoBT networks is the weather sensory network characterized with a variety of weather, land and environmental sensors. This data contains hidden trends and correlations, needed to provide situational awareness to soldiers and commanders. To interpret the incoming data in real-time, machine learning algorithms are required to automate strategic decision-making. Existing solutions are not well-equipped to provide the fine-grained feedback to military personnel and cannot facilitate a scalable, end-to-end platform for fast unlabeled data collection, cleaning, querying, analysis and threats identification. In this work, we present a scalable end-to-end IoBT data driven platform for SVAD (Storage, Visualization, Anomaly Detection) analysis of heterogeneous weather sensor data. Our SVAD platform includes extensive data cleaning techniques to denoise efficiently data to differentiate data from anomalies and noise data instances. We perform comparative analysis of unsupervised machine learning algorithms for multi-variant data analysis and experimental evaluation of different data ingestion pipelines to show the ability of the SVAD platform for (near) real-time processing. Our results indicate impending turbulent weather conditions that can be detected by early anomaly identification and detection techniques.
Limouchi, Elnaz, Mahgoub, Imad.  2021.  Reinforcement Learning-assisted Threshold Optimization for Dynamic Honeypot Adaptation to Enhance IoBT Networks Security. 2021 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :1–7.
Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) is the application of Internet of Things (IoT) to a battlefield environment. IoBT networks operate in difficult conditions due to high mobility and unpredictable nature of battle fields and securing them is a challenge. There is increasing interest to use deception techniques to enhance the security of IoBT networks. A honeypot is a system installed on a network as a trap to attract the attention of an attacker and it does not store any valuable data. In this work, we introduce IoBT dual sensor gateways. We propose a Reinforcement Learning (RL)-assisted scheme, in which the IoBT dual sensor gateways intelligently switch between honeypot and real function based on a threshold. The optimal threshold is determined using reinforcement learning approach that adapts to nodes reputation. To focus on the impact of the mobile and uncertain behavior of IoBT networks on the proposed scheme, we consider the nodes as moving vehicles. We statistically analyze the results of our RL-based scheme obtained using ns-3 network simulation, and optimize value of the threshold.
Doku, R., Rawat, D. B., Garuba, M., Njilla, L..  2020.  Fusion of Named Data Networking and Blockchain for Resilient Internet-of-Battlefield-Things. 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.
Named Data Network's (NDN) data-centric approach makes it a suitable solution in a networking scenario where there are connectivity issues as a result of the dynamism of the network. Coupling of this ability with the blockchain's well-documented immutable trustworthy-distributed ledger feature, the union of blockchain and NDN in an Internet-of-Battlefield-Things (IoBT) setting could prove to be the ideal alliance that would guarantee data exchanged in an IoBT environment is trusted and less susceptible to cyber-attacks and packet losses. Various blockchain technologies, however, require that each node has a ledger that stores information or transactions in a chain of blocks. This poses an issue as nodes in an IoBT setting have varying computing and storage resources. Moreover, most of the nodes in the IoT/IoBT network are plagued with limited resources. As such, there needs to be an approach that ensures that the limited resources of these nodes are efficiently utilized. In this paper, we investigate an approach that merges blockchain and NDN to efficiently utilize the resources of these resource-constrained nodes by only storing relevant information on each node's ledger. Furthermore, we propose a sharding technique called an Interest Group and introduce a novel consensus mechanism called Proof of Common Interest. Performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using numerical results.
Abdelzaher, T., Ayanian, N., Basar, T., Diggavi, S., Diesner, J., Ganesan, D., Govindan, R., Jha, S., Lepoint, T., Marlin, B. et al..  2018.  Toward an Internet of Battlefield Things: A Resilience Perspective. Computer. 51:24—36.

The Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) might be one of the most expensive cyber-physical systems of the next decade, yet much research remains to develop its fundamental enablers. A challenge that distinguishes the IoBT from its civilian counterparts is resilience to a much larger spectrum of threats.

Radha, P., Selvakumar, N., Sekar, J. Raja, Johnsonselva, J. V..  2018.  Enhancing Internet of Battle Things using Ultrasonic assisted Non-Destructive Testing (Technical solution). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC). :1—4.

The subsystem of IoMT (Internet of Military of Things) called IoBT (Internet of Battle of Things) is the major resource of the military where the various stack holders of the battlefield and different categories of equipment are tightly integrated through the internet. The proposed architecture mentioned in this paper will be helpful to design IoBT effectively for warfare using irresistible technologies like information technology, embedded technology, and network technology. The role of Machine intelligence is essential in IoBT to create smart things and provide accurate solutions without human intervention. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is used in Industries to examine and analyze the invisible defects of equipment. Generally, the ultrasonic waves are used to examine and analyze the internal defects of materials. Hence the proposed architecture of IoBT is enhanced by ultrasonic based NDT to study the properties of the things of the battlefield without causing any damage.

Abuzainab, N., Saad, W..  2018.  Misinformation Control in the Internet of Battlefield Things: A Multiclass Mean-Field Game. 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—7.

In this paper, the problem of misinformation propagation is studied for an Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) system in which an attacker seeks to inject false information in the IoBT nodes in order to compromise the IoBT operations. In the considered model, each IoBT node seeks to counter the misinformation attack by finding the optimal probability of accepting a given information that minimizes its cost at each time instant. The cost is expressed in terms of the quality of information received as well as the infection cost. The problem is formulated as a mean-field game with multiclass agents which is suitable to model a massive heterogeneous IoBT system. For this game, the mean-field equilibrium is characterized, and an algorithm based on the forward backward sweep method is proposed. Then, the finite IoBT case is considered, and the conditions of convergence of the equilibria in the finite case to the mean-field equilibrium are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a two-fold increase in the quality of information (QoI) compared to the baseline when the nodes are always transmitting.

Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  Game theoretic modeling of cyber deception in the Internet of Battlefield Things. 2018 56th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :862—862.

Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) devices such as actuators, sensors, wearable devises, robots, drones, and autonomous vehicles, facilitate the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) to Command and Control and battlefield services. IoBT devices have the ability to collect operational field data, to compute on the data, and to upload its information to the network. Securing the IoBT presents additional challenges compared with traditional information technology (IT) systems. First, IoBT devices are mass produced rapidly to be low-cost commodity items without security protection in their original design. Second, IoBT devices are highly dynamic, mobile, and heterogeneous without common standards. Third, it is imperative to understand the natural world, the physical process(es) under IoBT control, and how these real-world processes can be compromised before recommending any relevant security counter measure. Moreover, unprotected IoBT devices can be used as “stepping stones” by attackers to launch more sophisticated attacks such as advanced persistent threats (APTs). As a result of these challenges, IoBT systems are the frequent targets of sophisticated cyber attack that aim to disrupt mission effectiveness.

Abuzainab, N., Saad, W..  2018.  A Multiclass Mean-Field Game for Thwarting Misinformation Spread in the Internet of Battlefield Things. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 66:6643—6658.

In this paper, the problem of misinformation propagation is studied for an Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) system, in which an attacker seeks to inject false information in the IoBT nodes in order to compromise the IoBT operations. In the considered model, each IoBT node seeks to counter the misinformation attack by finding the optimal probability of accepting given information that minimizes its cost at each time instant. The cost is expressed in terms of the quality of information received as well as the infection cost. The problem is formulated as a mean-field game with multiclass agents, which is suitable to model a massive heterogeneous IoBT system. For this game, the mean-field equilibrium is characterized, and an algorithm based on the forward backward sweep method is proposed to find the mean-field equilibrium. Then, the finite-IoBT case is considered, and the conditions of convergence of the equilibria in the finite case to the mean-field equilibrium are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a 1.2-fold increase in the quality of information compared with a baseline scheme, in which the IoBT nodes are always transmitting. The results also show that the proposed scheme can reduce the proportion of infected nodes by 99% compared with the baseline.

Tosh, D. K., Shetty, S., Foytik, P., Njilla, L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  Blockchain-Empowered Secure Internet -of- Battlefield Things (IoBT) Architecture. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :593—598.

Internet of Things (IoT) technology is emerging to advance the modern defense and warfare applications because the battlefield things, such as combat equipment, warfighters, and vehicles, can sense and disseminate information from the battlefield to enable real-time decision making on military operations and enhance autonomy in the battlefield. Since this Internet-of-Battlefield Things (IoBT) environment is highly heterogeneous in terms of devices, network standards, platforms, connectivity, and so on, it introduces trust, security, and privacy challenges when battlefield entities exchange information with each other. To address these issues, we propose a Blockchain-empowered auditable platform for IoBT and describe its architectural components, such as battlefield-sensing layer, network layer, and consensus and service layer, in depth. In addition to the proposed layered architecture, this paper also presents several open research challenges involved in each layer to realize the Blockchain-enabled IoBT platform.

Poltronieri, F., Sadler, L., Benincasa, G., Gregory, T., Harrell, J. M., Metu, S., Moulton, C..  2018.  Enabling Efficient and Interoperable Control of IoBT Devices in a Multi-Force Environment. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :757—762.

Efficient application of Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) technology on the battlefield calls for innovative solutions to control and manage the deluge of heterogeneous IoBT devices. This paper presents an innovative paradigm to address heterogeneity in controlling IoBT and IoT devices, enabling multi-force cooperation in challenging battlefield scenarios.