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Siboni, Shachar, Shabtai, Asaf, Elovici, Yuval.  2018.  An Attack Scenario and Mitigation Mechanism for Enterprise BYOD Environments. SIGAPP Appl. Comput. Rev.. 18:5–21.

The recent proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology poses major security and privacy concerns. Specifically, the use of personal IoT devices, such as tablets, smartphones, and even smartwatches, as part of the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) trend, may result in severe network security breaches in enterprise environments. Such devices increase the attack surface by weakening the digital perimeter of the enterprise network and opening new points of entry for malicious activities. In this paper we demonstrate a novel attack scenario in an enterprise environment by exploiting the smartwatch device of an innocent employee. Using a malicious application running on a suitable smartwatch, the device imitates a real Wi-Fi direct printer service in the network. Using this attack scenario, we illustrate how an advanced attacker located outside of the organization can leak/steal sensitive information from the organization by utilizing the compromised smartwatch as a means of attack. An attack mitigation process and countermeasures are suggested in order to limit the capability of the remote attacker to execute the attack on the network, thus minimizing the data leakage by the smartwatch.

Maiti, Anindya, Armbruster, Oscar, Jadliwala, Murtuza, He, Jibo.  2016.  Smartwatch-Based Keystroke Inference Attacks and Context-Aware Protection Mechanisms. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :795–806.

Wearable devices, such as smartwatches, are furnished with state-of-the-art sensors that enable a range of context-aware applications. However, malicious applications can misuse these sensors, if access is left unaudited. In this paper, we demonstrate how applications that have access to motion or inertial sensor data on a modern smartwatch can recover text typed on an external QWERTY keyboard. Due to the distinct nature of the perceptible motion sensor data, earlier research efforts on emanation based keystroke inference attacks are not readily applicable in this scenario. The proposed novel attack framework characterizes wrist movements (captured by the inertial sensors of the smartwatch worn on the wrist) observed during typing, based on the relative physical position of keys and the direction of transition between pairs of keys. Eavesdropped keystroke characteristics are then matched to candidate words in a dictionary. Multiple evaluations show that our keystroke inference framework has an alarmingly high classification accuracy and word recovery rate. With the information recovered from the wrist movements perceptible by a smartwatch, we exemplify the risks associated with unaudited access to seemingly innocuous sensors (e.g., accelerometers and gyroscopes) of wearable devices. As part of our efforts towards preventing such side-channel attacks, we also develop and evaluate a novel context-aware protection framework which can be used to automatically disable (or downgrade) access to motion sensors, whenever typing activity is detected.

Lu, Chris Xiaoxuan, Du, Bowen, Zhao, Peijun, Wen, Hongkai, Shen, Yiran, Markham, Andrew, Trigoni, Niki.  2018.  Deepauth: In-situ Authentication for Smartwatches via Deeply Learned Behavioural Biometrics. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers. :204–207.

This paper proposes DeepAuth, an in-situ authentication framework that leverages the unique motion patterns when users entering passwords as behavioural biometrics. It uses a deep recurrent neural network to capture the subtle motion signatures during password input, and employs a novel loss function to learn deep feature representations that are robust to noise, unseen passwords, and malicious imposters even with limited training data. DeepAuth is by design optimised for resource constrained platforms, and uses a novel split-RNN architecture to slim inference down to run in real-time on off-the-shelf smartwatches. Extensive experiments with real-world data show that DeepAuth outperforms the state-of-the-art significantly in both authentication performance and cost, offering real-time authentication on a variety of smartwatches.

Lee, W. H., Lee, R. B..  2017.  Implicit Smartphone User Authentication with Sensors and Contextual Machine Learning. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :297–308.

Authentication of smartphone users is important because a lot of sensitive data is stored in the smartphone and the smartphone is also used to access various cloud data and services. However, smartphones are easily stolen or co-opted by an attacker. Beyond the initial login, it is highly desirable to re-authenticate end-users who are continuing to access security-critical services and data. Hence, this paper proposes a novel authentication system for implicit, continuous authentication of the smartphone user based on behavioral characteristics, by leveraging the sensors already ubiquitously built into smartphones. We propose novel context-based authentication models to differentiate the legitimate smartphone owner versus other users. We systematically show how to achieve high authentication accuracy with different design alternatives in sensor and feature selection, machine learning techniques, context detection and multiple devices. Our system can achieve excellent authentication performance with 98.1% accuracy with negligible system overhead and less than 2.4% battery consumption.

Iakovakis, Dimitrios, Hadjileontiadis, Leontios.  2016.  Standing Hypotension Prediction Based on Smartwatch Heart Rate Variability Data: A Novel Approach. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct. :1109–1112.

The number of wearable and smart devices which are connecting every day in the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuously growing. We have a great opportunity though to improve the quality of life (QoL) standards by adding medical value to these devices. Especially, by exploiting IoT technology, we have the potential to create useful tools which utilize the sensors to provide biometric data. This novel study aims to use a smartwatch, independent from other hardware, to predict the Blood Pressure (BP) drop caused by postural changes. In cases that the drop is due to orthostatic hypotension (OH) can cause dizziness or even faint factors, which increase the risk of fall in the elderly but, as well as, in younger groups of people. A mathematical prediction model is proposed here which can reduce the risk of fall due to OH by sensing heart rate variability (data and drops in systolic BP after standing in a healthy group of 10 subjects. The experimental results justify the efficiency of the model, as it can perform correct prediction in 86.7% of the cases, and are encouraging enough for extending the proposed approach to pathological cases, such as patients with Parkinson's disease, involving large scale experiments.