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2019-12-05
Sahu, Abhijeet, Goulart, Ana.  2019.  Implementation of a C-UNB Module for NS-3 and Validation for DLMS-COSEM Application Layer Protocol. 2019 IEEE ComSoc International Communications Quality and Reliability Workshop (CQR). :1-6.

The number of sensors and embedded devices in an urban area can be on the order of thousands. New low-power wide area (LPWA) wireless network technologies have been proposed to support this large number of asynchronous, low-bandwidth devices. Among them, the Cooperative UltraNarrowband (C-UNB) is a clean-slate cellular network technology to connect these devices to a remote site or data collection server. C-UNB employs small bandwidth channels, and a lightweight random access protocol. In this paper, a new application is investigated - the use of C-UNB wireless networks to support the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), in order to facilitate the communication between smart meters and utilities. To this end, we adapted a mathematical model for C-UNB, and implemented a network simulation module in NS-3 to represent C-UNB's physical and medium access control layer. For the application layer, we implemented the DLMS-COSEM protocol, or Device Language Message Specification - Companion Specification for Energy Metering. Details of the simulation module are presented and we conclude that it supports the results of the mathematical model.

2019-12-02
Protzenko, Jonathan, Beurdouche, Benjamin, Merigoux, Denis, Bhargavan, Karthikeyan.  2019.  Formally Verified Cryptographic Web Applications in WebAssembly. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1256–1274.
After suffering decades of high-profile attacks, the need for formal verification of security-critical software has never been clearer. Verification-oriented programming languages like F* are now being used to build high-assurance cryptographic libraries and implementations of standard protocols like TLS. In this paper, we seek to apply these verification techniques to modern Web applications, like WhatsApp, that embed sophisticated custom cryptographic components. The problem is that these components are often implemented in JavaScript, a language that is both hostile to cryptographic code and hard to reason about. So we instead target WebAssembly, a new instruction set that is supported by all major JavaScript runtimes. We present a new toolchain that compiles Low*, a low-level subset of the F* programming language, into WebAssembly. Unlike other WebAssembly compilers like Emscripten, our compilation pipeline is focused on compactness and auditability: we formalize the full translation rules in the paper and implement it in a few thousand lines of OCaml. Using this toolchain, we present two case studies. First, we build WHACL*, a WebAssembly version of the existing, verified HACL* cryptographic library. Then, we present LibSignal*, a brand new, verified implementation of the Signal protocol in WebAssembly, that can be readily used by messaging applications like WhatsApp, Skype, and Signal.
Takahashi, Akira, Tibouchi, Mehdi.  2019.  Degenerate Fault Attacks on Elliptic Curve Parameters in OpenSSL. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :371–386.
In this paper, we describe several practically exploitable fault attacks against OpenSSL's implementation of elliptic curve cryptography, related to the singular curve point decompression attacks of Blömer and Günther (FDTC2015) and the degenerate curve attacks of Neves and Tibouchi (PKC 2016). In particular, we show that OpenSSL allows to construct EC key files containing explicit curve parameters with a compressed base point. A simple single fault injection upon loading such a file yields a full key recovery attack when the key file is used for signing with ECDSA, and a complete recovery of the plaintext when the file is used for encryption using an algorithm like ECIES. The attack is especially devastating against curves with j-invariant equal to 0 such as the Bitcoin curve secp256k1, for which key recovery reduces to a single division in the base field. Additionally, we apply the present fault attack technique to OpenSSL's implementation of ECDH, by combining it with Neves and Tibouchi's degenerate curve attack. This version of the attack applies to usual named curve parameters with nonzero j-invariant, such as P192 and P256. Although it is typically more computationally expensive than the one against signatures and encryption, and requires multiple faulty outputs from the server, it can recover the entire static secret key of the server even in the presence of point validation. These various attacks can be mounted with only a single instruction skipping fault, and therefore can be easily injected using low-cost voltage glitches on embedded devices. We validated them in practice using concrete fault injection experiments on a Rapsberry Pi single board computer running the up to date OpenSSL command line tools-a setting where the threat of fault attacks is quite significant.
2019-11-26
Chollet, Stéphanie, Pion, Laurent, Barbot, Nicolas, Michel, Clément.  2018.  Secure IoT for a Pervasive Platform. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :113-118.

Nowadays, the proliferation of smart, communication-enable devices is opening up many new opportunities of pervasive applications. A major requirement of pervasive applications is to be secured. The complexity to secure pervasive systems is to address a end-to-end security level: from the device to the services according to the entire life cycle of devices, applications and platform. In this article, we propose a solution combining both hardware and software elements to secure communications between devices and pervasive platform based on certificates issued from a Public Key Infrastructure. Our solution is implemented and validated with a real device extended by a secure element and our own Public Key Infrastructure.

Rguibi, Mohamed Amine, Moussa, Najem.  2018.  Simulating Worm Propagation in Interconnected Peer-to-Peer Networks. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1-7.

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) refers to the famous technology that provides peers an equal spontaneous collaboration in the network by using appropriate information and communication systems without the need for a central server coordination. Today, the interconnection of several P2P networks has become a genuine solution for increasing system reliability, fault tolerance and resource availability. However, the existence of security threats in such networks, allows us to investigate the safety of users from P2P threats by studying the effects of competition between these interconnected networks. In this paper, we present an e-epidemic model to characterize the worm propagation in an interconnected peer-to-peer network. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where an unprotected network is willing to partially weaken its own safety in order to more severely damage a more protected network. The unprotected network can infect all peers in the competitive networks after their non react against the passive worm propagation. Our model also evaluated the effect of an immunization strategies adopted by the protected network to resist against attacking networks. The launch time of immunization strategies in the protected network, the number of peers synapse connected to the both networks, and other effective parameters have also been investigated in this paper.

2019-11-25
Cui, Hongyan, Chen, Zunming, Xi, Yu, Chen, Hao, Hao, Jiawang.  2019.  IoT Data Management and Lineage Traceability: A Blockchain-based Solution. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications Workshops in China (ICCC Workshops). :239–244.
The Internet of Things is stepping out of its infancy into full maturity, requiring massive data processing and storage. Unfortunately, because of the unique characteristics of resource constraints, short-range communication, and self-organization in IoT, it always resorts to the cloud or fog nodes for outsourced computation and storage, which has brought about a series of novel challenging security and privacy threats. For this reason, one of the critical challenges of having numerous IoT devices is the capacity to manage them and their data. A specific concern is from which devices or Edge clouds to accept join requests or interaction requests. This paper discusses a design concept for developing the IoT data management platform, along with a data management and lineage traceability implementation of the platform based on blockchain and smart contracts, which approaches the two major challenges: how to implement effective data management and enrich rational interoperability for trusted groups of linked Things; And how to settle conflicts between untrusted IoT devices and its requests taking into account security and privacy preserving. Experimental results show that the system scales well with the loss of computing and communication performance maintaining within the acceptable range, works well to effectively defend against unauthorized access and empower data provenance and transparency, which verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the design concept to provide privacy, fine-grained, and integrity data management over the IoT devices by introducing the blockchain-based data management platform.
Wu, Songrui, Li, Qi, Li, Guoliang, Yuan, Dong, Yuan, Xingliang, Wang, Cong.  2019.  ServeDB: Secure, Verifiable, and Efficient Range Queries on Outsourced Database. 2019 IEEE 35th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :626–637.
Data outsourcing to cloud has been a common IT practice nowadays due to its significant benefits. Meanwhile, security and privacy concerns are critical obstacles to hinder the further adoption of cloud. Although data encryption can mitigate the problem, it reduces the functionality of query processing, e.g., disabling SQL queries. Several schemes have been proposed to enable one-dimensional query on encrypted data, but multi-dimensional range query has not been well addressed. In this paper, we propose a secure and scalable scheme that can support multi-dimensional range queries over encrypted data. The proposed scheme has three salient features: (1) Privacy: the server cannot learn the contents of queries and data records during query processing. (2) Efficiency: we utilize hierarchical cubes to encode multi-dimensional data records and construct a secure tree index on top of such encoding to achieve sublinear query time. (3) Verifiability: our scheme allows users to verify the correctness and completeness of the query results to address server's malicious behaviors. We perform formal security analysis and comprehensive experimental evaluations. The results on real datasets demonstrate that our scheme achieves practical performance while guaranteeing data privacy and result integrity.
Pei, Xin, Li, Xuefeng, Wu, Xiaochuan, Zheng, Kaiyan, Zhu, Boheng, Cao, Yixin.  2019.  Assured Delegation on Data Storage and Computation via Blockchain System. 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0055–0061.
With the widespread of cloud computing, the delegation of storage and computing is becoming a popular trend. Concerns on data integrity, security, user privacy as well as the correctness of execution are highlighted due to the untrusted remote data manipulation. Most of existing proposals solve the integrity checking and verifiable computation problems by challenge-response model, but are lack of scalability and reusability. Via blockchain, we achieve efficient and transparent public verifiable delegation for both storage and computing. Meanwhile, the smart contract provides API for request handling and secure data query. The security and privacy issues of data opening are settled by applying cryptographic algorithms all through the delegations. Additionally, any access to the outsourced data requires the owner's authentication, so that the dat transference and utilization are under control.
2019-10-30
Hong, James, Levy, Amit, Riliskis, Laurynas, Levis, Philip.  2018.  Don't Talk Unless I Say So! Securing the Internet of Things with Default-Off Networking. 2018 IEEE/ACM Third International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). :117-128.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way we interact with everyday objects. "Smart" devices will reduce energy use, keep our homes safe, and improve our health. However, as recent attacks have shown, these devices also create tremendous security vulnerabilities in our computing networks. Securing all of these devices is a daunting task. In this paper, we argue that IoT device communications should be default-off and desired network communications must be explicitly enabled. Unlike traditional networked applications or devices like a web browser or PC, IoT applications and devices serve narrowly defined purposes and do not require access to all services in the network. Our proposal, Bark, a policy language and runtime for specifying and enforcing minimal access permissions in IoT networks, exploits this fact. Bark phrases access control policies in terms of natural questions (who, what, where, when, and how) and transforms them into transparently enforceable rules for IoT application protocols. Bark can express detailed rules such as "Let the lights see the luminosity of the bedroom sensor at any time" and "Let a device at my front door, if I approve it, unlock my smart lock for 30 seconds" in a way that is presentable and explainable to users. We implement Bark for Wi-Fi/IP and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) networks and evaluate its efficacy on several example applications and attacks.

2019-10-28
Trunov, Artem S., Voronova, Lilia I., Voronov, Vyacheslav I., Ayrapetov, Dmitriy P..  2018.  Container Cluster Model Development for Legacy Applications Integration in Scientific Software System. 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :815–819.
Feature of modern scientific information systems is their integration with computing applications, providing distributed computer simulation and intellectual processing of Big Data using high-efficiency computing. Often these software systems include legacy applications in different programming languages, with non-standardized interfaces. To solve the problem of applications integration, containerization systems are using that allow to configure environment in the shortest time to deploy software system. However, there are no such systems for computer simulation systems with large number of nodes. The article considers the actual task of combining containers into a cluster, integrating legacy applications to manage the distributed software system MD-SLAG-MELT v.14, which supports high-performance computing and visualization of the computer experiments results. Testing results of the container cluster including automatic load sharing module for MD-SLAG-MELT system v.14. are given.
2019-10-23
Madala, D S V, Jhanwar, Mahabir Prasad, Chattopadhyay, Anupam.  2018.  Certificate Transparency Using Blockchain. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :71-80.

The security of web communication via the SSL/TLS protocols relies on safe distributions of public keys associated with web domains in the form of X.509 certificates. Certificate authorities (CAs) are trusted third parties that issue these certificates. However, the CA ecosystem is fragile and prone to compromises. Starting with Google's Certificate Transparency project, a number of research works have recently looked at adding transparency for better CA accountability, effectively through public logs of all certificates issued by certification authorities, to augment the current X.509 certificate validation process into SSL/TLS. In this paper, leveraging recent progress in blockchain technology, we propose a novel system, called CTB, that makes it impossible for a CA to issue a certificate for a domain without obtaining consent from the domain owner. We further make progress to equip CTB with certificate revocation mechanism. We implement CTB using IBM's Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform. CTB's smart contract, written in Go, is provided for complete reference.

Szalachowski, Pawel.  2018.  (Short Paper) Towards More Reliable Bitcoin Timestamps. 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT). :101-104.

Bitcoin provides freshness properties by forming a blockchain where each block is associated with its timestamp and the previous block. Due to these properties, the Bitcoin protocol is being used as a decentralized, trusted, and secure timestamping service. Although Bitcoin participants which create new blocks cannot modify their order, they can manipulate timestamps almost undetected. This undermines the Bitcoin protocol as a reliable timestamping service. In particular, a newcomer that synchronizes the entire blockchain has a little guarantee about timestamps of all blocks. In this paper, we present a simple yet powerful mechanism that increases the reliability of Bitcoin timestamps. Our protocol can provide evidence that a block was created within a certain time range. The protocol is efficient, backward compatible, and surprisingly, currently deployed SSL/TLS servers can act as reference time sources. The protocol has many applications and can be used for detecting various attacks against the Bitcoin protocol.

Chen, Jing, Yao, Shixiong, Yuan, Quan, He, Kun, Ji, Shouling, Du, Ruiying.  2018.  CertChain: Public and Efficient Certificate Audit Based on Blockchain for TLS Connections. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2060-2068.

In recent years, real-world attacks against PKI take place frequently. For example, malicious domains' certificates issued by compromised CAs are widespread, and revoked certificates are still trusted by clients. In spite of a lot of research to improve the security of SSL/TLS connections, there are still some problems unsolved. On one hand, although log-based schemes provided certificate audit service to quickly detect CAs' misbehavior, the security and data consistency of log servers are ignored. On the other hand, revoked certificates checking is neglected due to the incomplete, insecure and inefficient certificate revocation mechanisms. Further, existing revoked certificates checking schemes are centralized which would bring safety bottlenecks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based public and efficient audit scheme for TLS connections, which is called Certchain. Specially, we propose a dependability-rank based consensus protocol in our blockchain system and a new data structure to support certificate forward traceability. Furthermore, we present a method that utilizes dual counting bloom filter (DCBF) with eliminating false positives to achieve economic space and efficient query for certificate revocation checking. The security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that CertChain is suitable in practice with moderate overhead.

2019-10-14
Guo, Y., Chen, L., Shi, G..  2018.  Function-Oriented Programming: A New Class of Code Reuse Attack in C Applications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.
Control-hijacking attacks include code injection attacks and code reuse attacks. In recent years, with the emergence of the defense mechanism data-execution prevention(DEP), code reuse attacks have become mainstream, such as return-oriented programming(ROP), Jump-Oriented Programming(JOP), and Counterfeit Object-oriented Programming(COOP). And a series of defensive measures have been proposed, such as DEP, address space layout randomization (ASLR), coarse-grained Control-Flow Integrity(CFI) and fine-grained CFI. In this paper, we propose a new attack called function-oriented programming(FOP) to construct malicious program behavior. FOP takes advantage of the existing function of the C program to induce attack. We propose concrete algorithms for FOP gadgets and build a tool to identify FOP gadgets. FOP can successfully bypass coarse-grained CFI, and FOP also can bypass some existing fine-grained CFI technologies, such as shadow stack technology. We show a real-world attack for proftpd1.3.0 server in the Linux x64 environment. We believe that the FOP attack will encourage people to come up with more effective defense measures.
2019-10-02
Wang, S., Zhu, S., Zhang, Y..  2018.  Blockchain-Based Mutual Authentication Security Protocol for Distributed RFID Systems. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :00074–00077.

Since radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been used in various scenarios such as supply chain, access control system and credit card, tremendous efforts have been made to improve the authentication between tags and readers to prevent potential attacks. Though effective in certain circumstances, these existing methods usually require a server to maintain a database of identity related information for every tag, which makes the system vulnerable to the SQL injection attack and not suitable for distributed environment. To address these problems, we now propose a novel blockchain-based mutual authentication security protocol. In this new scheme, there is no need for the trusted third parties to provide security and privacy for the system. Authentication is executed as an unmodifiable transaction based on blockchain rather than database, which applies to distributed RFID systems with high security demand and relatively low real-time requirement. Analysis shows that our protocol is logically correct and can prevent multiple attacks.

Sharma, V., Malhotra, S., Hashmi, M..  2018.  An Emerging Application Centric RFID Framework Based on New Web Technology. 2018 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology Application (RFID-TA). :1–6.

In the context of emerging applications such as IoT, an RFID framework that can dynamically incorporate, identify, and seamlessly regulate the RFID tags is considered exciting. Earlier RFID frameworks developed using the older web technologies were limited in their ability to provide complete information about the RFID tags and their respective locations. However, the new and emerging web technologies have transformed this scenario and now framework can be developed to include all the required flexibility and security for seamless applications such as monitoring of RFID tags. This paper revisits and proposes a generic scenario of an RFID framework built using latest web technology and demonstrates its ability to customize using an application for tracking of personal user objects. This has been shown that the framework based on newer web technologies can be indeed robust, uniform, unified, and integrated.

2019-09-26
Nelmiawati, Arifandi, W..  2018.  A Seamless Secret Sharing Scheme Implementation for Securing Data in Public Cloud Storage Service. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-5.
Public cloud data storage services were considered as a potential alternative to store low-cost digital data in the short term. They are offered by different providers on the Internet. Some providers offer limited free plans for the users who are starting the service. However, data security concern arises when data stored are considered as a valuable asset. This study explores the usage of secret sharing scheme: Rabin's IDA and Shamir's SSA to implement a tool called dCloud for file protection stored in public cloud storage in a seamless way. It addresses data security by hiding its complexities when targeting ordinary non-technical users. The secret key is automatically generated by dCloud in a secure random way on Rabin's IDA. Shamir's SSA completes the process through dispersing the key into each of Rabin's IDA output files. Moreover, the Hash value of the original file is added to each of those output files to confirm the integrity of the file during reconstruction. Besides, the authentication key is used to communicate with all of the defined service providers during storage and reconstruction as well. It is stored into local secure key-store. By having a key to access the key-store, an ordinary non-technical user will be able to use dCloud to store and retrieve targeted file within defined public cloud storage services securely.
Kodera, Y., Kuribayashi, M., Kusaka, T., Nogami, Y..  2018.  Advanced Searchable Encryption: Keyword Search for Matrix-Type Storage. 2018 Sixth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :292-297.
The recent development of IoT technologies and cloud storages, many types of information including private information have been gradually outsourced. For such a situation, new convenient functionalities such as arithmetic and keyword search on ciphertexts are required to allow users to retrieve information without leaking any information. Especially, searchable encryptions have been paid much attention to realize a keyword search on an encrypted domain. In addition, an architecture of searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) is a suitable and efficient solution for data outsourcing. In this paper, we focus on an SSE scheme which employs a secure index for searching a keyword with optimal search time. In the conventional studies, it has been widely considered that the scheme searches whether a queried keyword is contained in encrypted documents. On the other hand, we additionally take into account the location of a queried keyword in documents by targeting a matrix-type data format. It enables a manager to search personal information listed per line or column in CSV-like format data.
Xu, J., Ying, C., Tan, S., Sun, Z., Wang, P., Sun, Z..  2018.  An Attribute-Based Searchable Encryption Scheme Supporting Trapdoor Updating. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :7-14.
In the cloud computing environment, a growing number of users share their own data files through cloud storage. However, there will be some security and privacy problems due to the reason that the cloud is not completely trusted, so it needs to be resolved by access control. Attribute-based encryption (ABE) and searchable encryption (SE) can solve fine-grained access control. At present, researchers combine the two to propose an attribute-based searchable encryption scheme and achieved remarkable results. Nevertheless, most of existing attribute-based searchable encryption schemes cannot resist online/offline keyword guessing attack. To solve the problem, we present an attribute-based (CP-ABE) searchable encryption scheme that supports trapdoor updating (CSES-TU). In this scheme, the data owner can formulate an access strategy for the encrypted data. Only the attributes of the data user are matched with the strategy can the effective trapdoor be generated and the ciphertext be searched, and that this scheme will update trapdoors at the same time. Even if the keywords are the same, new trapdoors will be generated every time when the keyword is searched, thus minimizing the damage caused by online/offline keyword guessing attack. Finally, the performance of the scheme is analyzed, and the proof of correctness and security are given at the same time.
Li, S., Wang, F., Shi, T., Kuang, J..  2019.  Probably Secure Multi-User Multi-Keyword Searchable Encryption Scheme in Cloud Storage. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1368-1372.
Searchable encryption server protects privacal data of data owner from leaks. This paper analyzes the security of a multi-user searchable encryption scheme and points out that this scheme does not satisfy the invisibility of trapdoors. In order to improve the security of the original scheme, this paper proposes a probably secure multi-user multi-keyword searchable encryption scheme. New secheme not only ensures the confidentiality of the cipher text keyword, but also does not increase the encryption workload of the data owner when the new data user joins. In the random oracle model, based on the hard problem of decisional Diffie-Hellman, it is proved that the scheme has trapdoor indistinguishability. In the end, obtained by the simulation program to achieve a new computationally efficient communication at low cost.
Kim, H., Hahn, C., Hur, J..  2019.  Analysis of Forward Private Searchable Encryption and Its Application to Multi-Client Settings. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :529-531.
Searchable encryption (SE) supports privacy-preserving searches over encrypted data. Recent studies on SE have focused on improving efficiency of the schemes. However, it was shown that most of the previous SE schemes could reveal the client's queries even if they are encrypted, thereby leading to privacy violation. In order to solve the problem, several forward private SE schemes have been proposed in a single client environment. However, the previous forward private SE schemes have never been analyzed in multi-client settings. In this paper, we briefly review the previous forward private SE schemes. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of them in terms of performance and forward privacy. Our analysis demonstrates the previous forward secure SE schemes highly depend on the file-counter. Lastly, we show that they are not scalable in multi-client settings due to the performance and security issue from the file-counter.
2019-09-23
Babu, S., Markose, S..  2018.  IoT Enabled Robots with QR Code Based Localization. 2018 International Conference on Emerging Trends and Innovations In Engineering And Technological Research (ICETIETR). :1–5.

Robots are sophisticated form of IoT devices as they are smart devices that scrutinize sensor data from multiple sources and observe events to decide the best procedural actions to supervise and manoeuvre objects in the physical world. In this paper, localization of the robot is addressed by QR code Detection and path optimization is accomplished by Dijkstras algorithm. The robot can navigate automatically in its environment with sensors and shortest path is computed whenever heading measurements are updated with QR code landmark recognition. The proposed approach highly reduces computational burden and deployment complexity as it reflects the use of artificial intelligence to self-correct its course when required. An Encrypted communication channel is established over wireless local area network using SSHv2 protocol to transfer or receive sensor data(or commands) making it an IoT enabled Robot.

Eugster, P., Marson, G. A., Poettering, B..  2018.  A Cryptographic Look at Multi-party Channels. 2018 IEEE 31st Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :31–45.
Cryptographic channels aim to enable authenticated and confidential communication over the Internet. The general understanding seems to be that providing security in the sense of authenticated encryption for every (unidirectional) point-to-point link suffices to achieve this goal. As recently shown (in FSE17/ToSC17), however, the security properties of the unidirectional links do not extend, in general, to the bidirectional channel as a whole. Intuitively, the reason for this is that the increased interaction in bidirectional communication can be exploited by an adversary. The same applies, a fortiori, in a multi-party setting where several users operate concurrently and the communication develops in more directions. In the cryptographic literature, however, the targeted goals for group communication in terms of channel security are still unexplored. Applying the methodology of provable security, we fill this gap by defining exact (game-based) authenticity and confidentiality goals for broadcast communication, and showing how to achieve them. Importantly, our security notions also account for the causal dependencies between exchanged messages, thus naturally extending the bidirectional case where causal relationships are automatically captured by preserving the sending order. On the constructive side we propose a modular and yet efficient protocol that, assuming only point-to-point links between users, leverages (non-cryptographic) broadcast and standard cryptographic primitives to a full-fledged broadcast channel that provably meets the security notions we put forth.
2019-09-09
Rathi, P. S., Rao, C. M..  2018.  An Enhanced Threshold Based Cryptography with Secrete Sharing and Particle Swarm Optimization for Data Sending in MANET. 2018 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (ACIRS). :87-91.

There are two types of network architectures are presents those are wired network and wireless network. MANETs is one of the examples of wireless network. Each and every network has their own features which make them different from other types of network. Some of the features of MANETs are; infrastructure less network, mobility, dynamic network topology which make it different and more popular from wired network but these features also generate different problems for achieving security due to the absence of centralized authority inside network as well as sending of data due to its mobility features. Achieving security in wired network is little-bit easy compare to MANETs because in wired network user need to just protect main centralized authority for achieving security whereas in MANETs there is no centralized authority available so protecting server in MANETs is difficult compare to wired network. Data sending and receiving process is also easy in wired network but mobility features makes this data sending and receiving process difficult in MANETs. Protecting server or central repository without making use of secrete sharing in wired network will create so many challenges and problem in terms of security. The proposed system makes use of Secrete sharing method to protect server from malicious nodes and `A New particle Swarm Optimization Method for MANETs' (NPSOM) for performing data sending and receiving operation in optimization way. NPSOM technique get equated with the steady particle swarm optimizer (PSO) technique. PSO was essentially designed by Kennedy, Eberhart in 1995. These methods are based upon 4 dissimilar types of parameters. These techniques were encouraged by common performance of animals, some of them are bird assembling and fish tuition, ant colony. The proposed system converts this PSO in the form of MANETs where Particle is nothing but the nodes in the network, Swarm means collection of multiple nodes and Optimization means finding the best and nearer root to reach to destination. Each and every element study about their own previous best solution which they are having with them for the given optimization problem, likewise they see for the groups previous best solution which they got for the same problem and finally they correct its solution depending on these values. This same process gets repeated for finding of the best and optimal solutions value. NPSOM technique, used in proposed system there every element changes its location according to the solution which they got previously and which is poorest as well as their collection's earlier poorest solution for finding best, optimal value. In this proposed system we are concentrating on, sidestepping element's and collections poorest solution which they got before.

Kesidis, G., Shan, Y., Fleck, D., Stavrou, A., Konstantopoulos, T..  2018.  An adversarial coupon-collector model of asynchronous moving-target defense against botnet reconnaissance*. 2018 13th International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software (MALWARE). :61–67.
We consider a moving-target defense of a proxied multiserver tenant of the cloud where the proxies dynamically change to defeat reconnaissance activity by a botnet planning a DDoS attack targeting the tenant. Unlike the system of [4] where all proxies change simultaneously at a fixed rate, we consider a more “responsive” system where the proxies may change more rapidly and selectively based on the current session request intensity, which is expected to be abnormally large during active reconnaissance. In this paper, we study a tractable “adversarial” coupon-collector model wherein proxies change after a random period of time from the latest request, i.e., asynchronously. In addition to determining the stationary mean number of proxies discovered by the attacker, we study the age of a proxy (coupon type) when it has been identified (requested) by the botnet. This gives us the rate at which proxies change (cost to the defender) when the nominal client request load is relatively negligible.