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Yang, Chen, Jia, Zhen, Li, Shundong.  2021.  Privacy-Preserving Proximity Detection Framework for Location-Based Services. 2021 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :99–106.
With the popularization of mobile communication and sensing equipment, as well as the rapid development of location-aware technology and wireless communication technology, LBSs(Location-based services) bring convenience to people’s lives and enable people to arrange activities more efficiently and reasonably. It can provide more flexible LBS proximity detection query, which has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, the development of proximity detection query still faces many severe challenges including query information privacy. For example, when users want to ensure their location privacy and data security, they can get more secure location-based services. In this article, we propose an efficient and privacy-protecting proximity detection framework based on location services: PD(Proximity Detection). Through PD, users can query the range of arbitrary polygons and obtain accurate LBS results. Specifically, based on homomorphic encryption technology, an efficient PRQ(polygon range query) algorithm is constructed. With the help of PRQ, PD, you can obtain accurate polygon range query results through the encryption request and the services provided by the LAS(LBS Agent Server) and the CS(Cloud Server). In addition, the query privacy of the queryer and the information of the data provider are protected. The correctness proof and performance analysis show that the scheme is safe and feasible. Therefore, our scheme is suitable for many practical applications.
Wei, Song, Zhang, Kun, Tu, Bibo.  2021.  Performance Impact of Host Kernel Page Table Isolation on Virtualized Servers. 2021 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Image Processing, Electronics and Computers (IPEC). :912–919.
As Meltdown mitigation, Kernel Page Table I solation (KPTI) was merged into Linux kernel mainline, and the performance impact is significant on x86 processors. Most of the previous work focuses on how KPTI affects Linux kernel performance within the scope of virtual machines or physical machines on x86. However, whether host KPTI affects virtual machines has not been well studied. What's more, there is relatively little research on ARM CPUs. This paper presents an in-depth study of how KPTI on the host affects the virtualized server performance and compares ARMv8 and x86. We first run several application benchmarks to demonstrate the performance impact does exist. The reason is that with a para-virtual I/O scheme, guest offloads I/O requests to the host side, which may incur user/kernel transitions. For the network I/O, when using QEMU as the back-end device, we saw a 1.7% and 5.5% slowdown on ARMv8 and x86, respectively. vhost and vhost-user, originally proposed to optimize performance, inadvertently mitigate the performance impact introduced by host KPTI. For CPU and memory-intensive benchmarks, the performance impact is trivial. We also find that virtual machines on ARMv8 are less affected by KPTI. To diagnose the root cause, we port HyperBench to the ARM virtualization platform. The final results show that swapping the translation table pointer register on ARMv8 is about 3.5x faster than x86. Our findings have significant implications for tuning the x86 virtualization platform's performance and helping ARMv8 administrators enable KPTI with confidence.
Duman, Atahan, Sogukpinar, Ibrahim.  2021.  Deep Learning Based Event Correlation Analysis in Information Systems. 2021 6th International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :209–214.
Information systems and applications provide indispensable services at every stage of life, enabling us to carry out our activities more effectively and efficiently. Today, information technology systems produce many alarm and event records. These produced records often have a relationship with each other, and when this relationship is captured correctly, many interruptions that will harm institutions can be prevented before they occur. For example, an increase in the disk I/O speed of a server or a problem may cause the business software running on that server to slow down and cause different results in this slowness. Here, an institution’s accurate analysis and management of all event records, and rule-based analysis of the resulting records in certain time periods and depending on certain rules will ensure efficient and effective management of millions of alarms. In addition, it will be possible to prevent possible problems by removing the relationships between events. Events that occur in IT systems are a kind of footprint. It is also vital to keep a record of the events in question, and when necessary, these event records can be analyzed to analyze the efficiency of the systems, harmful interferences, system failure tendency, etc. By understanding the undesirable situations such as taking the necessary precautions, possible losses can be prevented. In this study, the model developed for fault prediction in systems by performing event log analysis in information systems is explained and the experimental results obtained are given.
Koteshwara, Sandhya.  2021.  Security Risk Assessment of Server Hardware Architectures Using Graph Analysis. 2021 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1—4.
The growing complexity of server architectures, which incorporate several components with state, has necessitated rigorous assessment of the security risk both during design and operation. In this paper, we propose a novel technique to model the security risk of servers by mapping their architectures to graphs. This allows us to leverage tools from computational graph theory, which we combine with probability theory for deriving quantitative metrics for risk assessment. Probability of attack is derived for server components, with prior probabilities assigned based on knowledge of existing vulnerabilities and countermeasures. The resulting analysis is further used to compute measures of impact and exploitability of attack. The proposed methods are demonstrated on two open-source server designs with different architectures.
Gowda, Naveen Chandra, Manvi, Sunilkumar S..  2021.  An Efficient Authentication Scheme for Fog Computing Environment using Symmetric Cryptographic methods. 2021 IEEE 9th Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC). :01—06.

The mechanism of Fog computing is a distributed infrastructure to provide the computations as same as cloud computing. The fog computing environment provides the storage and processing of data in a distributed manner based on the locality. Fog servicing is better than cloud service for working with smart devices and users in a same locale. However the fog computing will inherit the features of the cloud, it also suffers from many security issues as cloud. One such security issue is authentication with efficient key management between the communicating entities. In this paper, we propose a secured two-way authentication scheme with efficient management of keys between the user mobile device and smart devices under the control of the fog server. We made use of operations such as one-way hash (SHA-512) functions, bitwise XOR, and fuzzy extractor function to make the authentication system to be better. We have verified the proposed scheme for its security effectiveness by using a well-used analysis tool ProVerif. We also proved that it can resist multiple attacks and the security overhead is reduced in terms of computation and communication cost as compared to the existing methods.

Sutton, Sara, Siasi, Nazli.  2021.  Decoy VNF for Enhanced Security in Fog Computing. 2021 IEEE Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things (GCAIoT). :75—81.
Fog computing extends cloud resources to the edge of the network, thus enabling network providers to support real-time applications at low latencies. These applications further demand high security against malicious attacks that target distributed fog servers. One effective defense mechanism here against cyber attacks is the use of honeypots. The latter acts as a potential target for attackers by diverting malicious traffic away from the servers that are dedicated to legitimate users. However, one main limitation of honeypots is the lack of real traffic and network activities. Therefore, it is important to implement a solution that simulates the behavior of the real system to lure attackers without the risk of being exposed. Hence this paper proposes a practical approach to generate network traffic by introducing decoy virtual network functions (VNF) embedded on fog servers, which make the network traffic on honeypots resemble a legitimate, vulnerable fog system to attract cyber attackers. The use of virtualization allows for robust scalability and modification of network functions based on incoming attacks, without the need for dedicated hardware. Moreover, deep learning is leveraged here to build fingerprints for each real VNF, which is subsequently used to support its decoy counterpart against active probes. The proposed framework is evaluated based on CPU utilization, memory usage, disk input/output access, and network latency.
Ageed, Zainab Salih, Zeebaree, Subhi R. M., Sadeeq, Mohammed A. M., Ibrahim, Rowaida Khalil, Shukur, Hanan M., Alkhayyat, Ahmed.  2021.  Comprehensive Study of Moving from Grid and Cloud Computing Through Fog and Edge Computing towards Dew Computing. 2021 4th International Iraqi Conference on Engineering Technology and Their Applications (IICETA). :68—74.
Dew Computing (DC) is a comparatively modern field with a wide range of applications. By examining how technological advances such as fog, edge and Dew computing, and distributed intelligence force us to reconsider traditional Cloud Computing (CC) to serve the Internet of Things. A new dew estimation theory is presented in this article. The revised definition is as follows: DC is a software and hardware cloud-based company. On-premises servers provide autonomy and collaborate with cloud networks. Dew Calculation aims to enhance the capabilities of on-premises and cloud-based applications. These categories can result in the development of new applications. In the world, there has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), starting with Grid Computing (GC), CC, Fog Computing (FC), and the latest Edge Computing (EC) technology. DC technologies, infrastructure, and applications are described. We’ll go through the newest developments in fog networking, QoE, cloud at the edge, platforms, security, and privacy. The dew-cloud architecture is an option concerning the current client-server architecture, where two servers are located at opposite ends. In the absence of an Internet connection, a dew server helps users browse and track their details. Data are primarily stored as a local copy on the dew server that starts the Internet and is synchronized with the cloud master copy. The local dew pages, a local online version of the current website, can be browsed, read, written, or added to the users. Mapping between different Local Dew sites has been made possible using the dew domain name scheme and dew domain redirection.
G.A, Senthil, Prabha, R., Pomalar, A., Jancy, P. Leela, Rinthya, M..  2021.  Convergence of Cloud and Fog Computing for Security Enhancement. 2021 Fifth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :1—6.
Cloud computing is a modern type of service that provides each consumer with a large-scale computing tool. Different cyber-attacks can potentially target cloud computing systems, as most cloud computing systems offer services to so many people who are not known to be trustworthy. Therefore, to protect that Virtual Machine from threats, a cloud computing system must incorporate some security monitoring framework. There is a tradeoff between the security level of the security system and the performance of the system in this scenario. If a strong security is required then a stronger security service using more rules or patterns should be incorporated and then in proportion to the strength of security, it needs much more computing resources. So the amount of resources allocated to customers is decreasing so this research work will introduce a new way of security system in cloud environments to the VM in this research. The main point of Fog computing is to part of the cloud server's work in the ongoing study tells the step-by-step cloud server to change gigantic information measurement because the endeavor apps are relocated to the cloud to keep the framework cost. So the cloud server is devouring and changing huge measures of information step by step so it is rented to keep up the problem and additionally get terrible reactions in a horrible device environment. Cloud computing and Fog computing approaches were combined in this paper to review data movement and safe information about MDHC.
Asyrofi, Rakha, Zulfa, Nafa.  2020.  CLOUDITY: Cloud Supply Chain Framework Design based on JUGO and Blockchain. 2020 6th Information Technology International Seminar (ITIS). :19—23.
Supply chain management (SCM) system is a main requirement for manufacturers and companies to cooperate. There are many management techniques to manage supply chains, such as using Excel sheets. However, that technique is ineffective, insecure, and sensitive to human errors. In this paper, we propose CLOUDITY, a cloud-based SCM system using SELAT (Selective Market) and Blockchain system. We modify JUGO architecture to develop SELAT as a connector between users and cloud service providers. Also, we apply the Blockchain concept to make more secure system. CLOUDITY system can solve several cases: resource provisioning, service selection, authentication, and access control. Also, it improves the data security by checking every data changes of the supply chain management system using Blockchain system.
Langer, Martin, Heine, Kai, Bermbach, Rainer, Sibold, Dieter.  2021.  Extending the Network Time Security Protocol for Secure Communication between Time Server and Key Establishment Server. 2021 Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFCS). :1—5.
This work describes a concept for extending the Network Time Security (NTS) protocol to enable implementation- independent communication between the NTS key establishment (NTS-KE) server and the connected time server(s). It Alls a specification gap left by RFC 8915 for securing the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and enables the centralized and public deployment of an NTS key management server that can support both secured NTP and secured PTP.
Sun, Zice, Wang, Yingjie, Tong, Xiangrong, Pan, Qingxian, Liu, Wenyi, Zhang, Jiqiu.  2021.  Service Quality Loss-aware Privacy Protection Mechanism in Edge-Cloud IoTs. 2021 13th International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence (ICACI). :207—214.
With the continuous development of edge computing, the application scope of mobile crowdsourcing (MCS) is constantly increasing. The distributed nature of edge computing can transmit data at the edge of processing to meet the needs of low latency. The trustworthiness of the third-party platform will affect the level of privacy protection, because managers of the platform may disclose the information of workers. Anonymous servers also belong to third-party platforms. For unreal third-party platforms, this paper recommends that workers first use the localized differential privacy mechanism to interfere with the real location information, and then upload it to an anonymous server to request services, called the localized differential anonymous privacy protection mechanism (LDNP). The two privacy protection mechanisms further enhance privacy protection, but exacerbate the loss of service quality. Therefore, this paper proposes to give corresponding compensation based on the authenticity of the location information uploaded by workers, so as to encourage more workers to upload real location information. Through comparative experiments on real data, the LDNP algorithm not only protects the location privacy of workers, but also maintains the availability of data. The simulation experiment verifies the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism.
Liang, Kai, Wu, Youlong.  2021.  Two-layer Coded Gradient Aggregation with Straggling Communication Links. 2020 IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW). :1—5.
In many distributed learning setups such as federated learning, client nodes at the edge use individually collected data to compute the local gradients and send them to a central master server, and the master aggregates the received gradients and broadcasts the aggregation to all clients with which the clients can update the global model. As straggling communication links could severely affect the performance of distributed learning system, Prakash et al. proposed to utilize helper nodes and coding strategy to achieve resiliency against straggling client-to-helpers links. In this paper, we propose two coding schemes: repetition coding (RC) and MDS coding both of which enable the clients to update the global model in the presence of only helpers but without the master. Moreover, we characterize the uplink and downlink communication loads, and prove the tightness of uplink communication load. Theoretical tradeoff between uplink and downlink communication loads is established indicating that larger uplink communication load could reduce downlink communication load. Compared to Prakash's schemes which require a master to connect with helpers though noiseless links, our scheme can even reduce the communication load in the absence of master when the number of clients and helpers is relatively large compared to the number of straggling links.
Rai, Aditya, Miraz, MD. Mazharul Islam, Das, Deshbandhu, Kaur, Harpreet, Swati.  2021.  SQL Injection: Classification and Prevention. 2021 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM). :367—372.
With the world moving towards digitalization, more applications and servers are online hosted on the internet, more number of vulnerabilities came out which directly affects an individual and an organization financially and in terms of reputation too. Out of those many vulnerabilities such as Injection, Deserialization, Cross site scripting and more. Injection stand top as the most critical vulnerability found in the web application. Injection itself is a broad vulnerability as it further consists of SQL Injection, Command injection, LDAP Injection, No-SQL Injection etc. In this paper we have reviewed SQL Injection, different types of SQL injection attacks, their causes and remediation to comprehend this attack.
Stiévenart, Quentin, Roover, Coen De.  2020.  Compositional Information Flow Analysis for WebAssembly Programs. 2020 IEEE 20th International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM). :13–24.
WebAssembly is a new W3C standard, providing a portable target for compilation for various languages. All major browsers can run WebAssembly programs, and its use extends beyond the web: there is interest in compiling cross-platform desktop applications, server applications, IoT and embedded applications to WebAssembly because of the performance and security guarantees it aims to provide. Indeed, WebAssembly has been carefully designed with security in mind. In particular, WebAssembly applications are sandboxed from their host environment. However, recent works have brought to light several limitations that expose WebAssembly to traditional attack vectors. Visitors of websites using WebAssembly have been exposed to malicious code as a result. In this paper, we propose an automated static program analysis to address these security concerns. Our analysis is focused on information flow and is compositional. For every WebAssembly function, it first computes a summary that describes in a sound manner where the information from its parameters and the global program state can flow to. These summaries can then be applied during the subsequent analysis of function calls. Through a classical fixed-point formulation, one obtains an approximation of the information flow in the WebAssembly program. This results in the first compositional static analysis for WebAssembly. On a set of 34 benchmark programs spanning 196kLOC of WebAssembly, we compute at least 64% of the function summaries precisely in less than a minute in total.
Zhu, Jinhui, Chen, Liangdong, Liu, Xiantong, Zhao, Lincong, Shen, Peipei, Chen, Jinghan.  2021.  Trusted Model Based on Multi-dimensional Attributes in Edge Computing. 2021 2nd Asia Symposium on Signal Processing (ASSP). :95—100.
As a supplement to the cloud computing model, the edge computing model can use edge servers and edge devices to coordinate information processing on the edge of the network to help Internet of Thing (IoT) data storage, transmission, and computing tasks. In view of the complex and changeable situation of edge computing IoT scenarios, this paper proposes a multi-dimensional trust evaluation factor selection scheme. Improve the traditional trusted modeling method based on direct/indirect trust, introduce multi-dimensional trusted decision attributes and rely on the collaboration of edge servers and edge device nodes to infer and quantify the trusted relationship between nodes, and combine the information entropy theory to smoothly weight the calculation results of multi-dimensional decision attributes. Improving the current situation where the traditional trusted assessment scheme's dynamic adaptability to the environment and the lack of reliability of trusted assessment are relatively lacking. Simulation experiments show that the edge computing IoT multi-dimensional trust evaluation model proposed in this paper has better performance than the trusted model in related literature.
Makarova, Mariia S., Maksutov, Artem A..  2021.  Methods of Detecting and Neutralizing Potential DHCP Rogue Servers. 2021 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ElConRus). :522—525.
In the continuously evolving environment, computer security has become a convenient challenge because of the rapid rise and expansion of the Internet. One of the most significant challenges to networks is attacks on network resources caused by inadequate network security. DHCP is defenseless to a number of attacks, such as DHCP rogue server attacks. This work is focused on developing a method of detecting these attacks and granting active host protection on GNU/Linux operating systems. Unauthorized DHCP servers can be easily arranged and compete with the legitimate server on the local network that can be the result of distributing incorrect IP addresses, malicious DNS server addresses, invalid routing information to unsuspecting clients, intercepting and eavesdropping on communications, and so on. The goal is to prevent the situations described above by recognizing untrusted DHCP servers and providing active host protection on the local network.
Gallus, Petr, Frantis, Petr.  2021.  Security analysis of the Raspbian Linux operating system and its settings to increase resilience against attacks via network interface. 2021 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT). :1—5.
The Internet, originally an academic network for the rapid exchange of information, has moved over time into the commercial media, business and later industrial communications environment. Recently, it has been included as a part of cyberspace as a combat domain. Any device connected to the unprotected Internet is thus exposed to possible attacks by various groups and individuals pursuing various criminal, security and political objectives. Therefore, each such device must be set up to be as resistant as possible to these attacks. For the implementation of small home, academic or industrial systems, people very often use small computing system Raspberry PI, which is usually equipped with the operating system Raspbian Linux. Such a device is often connected to an unprotected Internet environment and if successfully attacked, can act as a gateway for an attacker to enter the internal network of an organization or home. This paper deals with security configuration of Raspbian Linux operating system for operation on public IP addresses in an unprotected Internet environment. The content of this paper is the conduction and analysis of an experiment in which five Raspbian Linux/Raspberry PI accounts were created with varying security levels; the easiest to attack is a simulation of the device of a user who has left the system without additional security. The accounts that follow gradually add further protection and security. These accounts are used to simulate a variety of experienced users, and in a practical experiment the effects of these security measures are evaluated; such as the number of successful / unsuccessful attacks; where the attacks are from; the type and intensity of the attacks; and the target of the attack. The results of this experiment lead to formulated conclusions containing an analysis of the attack and subsequent design recommendations and settings to secure such a device. The subsequent section of the paper discusses the implementation of a simple TCP server that is configured to listen to incoming traffic on preset ports; it simulates the behaviour of selected services on these ports. This server's task is to intercept unauthorized connection attempts to these ports and intercepting attempts to communicate or attack these services. These recorded attack attempts are analyzed in detail and formulated in the conclusion, including implications for the security settings of such a device. The overall result of this paper is the recommended set up of operating system Raspbian Linux to work on public IP addresses in an unfiltered Internet environment.
Badran, Sultan, Arman, Nabil, Farajallah, Mousa.  2021.  An Efficient Approach for Secure Data Outsourcing using Hybrid Data Partitioning. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :418—423.
This paper presents an implementation of a novel approach, utilizing hybrid data partitioning, to secure sensitive data and improve query performance. In this novel approach, vertical and horizontal data partitioning are combined together in an approach that called hybrid partitioning and the new approach is implemented using Microsoft SQL server to generate divided/partitioned relations. A group of proposed rules is applied to the query request process using query binning (QB) and Metadata of partitioning. The proposed approach is validated using experiments involving a collection of data evaluated by outcomes of advanced stored procedures. The suggested approach results are satisfactory in achieving the properties of defining the data security: non-linkability and indistinguishability. The results of the proposed approach were satisfactory. The proposed novel approach outperforms a well-known approach called PANDA.
Ahmad, Lina, Al-Sabha, Rania, Al-Haj, Ali.  2021.  Design and Implementation of a Secure QR Payment System Based on Visual Cryptography. 2021 7th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM). :40–44.
In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of a secure payment system based on QR codes. These QR codes have been extensively used in recent years since they speed up the payment process and provide users with ultimate convenience. However, as convenient as they may sound, QR-based online payment systems are vulnerable to different types of attacks. Therefore, transaction processing needs to be secure enough to protect the integrity and confidentiality of every payment process. Moreover, the online payment system must provide authenticity for both the sender and receiver of each transaction. In this paper, the security of the proposed QR-based system is provided using visual cryptography. The proposed system consists of a mobile application and a payment gateway server that implements visual cryptography. The application provides a simple and user-friendly interface for users to carry out payment transactions in user-friendly secure environment.
Dolev, Shlomi, Kalma, Arseni.  2021.  Verifiable Computing Using Computation Fingerprints Within FHE. 2021 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—9.
We suggest using Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) to be used, not only to keep the privacy of information but also, to verify computations with no additional significant overhead, using only part of the variables length for verification. This method supports the addition of encrypted values as well as multiplication of encrypted values by the addition of their logarithmic representations and is based on a separation between hardware functionalities. The computer/server performs blackbox additions and is based on the separation of server/device/hardware, such as the enclave, that may deal with additions of logarithmic values and exponentiation. The main idea is to restrict the computer operations and to use part of the variable for computation verification (computation fingerprints) and the other for the actual calculation. The verification part holds the FHE value, of which the calculated result is known (either due to computing locally once or from previously verified computations) and will be checked against the returned FHE value. We prove that a server with bit computation granularity can return consistent encrypted wrong results even when the public key is not provided. For the case of computer word granularity the verification and the actual calculation parts are separated, the verification part (the consecutive bits from the LSB to the MSB of the variables) is fixed across all input vectors. We also consider the case of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) where the computation fingerprints index in the input vectors is fixed across all vectors.
Pan, Pengyu, Ma, Xiaobo, Bian, Huafeng.  2021.  Exploiting Bitcoin Mining Pool for Stealthy and Flexible Botnet Channels. 2021 8th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :741–742.
Botnets are used by hackers to conduct cyber attacks and pose a huge threat to Internet users. The key of botnets is the command and control (C&C) channels. Security researchers can keep track of a botnet by capturing and analyzing the communication traffic between C&C servers and bots. Hence, the botmaster is constantly seeking more covert C&C channels to stealthily control the botnet. This paper designs a new botnet dubbed mp-botnet wherein bots communicate with each other based on the Stratum mining pool protocol. The mp-botnet botnet completes information transmission according to the communication method of the Stratum protocol. The communication traffic in the botnet is disguised as the traffic between the mining pool and the miners in a Bitcoin network, thereby achieving better stealthiness and flexibility.
Pradel, Gaëtan, Mitchell, Chris.  2021.  Privacy-Preserving Biometric Matching Using Homomorphic Encryption. 2021 IEEE 20th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :494–505.
Biometric matching involves storing and processing sensitive user information. Maintaining the privacy of this data is thus a major challenge, and homomorphic encryption offers a possible solution. We propose a privacy-preserving biometrics-based authentication protocol based on fully homomorphic en-cryption, where the biometric sample for a user is gathered by a local device but matched against a biometric template by a remote server operating solely on encrypted data. The design ensures that 1) the user's sensitive biometric data remains private, and 2) the user and client device are securely authenticated to the server. A proof-of-concept implementation building on the TFHE library is also presented, which includes the underlying basic operations needed to execute the biometric matching. Performance results from the implementation show how complex it is to make FHE practical in this context, but it appears that, with implementation optimisations and improvements, the protocol could be used for real-world applications.
Priyanka, V S, Satheesh Kumar, S, Jinu Kumar, S V.  2021.  A Forensic Methodology for the Analysis of Cloud-Based Android Apps. 2021 International Conference on Forensics, Analytics, Big Data, Security (FABS). 1:1–5.
The widespread use of smartphones has made the gadget a prime source of evidence for crime investigators. The cloud-based applications on mobile devices store a rich set of evidence in the cloud servers. The physical acquisition of Android devices reveals only minimal data of cloud-based apps. However, the artifacts collected from mobile devices can be used for data acquisition from cloud servers. This paper focuses on the forensic acquisition and analysis of cloud data of Google apps on Android devices. The proposed methodology uses the tokens extracted from the Android devices to get authenticated to the Google server bypassing the two-factor authentication scheme and access the cloud data for further analysis. Based on the investigation, we have also developed a tool to acquire, preserve and analyze cloud data in a forensically sound manner.
Manoj Vignesh, K M, Sujanani, Anish, Bangalore, Raghu A..  2021.  Modelling Trust Frameworks for Network-IDS. 2021 2nd International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1–5.
Though intrusion detection systems provide actionable alerts based on signature-based or anomaly-based traffic patterns, the majority of systems still rely on human analysts to identify and contain the root cause of security incidents. This process is naturally susceptible to human error and is time-consuming, which may allow for further enumeration and pivoting within a compromised environment. Through this paper, we have augmented traditional signature-based network intrusion detection systems with a trust framework whose reduction and redemption values are a function of the severity of the incident, the degree of connectivity of nodes and the time elapsed. A lightweight implementation on the nodes coupled with a multithreaded approach on the central trust server has shown the capability to scale to larger networks with high traffic volumes and a varying proportion of suspicious traffic patterns.
Thom, Jay, Shah, Yash, Sengupta, Shamik.  2021.  Correlation of Cyber Threat Intelligence Data Across Global Honeypots. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0766–0772.
Today's global network is filled with attackers both live and automated seeking to identify and compromise vulnerable devices, with initial scanning and attack activity occurring within minutes or even seconds of being connected to the Internet. To better understand these events, honeypots can be deployed to monitor and log activity by simulating actual Internet facing services such as SSH, Telnet, HTTP, or FTP, and malicious activity can be logged as attempts are made to compromise them. In this study six multi-service honeypots are deployed in locations around the globe to collect and catalog traffic over a period of several months between March and December, 2020. Analysis is performed on various characteristics including source and destination IP addresses and port numbers, usernames and passwords utilized, commands executed, and types of files downloaded. In addition, Cowrie log data is restructured to observe individual attacker sessions, study command sequences, and monitor tunneling activity. This data is then correlated across honeypots to compare attack and traffic patterns with the goal of learning more about the tactics being employed. By gathering data gathered from geographically separate zones over a long period of time a greater understanding can be developed regarding attacker intent and methodology, can aid in the development of effective approaches to identifying malicious behavior and attack sources, and can serve as a cyber-threat intelligence feed.