Visible to the public Biblio

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Conference Paper
Ahmad, Abdul Mutaal, Lukowicz, Paul, Cheng, Jingyuan.  2016.  FPGA Based Hardware Acceleration of Sensor Matrix. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct. :793–802.
This paper describes the hardware acceleration of various feature calculation functions used in activity recognition. In this work we have used a large scale sensing matrix which recognizes and counts gym exercises. Human activity is played on pressure matrix and the sensor data is sent to computer using a wired protocol for further processing. The recorded data from matrix is huge making it impractical to process on a smart phone. We propose a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based processing methodology which not only accelerates sensing data processing but also reduces the size of 2D sensor data matrix to 10 features. The resultant feature set can be transferred using wireless medium to a smart phone or other processing unit where the classification can be done. Our system takes a matrix of arbitrary size and output a 'features' set for each matrix frame. We used HLS (High Level Synthesis), an approach to write algorithm for FPGA using SystemC/C/C++ instead of traditional VHDL/Verilog. Results show promising improvement in processing time as compared to Matlab. Since the size of data is reduced, wireless medium can be use to transmit data. Additionally, the development time for FPGA designs is greatly reduced due to the usage of an abstracted high level synthesis approach. This system is currently developed for pressure sensing system but this strategy can be applied to other sensing application like temperature sensor grid.
Filip, G., Meng, X., Burnett, G., Harvey, C..  2017.  Human factors considerations for cooperative positioning using positioning, navigational and sensor feedback to calibrate trust in CAVs. 2017 Forum on Cooperative Positioning and Service (CPGPS \#65289;. :134–139.

Given the complexities involved in the sensing, navigational and positioning environment on board automated vehicles we conduct an exploratory survey and identify factors capable of influencing the users' trust in such system. After the analysis of the survey data, the Situational Awareness of the Vehicle (SAV) emerges as an important factor capable of influencing the trust of the users. We follow up on that by conducting semi-structured interviews with 12 experts in the CAV field, focusing on the importance of the SAV, on the factors that are most important when talking about it as well as the need to keep the users informed regarding its status. We conclude that in the context of Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs), the importance of the SAV can now be expanded beyond its technical necessity of making vehicles function to a human factors area: calibrating users' trust.

Yang, Lei, Li, Yao, Lin, Qiongzheng, Li, Xiang-Yang, Liu, Yunhao.  2016.  Making Sense of Mechanical Vibration Period with Sub-millisecond Accuracy Using Backscatter Signals. Proceedings of the 22Nd Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. :16–28.

Traditional vibration inspection systems, equipped with separated sensing and communication modules, are either very expensive (e.g., hundreds of dollars) and/or suffer from occlusion and narrow field of view (e.g., laser). In this work, we present an RFID-based solution, Tagbeat, to inspect mechanical vibration using COTS RFID tags and readers. Making sense of micro and high-frequency vibration using random and low-frequency readings of tag has been a daunting task, especially challenging for achieving sub-millisecond period accuracy. Our system achieves these three goals by discerning the change pattern of backscatter signal replied from the tag, which is attached on the vibrating surface and displaced by the vibration within a small range. This work introduces three main innovations. First, it shows how one can utilize COTS RFID to sense mechanical vibration and accurately discover its period with a few periods of short and noisy samples. Second, a new digital microscope is designed to amplify the micro-vibration-induced weak signals. Third, Tagbeat introduces compressive reading to inspect high-frequency vibration with relatively low RFID read rate. We implement Tagbeat using a COTS RFID device and evaluate it with a commercial centrifugal machine. Empirical benchmarks with a prototype show that Tagbeat can inspect the vibration period with a mean accuracy of 0.36ms and a relative error rate of 0.03%. We also study three cases to demonstrate how to associate our inspection solution with the specific domain requirements.

Journal Article
Krupp, B., Sridhar, N., Zhao, W..  2017.  SPE: Security and Privacy Enhancement Framework for Mobile Devices. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 14:433–446.

In this paper, we present a security and privacy enhancement (SPE) framework for unmodified mobile operating systems. SPE introduces a new layer between the application and the operating system and does not require a device be jailbroken or utilize a custom operating system. We utilize an existing ontology designed for enforcing security and privacy policies on mobile devices to build a policy that is customizable. Based on this policy, SPE provides enhancements to native controls that currently exist on the platform for privacy and security sensitive components. SPE allows access to these components in a way that allows the framework to ensure the application is truthful in its declared intent and ensure that the user's policy is enforced. In our evaluation we verify the correctness of the framework and the computing impact on the device. Additionally, we discovered security and privacy issues in several open source applications by utilizing the SPE Framework. From our findings, if SPE is adopted by mobile operating systems producers, it would provide consumers and businesses the additional privacy and security controls they demand and allow users to be more aware of security and privacy issues with applications on their devices.