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Chiariotti, Federico, Signori, Alberto, Campagnaro, Filippo, Zorzi, Michele.  2020.  Underwater Jamming Attacks as Incomplete Information Games. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1033—1038.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have several fundamental civilian and military applications, and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks against their communications are a serious threat. In this work, we analyze such an attack using game theory in an asymmetric scenario, in which the node under attack does not know the position of the jammer that blocks its signals. The jammer has a dual objective, namely, disrupting communications and forcing the legitimate transmitter to spend more energy protecting its own transmissions. Our model shows that, if both nodes act rationally, the transmitter is able to quickly reduce its disadvantage, estimating the location of the jammer and responding optimally to the attack.
Su, Yishan, Zhang, Ting, Jin, Zhigang, Guo, Lei.  2020.  An Anti-Attack Trust Mechanism Based on Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—5.
The main method for long-distance underwater communication is underwater acoustic communication(UAC). The bandwidth of UAC channel is narrow and the frequency band resources are scarce. Therefore, it is important to improve the frequency band utilization of UAC system. Cognitive underwater acoustic (CUA) technology is an important method. CUA network can share spectrum resources with the primary network. Spectrum sensing (SS) technology is the premise of realizing CUA. Therefore, improving the accuracy of spectral sensing is the main purpose of this paper. However, the realization of underwater SS technology still faces many difficulties. First, underwater energy supplies are scarce, making it difficult to apply complex algorithms. Second, and more seriously, CUA network can sometimes be attacked and exploited by hostile forces, which will not only lead to data leakage, but also greatly affect the accuracy of SS. In order to improve the utilization of underwater spectrum and avoid attack, an underwater spectrum sensing model based on the two-threshold energy detection method and K of M fusion decision method is established. Then, the trust mechanism based on beta function and XOR operation are proposed to combat individual attack and multi-user joint attack (MUJA) respectively. Finally, simulation result shows the effectiveness of these methods.
Gomathi, R. M., Keerthana, Kare, Priyanka, Kamatham, Anandhi, T..  2020.  Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme in Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :480—485.
In this paper, an energy routing algorithm, called SAODV (secure Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector) is designed for ad hoc mobile networks. SAODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is an on demand algorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. It maintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources. Additionally, SAODV forms trees which connect multicast group members. The trees are composed of the group members and the nodes needed to connect the members. Extensive simulations are conducted to study the power consumption, the end-to-end delay, and the network throughput of our protocols compared with existing protocols. Efficiently handling losses in wireless environments, therefore, has significant importance. Even under benign conditions, various factors, like fading, interference, multi-path effects, and collisions, lead to heavy loss rates on wireless links.
Signori, Alberto, Campagnaro, Filippo, Wachlin, Kim-Fabian, Nissen, Ivor, Zorzi, Michele.  2020.  On the Use of Conversation Detection to Improve the Security of Underwater Acoustic Networks. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—8.
Security is one of the key aspects of underwater acoustic networks, due to the critical importance of the scenarios in which these networks can be employed. For example, attacks performed to military underwater networks or to assets deployed for tsunami prevention can lead to disastrous consequences. Nevertheless, countermeasures to possible network attacks have not been widely investigated so far. One way to identify possible attackers is by using reputation, where a node gains trust each time it exhibits a good behavior, and loses trust each time it behaves in a suspicious way. The first step for analyzing if a node is behaving in a good way is to inspect the network traffic, by detecting all conversations. This paper proposes both centralized and decentralized algorithms for performing this operation, either from the network or from the node perspective. While the former can be applied only in post processing, the latter can also be used in real time by each node, and so can be used for creating the trust value. To evaluate the algorithms, we used real experimental data acquired during the EDA RACUN project (Robust Underwater Communication in Underwater Networks).
Li, Sichun, Jin, Xin, Yao, Sibing, Yang, Shuyu.  2020.  Underwater Small Target Recognition Based on Convolutional Neural Network. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—7.
With the increasingly extensive use of diver and unmanned underwater vehicle in military, it has posed a serious threat to the security of the national coastal area. In order to prevent the underwater diver's impact on the safety of water area, it is of great significance to identify underwater small targets in time to make early warning for it. In this paper, convolutional neural network is applied to underwater small target recognition. The recognition targets are diver, whale and dolphin. Due to the time-frequency spectrum can reflect the essential features of underwater target, convolutional neural network can learn a variety of features of the acoustic signal through the image processed by the time-frequency spectrum, time-frequency image is input to convolutional neural network to recognize the underwater small targets. According to the study of learning rate and pooling mode, the network parameters and structure suitable for underwater small target recognition in this paper are selected. The results of data processing show that the method can identify underwater small targets accurately.
Ozmen, Alper, Yildiz, Huseyin Ugur, Tavli, Bulent.  2020.  Impact of Minimizing the Eavesdropping Risks on Lifetime of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. 2020 28th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are often deployed in hostile environments, and they face many security threats. Moreover, due to the harsh characteristics of the underwater environment, UASNs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. One of the most dangerous security threats is the eavesdropping attack, where an adversary silently collects the information exchanged between the sensor nodes. Although careful assignment of transmission power levels and optimization of data flow paths help alleviate the extent of eavesdropping attacks, the network lifetime can be negatively affected since routing could be established using sub-optimal paths in terms of energy efficiency. In this work, two optimization models are proposed where the first model minimizes the potential eavesdropping risks in the network while the second model maximizes the network lifetime under a certain level of an eavesdropping risk. The results show that network lifetimes obtained when the eavesdropping risks are minimized significantly shorter than the network lifetimes obtained without considering any eavesdropping risks. Furthermore, as the countermeasures against the eavesdropping risks are relaxed, UASN lifetime is shown to be prolonged, significantly.
Chandavarkar, B. R., Gadagkar, Akhilraj V..  2020.  Mitigating Localization and Neighbour Spoofing Attacks in Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.
The location information of a node is one of the essential attributes used in most underwater communication routing algorithms to identify a candidate forwarding node by any of the sources. The exact location information of a node exchanged with its neighbours' in plain text and the absence of node authentication results in some of the attacks such as Sybil attack, Blackhole attack, and Wormhole attack. Moreover, the severe consequence of these attacks is Denial of Service (DoS), poor network performance, reduced network lifetime, etc. This paper proposes an anti-Spoof (a-Spoof) algorithm for mitigating localization and neighbour spoofing attacks in UASN. a-Spoof uses three pre-shared symmetric keys to share the location. Additionally, location integrity provided through the hash function. Further, the performance of a-Spoof demonstrated through its implementation in UnetStack with reference to end-to-end packet delay and the number of hops.
Khalid, Muhammad, Zhao, Ruiqin, Wang, Xin.  2020.  Node Authentication in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using Time-Reversal. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—4.
Physical layer authentication scheme for node authentication using the time-reversal (TR) process and the location-specific key feature of the channel impulse response (CIR) in an underwater time-varying multipath environment is proposed. TR is a well-known signal focusing technique in signal processing; this focusing effect is used by the database maintaining node to authenticate the sensor node by convolving the estimated CIR from a probe signal with its database of CIRs. Maximum time-reversal resonating strength (MTRRS) is calculated to make an authentication decision. This work considers a static underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) under the “Alice- Bob-Eve” scenario. The performance of the proposed scheme is expressed by the Probability of Detection (PD) and the Probability of False Alarm (PFA).
Shen, Chao.  2020.  Laser-based high bit-rate visible light communications and underwater optical wireless network. 2020 Photonics North (PN). :1–1.
This talk presents an overview of the latest visible light communication (VLC) and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) research and development from the device to the system level. The utilization of laser-based devices and systems for LiFi and underwater Internet of Things (IoT) has been discussed.
Li, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Guo, Z., Yin, H., Teng, H..  2020.  Synergetic Denial-of-Service Attacks and Defense in Underwater Named Data Networking. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1569–1578.
Due to the harsh environment and energy limitation, maintaining efficient communication is crucial to the lifetime of Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN). Named Data Networking (NDN), one of future network architectures, begins to be applied to UWSN. Although Underwater Named Data Networking (UNDN) performs well in data transmission, it still faces some security threats, such as the Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks caused by Interest Flooding Attacks (IFAs). In this paper, we present a new type of DoS attacks, named as Synergetic Denial-of-Service (SDoS). Attackers synergize with each other, taking turns to reply to malicious interests as late as possible. SDoS attacks will damage the Pending Interest Table, Content Store, and Forwarding Information Base in routers with high concealment. Simulation results demonstrate that the SDoS attacks quadruple the increased network traffic compared with normal IFAs and the existing IFA detection algorithm in UNDN is completely invalid to SDoS attacks. In addition, we analyze the infection problem in UNDN and propose a defense method Trident based on carefully designed adaptive threshold, burst traffic detection, and attacker identification. Experiment results illustrate that Trident can effectively detect and resist both SDoS attacks and normal IFAs. Meanwhile, Trident can robustly undertake burst traffic and congestion.
Wang, Qing, Wang, Zengfu, Guo, Jun, Tahchi, Elias, Wang, Xinyu, Moran, Bill, Zukerman, Moshe.  2019.  Path Planning of Submarine Cables. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Submarine optical-fiber cables are key components in the conveying of Internet data, and their failures have costly consequences. Currently, there are over a million km of such cables empowering the Internet. To carry the ever-growing Internet traffic, additional 100,000s of km of cables will be needed in the next few years. At an average cost of \$28,000 per km, this entails investments of billions of dollars. In current industry practice, cable paths are planned manually by experts. This paper surveys our recent work on cable path planning algorithms, where we use several methods to plan cable paths taking account of a range of cable risk factors in addition to cable costs. Two methods, namely, the fast marching method (FMM) and the Dijkstra's algorithm are applied here to long-haul cable path design in a new geographical region. A specific example is given to demonstrate the benefit of the FMM-based method in terms of the better path planning solutions over the Dijkstra's algorithm.
Illi, Elmehdi, Bouanani, Faissal El, da Costa, Daniel Benevides, Sofotasios, Paschalis C., Ayoub, Fouad, Mezher, Kahtan, Muhaidat, Sami.  2019.  On the Physical Layer Security of a Regenerative Relay-Based mixed RF/UOWC. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–7.
This paper investigates the secrecy outage performance of a dual-hop decode-and-forward (DF) mixed radio-frequency/underwater optical wireless communication (RF/UOWC) system. We consider a one-antenna source node ( S), communicating with one legitimate destination node (D) via a multi-antenna DF relay (R) node. In this context, the relay node receives the incoming signal from S via an RF link, which is subject to Rayleigh fading, then performes selection-combining (SC) followed by decoding and then re-encoding for transmission to the destination over a UOWC link, subject to mixture Exponential-Gamma fading. Under the assumption of eavesdroppers attempting to intercept the S-R (RF side), a closed-form expression for the secrecy outage probability is derived. Our analytical results are corroborated through computer simulations, which verifies their validity.
Zhao, Min, Li, Shunxin, Xiao, Dong, Zhao, Guoliang, Li, Bo, Liu, Li, Chen, Xiangyu, Yang, Min.  2019.  Consumption Ability Estimation of Distribution System Interconnected with Microgrids. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :345–350.
With fast development of distributed generation, storages and control techniques, a growing number of microgrids are interconnected with distribution networks. Microgrid capacity that a local distribution system can afford, is important to distribution network planning and microgrids well-organized integration. Therefore, this paper focuses on estimating consumption ability of distribution system interconnected with microgrids. The method to judge rationality of microgrids access plan is put forward, and an index system covering operation security, power quality and energy management is proposed. Consumption ability estimation procedure based on rationality evaluation and interactions is built up then, and requirements on multi-scenario simulation are presented. Case study on a practical distribution system design with multi-microgrids guarantees the validity and reasonableness of the proposed method and process. The results also indicate construction and reinforcement directions for the distribution network.
Bhat, Sriharsha, Stenius, Ivan, Bore, Nils, Severholt, Josefine, Ljung, Carl, Torroba Balmori, Ignacio.  2019.  Towards a Cyber-Physical System for Hydrobatic AUVs. OCEANS 2019 - Marseille. :1–7.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) encompass a network of sensors and actuators that are monitored, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) become more intelligent and connected, new use cases in ocean production, security and environmental monitoring become feasible. Swarms of small, affordable and hydrobatic AUVs can be beneficial in substance cloud tracking and algae farming, and a CPS linking the AUVs with multi-fidelity simulations can improve performance while reducing risks and costs. In this paper, we present a CPS concept tightly linking the AUV network in ROS to virtual validation using Simulink and Gazebo. A robust hardware-software interface using the open-source UAVCAN-ROS bridge is described for enabling hardware-in-the-loop validation. Hardware features of the hydrobatic SAM AUV are described, with a focus on subsystem integration. Results presented include pre-tuning of controllers, validation of mission plans in simulation and real time subsystem performance in tank tests. These first results demonstrate the interconnection between different system elements and offer a proof of concept.
Arifeen, Md Murshedul, Islam, Al Amin, Rahman, Md Mustafizur, Taher, Kazi Abu, Islam, Md.Maynul, Kaiser, M Shamim.  2019.  ANFIS based Trust Management Model to Enhance Location Privacy in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE). :1–6.
Trust management is a promising alternative solution to different complex security algorithms for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) applications due to its several resource constraint behaviour. In this work, we have proposed a trust management model to improve location privacy of the UWSN. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) has been exploited to evaluate trustworthiness of a sensor node. Also Markov Decision Process (MDP) has been considered. At each state of the MDP, a sensor node evaluates trust behaviour of forwarding node utilizing the FIS learning rules and selects a trusted node. Simulation has been conducted in MATLAB and simulation results show that the detection accuracy of trustworthiness is 91.2% which is greater than Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) 99 intrusion detection based dataset. So, in our model 91.2% trustworthiness is necessary to be a trusted node otherwise it will be treated as a malicious or compromised node. Our proposed model can successfully eliminate the possibility of occurring any compromised or malicious node in the network.
Illi, Elmehdi, Bouanani, Faissal El, Ayoub, Fouad.  2019.  Physical Layer Security of an Amplify-and-Forward Energy Harvesting-Based Mixed RF/UOW System. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–8.
This paper investigates the secrecy outage performance of an energy harvesting-based dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) mixed radio-frequency/underwater optical wireless communication (RF/UOWC) system. A single-antenna source node (S) is considered, communicating with one legitimate destination node (D) with the aid of a multi-antenna AF relay (R) device. In this setup, the relay node receives the incoming signal from S via an RF link, which is subject to Nakagami-m fading, then performs maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) followed by a fixed-gain amplification, before transmitting it to the destination via a UOWC link, subject to mixture Exponential-Gamma fading. Assuming the presence of a malicious eavesdropper attempting to intercept the S- R hop, a tight approximate expression for the secrecy outage probability is retrieved. The derived results provide useful insights into the influence of key system parameters on the secrecy outage performance. Our analytical results are corroborated through computer simulations, which verifies their validity.
Lv, Chengcai, Shen, Binjian, Guo, Xinxin, Zhu, Chengwei.  2019.  Communication Design for Underwater Acoustic Positioning Networks. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :573–577.
The past decade has seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic positioning networks (UAPNs) because of their wide applications in marine research, ocean monitoring, offshore exploration, and defense or homeland security. Efficient communication among all sensors and receivers is crucial so as to make positioning service available. Traditional UAPNs could locate only one target, that are growing obsolete due to increasing demands for multiple users working at the same time. Due to the demands for multiple users working simultaneously and narrow acoustic bandwidth, new efficient and reliable communication and networking protocols are required in design for UAPNs. In this paper, we aim to provide the procedure of communication design for UAPNs based on sonar equation and spread spectrum communication. What's more, signal design and performance analysis are supplied. The results show that the signal we designed have ideal correlation performance and high processing gain. The signal is suitable for multiple users UAPNs and thus show favorable potential in ocean engineering applications.
Pelekanakis, Konstantinos, Gussen, Camila M. G., Petroccia, Roberto, Alves, João.  2019.  Robust Channel Parameters for Crypto Key Generation in Underwater Acoustic Systems. OCEANS 2019 MTS/IEEE SEATTLE. :1–7.
Key management is critical for the successful operation of a cryptographic system in wireless networks. Systems based on asymmetric keys require a dedicated infrastructure for key management and authentication which may not be practical for ad-hoc Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs). In symmetric-key systems, key distribution is not easy to handle when new nodes join the network. In addition, when a key is compromised all nodes that use the same key are not secure anymore. Hence, it is desirable to have a dynamic way to generate new keys without relying on past keys. Physical Layer Security (PLS) uses correlated channel measurements between two underwater nodes to generate a cryptographic key without exchanging the key itself. In this study, we set up a network of two legitimate nodes and one eavesdropper operating in a shallow area off the coast of Portugal. We propose novel features based on the Channel Impulse Response (CIR) of the established acoustic link that could be used as an initial seed for a crypto-key generation algorithm. Our results show that the two nodes can independently generate 306 quantization bits after exchanging 187 probe signals. Furthermore, the eavesdropper fails to generate the same bits from her/his data even if she/he performs exactly the same signal processing steps of the legitimate nodes.
Ko, Eunbi, M, Delphin Raj K, Yum, Sun-Ho, Shin, Soo-Young, Namgung, Jung-Il, Park, Soo-Hyun.  2019.  Selection Mechanism for Underwater Multi-Media Communication. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :130–132.
As the ocean covers 70% of the Earth's surface, it becomes inevitable to develop or extend underwater applications. Compared to Visible Light medium, Acoustic medium has been widely used to transmit the data from source to destination in underwater communication. Data transmission, however, has the limitation such as propagation delay, reliability, power constraints, etc. Although underwater MAC protocols have been developed to overcome these challenges, there are still some drawbacks due to the harsh underwater environment. Therefore, the selection mechanism for underwater multi-media communication is proposed inside Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. In this paper, the main focus is to select the appropriate medium based on the distance between nodes and transmission power. The result of performance evaluation shows that this multimedia approach can complement the existing underwater single medium communication. As a result, underwater multimedia mechanism increases the reliability and energy efficiency in data transmission.
Sun, Dajun, Ouyang, Yujie, Han, Yunfeng, Zhang, Jucheng.  2019.  Design and Verification of Wake-up Signal for Underwater Nodes. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1–5.
The construction and improvement of the underwater acoustic network is the premise and guarantee for the development of the marine industry. Because the underwater nodes need to work for a long time, it is especially important to ensure that the nodes have a long standby capacity. In general, the node is in a low-power standby state waiting for a wake-up signal. When the node detects the wakeup signal, it will resume normal operation. In this paper, we propose a signal design based on the m-sequence. which can detect the hidden awakening signal in the complex environment with low SNR and small Doppler shift. Simulation and experimental data indicate that when the input SNR is as low as -11 dB and the signal has a small Doppler shift, the system can still achieve a detection probability of 100% and ensure that the false alarm probability is lower than 10-6.
Montella, Raffaele, Di Luccio, Diana, Marcellino, Livia, Galletti, Ardelio, Kosta, Sokol, Brizius, Alison, Foster, Ian.  2017.  Processing of Crowd-sourced Data from an Internet of Floating Things. Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Workflows in Support of Large-Scale Science. :8:1–8:11.
Sensors incorporated into mobile devices provide unique opportunities to capture detailed environmental information that cannot be readily collected in other ways. We show here how data from networked navigational sensors on leisure vessels can be used to construct unique new datasets, using the example of underwater topography (bathymetry) to demonstrate the approach. Specifically, we describe an end-to-end workflow that involves the collection of large numbers of timestamped (position, depth) measurements from "internet of floating things" devices on leisure vessels; the communication of data to cloud resources, via a specialized protocol capable of dealing with delayed, intermittent, or even disconnected networks; the integration of measurement data into cloud storage; the efficient correction and interpolation of measurements on a cloud computing platform; and the creation of a continuously updated bathymetric database. Our prototype implementation of this workflow leverages the FACE-IT Galaxy workflow engine to integrate network communication and database components with a CUDA-enabled algorithm running in a virtualized cloud environment.
Campagnaro, Filippo, Francescon, Roberto, Kebkal, Oleksiy, Casari, Paolo, Kebkal, Konstantin, Zorzi, Michele.  2017.  Full Reconfiguration of Underwater Acoustic Networks Through Low-Level Physical Layer Access. Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. :9:1–9:8.
Underwater acoustic communications experiments often involve custom implementations of schemes and protocols for the physical and data link layers. However, most commercial modems focus on providing reliable or optimized communication links, rather than on allowing low-level reconfiguration or reprogramming of modulation and coding schemes. As a result, the physical layer is typically provided as a closed, non-reprogrammable black box, accessible by the user only through a specific interface. While software-defined modems would be the ultimate solution to overcome this issue, having access to the symbols transmitted by the modems using a proprietary modulation format already opens up a number of research opportunities, e.g., aimed at the cross-layer design and optimization of channel coding schemes and communication protocols. In this paper, we take the latter approach. We consider the commercial EvoLogics modem, driven by a custom firmware version that bypasses the channel coding methods applied by the modem, and allows the user to set the transmit bit rate to any desired value within a given set. This makes it possible to evaluate different coding schemes in the presence of different bit rates. Our results show that the custom firmware offers sufficient flexibility to test different configurations of the coding schemes and bit rates, by providing direct access both to correctly decoded and to corrupted symbols, which can be separated at the receiver for further processing. In addition, we show that the DESERT Underwater framework can also leverage the same flexibility by employing low-level physical layer access in more complex networking experiments.
Wei, Li, Tang, Yuxin, Cao, Yuching, Wang, Zhaohui, Gerla, Mario.  2017.  Exploring Simulation of Software-Defined Underwater Wireless Networks. Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. :21:1–21:5.
Multi-modal communication methods have been proposed for underwater wireless networks (UWNs) to tackle the challenging physical characteristics of underwater wireless channels. These include the use of acoustic and optic technology for range-dependent transmissions. Software-defined networking (SDN) is an appealing choice for managing these networks with multi-modal communication capabilities, allowing for increased adaptability in the UWN design. In this work, we develop a simulation platform for software-defined underwater wireless networks (SDUWNs). Similarto OpenNet, this platform integrates Mininet with ns-3 via TapBridge modules. The multi-modal communication is implemented by equipping each ns-3 node with multiple net devices. Multiple channel modules connecting corresponding net devices are configured to reflect the channel characteristics. The proposed simulation platform is validated in a case study for oceanographic data collection.
Gorma, Wael Mohamed, Mitchell, Paul Daniel.  2017.  Performance of the Combined Free/Demand Assignment Multiple Access Protocol via Underwater Networks. Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. :5:1–5:2.
This paper considers the use of Combined Free/Demand Assignment Multiple Access (CFDAMA) for Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs). The long propagation delay places severe constraints on the trade-off between end-to-end delay and the achievable channel utilisation. Free assignment is shown to offer close to the theoretical minimum end-to-end delay at low channel loads. Demand assignment is shown to have a much greater tolerance to increasing channel load over virtually the entire channel utilisation range, but with longer delay. CFDAMA is shown to exhibit significantly enhanced performance with respect to minimising end-to-end delay and maximising channel utilisation.
Yaseen, A. A., Bayart, M..  2017.  Cyber-attack detection in the networked control system with faulty plant. 2017 25th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED). :980–985.

In this paper, the mathematical framework of behavioral system will be applied to detect the cyber-attack on the networked control system which is used to control the remotely operated underwater vehicle ROV. The Intelligent Generalized Predictive Controller IGPC is used to control the ROV. The IGPC is designed with fault-tolerant ability. In consequence of the used fault accommodation technique, the proposed cyber-attacks detector is able to clearly detect the presence of attacker control signal and to distinguish between the effects of the attacker signal and fault on the plant side. The test result of the suggested method demonstrates that it can be considerably used for detection of the cyber-attack.