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Singh, A. K..  2020.  A Multi-Layered Network Model for Blockchain Based Security Surveillance system. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.

Blockchain technology is a decentralized ledger of all transactions across peer to peer network. Being decentralized in nature, a blockchain is highly secure as no single user can alter or remove an entry in the blockchain. The security of office premises and data is a very major concern for any organization. This paper majorly focuses on its application of blockchain technology in security surveillance. This paper proposes a blockchain based multi level network model for security surveillance system. The proposed system architecture is composed of different blockchain based systems connected to a multi level decentralized blockchain system to insure authentication, secure storage, Integrity and accountability.

Guo, Hao, Li, Wanxin, Nejad, Mark, Shen, Chien-Chung.  2019.  Access Control for Electronic Health Records with Hybrid Blockchain-Edge Architecture. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :44–51.
The global Electronic Health Record (EHR) market is growing dramatically and expected to reach \$39.7 billions by 2022. To safe-guard security and privacy of EHR, access control is an essential mechanism for managing EHR data. This paper proposes a hybrid architecture to facilitate access control of EHR data by using both blockchain and edge node. Within the architecture, a blockchain-based controller manages identity and access control policies and serves as a tamper-proof log of access events. In addition, off-chain edge nodes store the EHR data and apply policies specified in Abbreviated Language For Authorization (ALFA) to enforce attribute-based access control on EHR data in collaboration with the blockchain-based access control logs. We evaluate the proposed hybrid architecture by utilizing Hyperledger Composer Fabric blockchain to measure the performance of executing smart contracts and ACL policies in terms of transaction processing time and response time against unauthorized data retrieval.
Li, Qiuxiang, Liu, Zhiyu, Chen, Yanru, Gong, Gangjun, Yang, Sheng, Mahato, Nawaraj Kumar.  2019.  Energy Data Security and Multi-Source Coordination Mechanism Based on Blockchain. 2019 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1979–1983.
Energy is the material basis for human society to survive and has a very important strategic position in the national economy. With the advancement of Internet technology and the extensive use of clean energy, the energy industry has demonstrated a new development trend. Based on blockchain technology, this paper analyzes energy data security and multi-source synergy mechanism, processes and classifies a large amount of energy data in energy system, and builds a blockchain-based energy data supervision and transaction model. A summary tree of energy data is proposed; a consensus mechanism based on multi-source collaboration is proposed to ensure efficient negotiation; and finally, blockchain is verified in the energy scenario. This provides reference for the application of blockchain technology in the energy industry.
Homoliak, Ivan, Venugopalan, Sarad, Hum, Qingze, Szalachowski, Pawel.  2019.  A Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :390–397.
Due to their specific features, blockchains have become popular in recent years. Blockchains are layered systems where security is a critical factor for their success. The main focus of this work is to systematize knowledge about security and privacy issues of blockchains. To this end, we propose a security reference architecture based on models that demonstrate the stacked hierarchy of various threats as well as threat-risk assessment using ISO/IEC 15408. In contrast to the previous surveys [23], [88], [11], we focus on the categorization of security vulnerabilities based on their origins and using the proposed architecture we present existing prevention and mitigation techniques. The scope of our work mainly covers aspects related to the nature of blockchains, while we mention operational security issues and countermeasures only tangentially.
Mitani, Tatsuo, OTSUKA, Akira.  2019.  Traceability in Permissioned Blockchain. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :286–293.
In this paper, we propose the traceability of assets in a permissioned blockchain connected with a permissionless blockchain. We make traceability of assets in the permissioned blockchain be defined and be expressed as a hidden Markov model. There exists no dishonest increase and decrease of assets in this model. The condition is called balance. As we encrypt this model with fully homomorphic encryption and apply the zero knowledge proof of plaintext knowledge, we show that the trace-ability and balance of the permissioned blockchain are able to be proved in zero knowledge to the permissionless blockchain with concealing the asset allocation of the permissioned blockchain.
Killer, Christian, Rodrigues, Bruno, Stiller, Burkhard.  2019.  Security Management and Visualization in a Blockchain-based Collaborative Defense. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :108–111.
A cooperative network defense is one approach to fend off large-scale Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks. In this regard, the Blockchain Signaling System (BloSS) is a multi-domain, blockchain-based, cooperative DDoS defense system, where each Autonomous System (AS) is taking part in the defense alliance. Each AS can exchange attack information about ongoing attacks via the Ethereum blockchain. However, the currently operational implementation of BloSS is not interactive or visualized, but the DDoS mitigation is automated. In realworld defense systems, a human cybersecurity analyst decides whether a DDoS threat should be mitigated or not. Thus, this work presents the design of a security management dashboard for BloSS, designed for interactive use by cyber security analysts.
Li, Jing, Liu, Tingting, Niyato, Dusit, Wang, Ping, Li, Jun, Han, Zhu.  2019.  Contract-Based Approach for Security Deposit in Blockchain Networks with Shards. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :75–82.
As a decentralized ledger technology, blockchain is considered to be a potential solution for applications with highly concentrated management mechanism. However, most of the existing blockchain networks are employed with the hash-puzzle-solving consensus protocol, known as proof-of-work. The competition of solving the puzzle introduces high latency, which directly leads to a long transaction-processing time. One solution of this dilemma is to establish a blockchain network with shards. In this paper, we focus on the blockchain network with shards and adopt the security-deposit based consensus protocol, studying the problem of how to balance the security incentive and the economic incentive. Also, the inherent features of the blockchain, i.e., anonymity and decentralization, introduce the information asymmetric issue between the beacon chain and the participants. The contract theory is utilized to formulate the problem between them. As such, the optimal rewards related to the different types of validators can be obtained, as well as the reasonable deposits accordingly. Compared with the fixed deposits, the flexible deposits can provide enough economic incentive for the participants without losing the security incentives. Besides, the simulation results demonstrate that the contract theory approach is capable of maximizing the beacon chain's utility and satisfying the incentive compatibility and individual rationality of the participants.
Yang, Shu, Chen, Ziteng, Cui, Laizhong, Xu, Mingwei, Ming, Zhongxing, Xu, Ke.  2019.  CoDAG: An Efficient and Compacted DAG-Based Blockchain Protocol. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :314–318.
Blockchain is seen as a promising technology to provide reliable and secure services due to its decentralized characteristic. However, because of the limited throughput, current blockchain platforms can not meet the transaction demand in practical use. Though researchers proposed many new solutions, they suffered either decentralization or security issues. In this paper, using Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure, we improve the linear structure of traditional blockchain protocol. In the new structure, blocks are organized in levels and width, which will generate into a compacted DAG structure (CoDAG). To make CoDAG more efficient and secure, we design algorithms and protocols to place the new-generated blocks appropriately. Compared with traditional blockchain protocols, CoDAG improves the security and transaction verification time, and enjoys the consistency and liveness properties of blockchain. Taking adversary parties into consideration, two possible attack strategies are presented in this paper, and we further prove that CoDAG is a secure and robust protocol to resist them. The experimental results show that CoDAG can achieve 394 transactions per second, which is 56 times of Bitcoin's throughput and 26 times of Ethereum's.
Yang, Xinle, Chen, Yang, Chen, Xiaohu.  2019.  Effective Scheme against 51% Attack on Proof-of-Work Blockchain with History Weighted Information. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :261–265.
Proof-of-Work (PoW) is a popular protocol used in Blockchain systems to resolve double-spending problems. However, if an attacker has access to calculation hash power greater than half of the total hash power, this attacker can create a double-spending attack or 51% attack. The cost of creating a 51% attack is surprisingly low if hash power is abundantly available. That posts a great threat to lots of PoW blockchains. We propose a technique to combine history weighted information of miners with the total calculation difficulty to alleviate the 51% attack problem. Analysis indicates that with the new technique, the cost of a traditional attack is increased by two orders of magnitude.
Davenport, Amanda, Shetty, Sachin.  2019.  Air Gapped Wallet Schemes and Private Key Leakage in Permissioned Blockchain Platforms. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :541—545.

In this paper we consider the threat surface and security of air gapped wallet schemes for permissioned blockchains as preparation for a Markov based mathematical model, and quantify the risk associated with private key leakage. We identify existing threats to the wallet scheme and existing work done to both attack and secure the scheme. We provide an overview the proposed model and outline justification for our methods. We follow with next steps in our remaining work and the overarching goals and motivation for our methods.

Fitwi, Alem, Chen, Yu, Zhu, Sencun.  2019.  A Lightweight Blockchain-Based Privacy Protection for Smart Surveillance at the Edge. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :552—555.

Witnessing the increasingly pervasive deployment of security video surveillance systems(VSS), more and more individuals have become concerned with the issues of privacy violations. While the majority of the public have a favorable view of surveillance in terms of crime deterrence, individuals do not accept the invasive monitoring of their private life. To date, however, there is not a lightweight and secure privacy-preserving solution for video surveillance systems. The recent success of blockchain (BC) technologies and their applications in the Internet of Things (IoT) shed a light on this challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a Lightweight, Blockchain-based Privacy protection (Lib-Pri) scheme for surveillance cameras at the edge. It enables the VSS to perform surveillance without compromising the privacy of people captured in the videos. The Lib-Pri system transforms the deployed VSS into a system that functions as a federated blockchain network capable of carrying out integrity checking, blurring keys management, feature sharing, and video access sanctioning. The policy-based enforcement of privacy measures is carried out at the edge devices for real-time video analytics without cluttering the network.

Gao, Zhimin, Xu, Lei, Turner, Glenn, Patel, Brijesh, Diallo, Nour, Chen, Lin, Shi, Weidong.  2018.  Blockchain-based Identity Management with Mobile Device. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains for Distributed Systems. :66–70.

Blockchain is a powerful and distributed platform for transactions which require a unified, resilient, transparent and consensus-based record keeping system. It has been applied to scenarios like smart city, supply chain, medical data storing and sharing, and etc. Many works have been done on improving the performance and security of such systems. However, there is a lack of the mechanism of identity binding when a human being is involved in corresponding physical world, i.e., if one is involved in an activity, his/her identity in the real world should be correctly reflected in the blockchain system. To mitigate this gap, we propose BlockID, a novel framework for people identity management that leverages biometric authentication and trusted computing technology. We also develop a prototype to demonstrate its feasibility in practice.

Abe, Ryosuke, Nakamura, Keita, Teramoto, Kentaro, Takahashi, Misato.  2018.  Attack Incentive and Security of Exchanging Tokens on Proof-of-Work Blockchain. Proceedings of the Asian Internet Engineering Conference. :32–37.

In a consensus algorithm based on Proof-of-Work, miners are motivated by crypto rewards. Furthermore, security is guaranteed because a cost of a 50% attack chance is higher than the potential rewards. However, because of the sudden price jump of cryptocurrencies and cheap prices of mining machines like ASICs, the cost and profit were on equilibrium for Bitcoin in 2017. In this situation, attackers are motivated by the balance between hash power and profits. In this paper, we describe that there is relevance between mining power on the network and price of tokens that can be taken securely on a blockchain. Users who exchange tokens on the PoW blockchain should monitor mining power and exchange tokens cheaper than the attack cost so that profit and cost of the attacker are not in equilibrium.

He, Songlin, Tang, Qiang, Wu, Chase Q..  2018.  Censorship Resistant Decentralized IoT Management Systems. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :454–459.

Blockchain technology has been increasingly used for decentralizing cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) architectures to address some limitations faced by centralized systems. While many existing efforts are successful in leveraging blockchain for decentralization with multiple servers (full nodes) to handle faulty nodes, an important issue has arisen that external clients (also called lightweight clients) have to rely on a relay node to communicate with the full nodes in the blockchain. Compromization of such relay nodes may result in a security breach and even a blockage of IoT sensors from the network. We propose censorship resistant decentralized IoT management systems, which include a "diffusion" function to deliver all messages from sensors to all full nodes and an augmented consensus protocol to check data loss, replicate processing outcome, and facilitate opportunistic outcome delivery. We also leverage the cryptographic tool of aggregate signature to reduce the complexity of communication and signature verification.

Di Pietro, Roberto, Salleras, Xavier, Signorini, Matteo, Waisbard, Erez.  2018.  A Blockchain-based Trust System for the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 23Nd ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :77–83.

One of the biggest challenges for the Internet of Things (IoT) is to bridge the currently fragmented trust domains. The traditional PKI model relies on a common root of trust and does not fit well with the heterogeneous IoT ecosystem where constrained devices belong to independent administrative domains. In this work we describe a distributed trust model for the IoT that leverages the existing trust domains and bridges them to create end-to-end trust between IoT devices without relying on any common root of trust. Furthermore we define a new cryptographic primitive, denoted as obligation chain designed as a credit-based Blockchain with a built-in reputation mechanism. Its innovative design enables a wide range of use cases and business models that are simply not possible with current Blockchain-based solutions while not experiencing traditional blockchain delays. We provide a security analysis for both the obligation chain and the overall architecture and provide experimental tests that show its viability and quality.

Duong, Tuyet, Chepurnoy, Alexander, Zhou, Hong-Sheng.  2018.  Multi-mode Cryptocurrency Systems. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Workshop on Blockchains, Cryptocurrencies, and Contracts. :35–46.

In the past years, the security of Bitcoin-like protocols has been intensively studied. However, previous investigations are mainly focused on the single-mode version of Bitcoin protocol, where the protocol is running among full nodes (miners). In this paper we initiate the study of multi-mode cryptocurrency protocols. We generalize the recent framework by Garay et al (Eurocrypt 2015) with new security de nitions that capture the security of realistic cryptocurrency systems. e.g. Bitcoin with full and lightweight nodes. As an immediate application of our new framework, we analyze the security of existing blockchain pruning proposals for Bitcoin and Ethereum aiming to improve the storage e ciency of network nodes by pruning unnecessary information from the ledger.

Kiffer, Lucianna, Rajaraman, Rajmohan, shelat, abhi.  2018.  A Better Method to Analyze Blockchain Consistency. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :729–744.

The celebrated Nakamoto consensus protocol [16] ushered in several new consensus applications including cryptocurrencies. A few recent works [7, 17] have analyzed important properties of blockchains, including most significantly, consistency, which is a guarantee that all honest parties output the same sequence of blocks throughout the execution of the protocol. To establish consistency, the prior analysis of Pass, Seeman and Shelat [17] required a careful counting of certain combinatorial events that was difficult to apply to variations of Nakamoto. The work of Garay, Kiayas, and Leonardas [7] provides another method of analyzing the blockchain under the simplifying assumption that the network was synchronous. The contribution of this paper is the development of a simple Markov-chain based method for analyzing consistency properties of blockchain protocols. The method includes a formal way of stating strong concentration bounds as well as easy ways to concretely compute the bounds. We use our new method to answer a number of basic questions about consistency of blockchains: Our new analysis provides a tighter guarantee on the consistency property of Nakamoto's protocol, including for parameter regimes which [17] could not consider; We analyze a family of delaying attacks first presented in [17], and extend them to other protocols; We analyze how long a participant should wait before considering a high-value transaction "confirmed"; We analyze the consistency of CliqueChain, a variation of the Chainweb [14] system; We provide the first rigorous consistency analysis of GHOST [20] and also analyze a folklore "balancing"-attack. In each case, we use our framework to experimentally analyze the consensus bounds for various network delay parameters and adversarial computing percentages. We hope our techniques enable authors of future blockchain proposals to provide a more rigorous analysis of their schemes.

Xu, L., Chen, L., Gao, Z., Chang, Y., Iakovou, E., Shi, W..  2018.  Binding the Physical and Cyber Worlds: A Blockchain Approach for Cargo Supply Chain Security Enhancement. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–5.

Maritime transportation plays a critical role for the U.S. and global economies, and has evolved into a complex system that involves a plethora of supply chain stakeholders spread around the globe. The inherent complexity brings huge security challenges including cargo loss and high burdens in cargo inspection against illicit activities and potential terrorist attacks. The emerging blockchain technology provides a promising tool to build a unified maritime cargo tracking system critical for cargo security. However, most existing efforts focus on transportation data itself, while ignoring how to bind the physical cargo movements and information managed by the system consistently. This can severely undermine the effectiveness of securing cargo transportation. To fulfill this gap, we propose a binding scheme leveraging a novel digital identity management mechanism. The digital identity management mechanism maps the best practice in the physical world to the cyber world and can be seamlessly integrated with a blockchain-based cargo management system.

Zhang, X., Li, R., Cui, B..  2018.  A security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. 2018 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :258–259.

The development of Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) has brought many conveniences to human beings, but also brings a very prominent security problem. The traditional solution to the security problem is based on centralized approach which requires a trusted central entity which exists a single point of failure problem. Moreover, there is no approach of technical level to ensure security of data. Therefore, this paper proposes a security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. The architecture includes three layers, namely perception layer, edge computing layer and service layer. The perception layer ensures the security of VANET data in the transmission process through the blockchain technology. The edge computing layer provides computing resources and edge cloud services to the perception layer. The service layer uses the combination of traditional cloud storage and blockchain to ensure the security of data.

Wang, R., He, J., Liu, C., Li, Q., Tsai, W., Deng, E..  2018.  A Privacy-Aware PKI System Based on Permissioned Blockchains. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :928–931.

Public key infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation and core of network security construction. Blockchain (BC) has many technical characteristics, such as decentralization, impossibility of being tampered with and forged, which makes it have incomparable advantages in ensuring information credibility, security, traceability and other aspects of traditional technology. In this paper, a method of constructing PKI certificate system based on permissioned BC is proposed. The problems of multi-CA mutual trust, poor certificate configuration efficiency and single point failure in digital certificate system are solved by using the characteristics of BC distribution and non-tampering. At the same time, in order to solve the problem of identity privacy on BC, this paper proposes a privacy-aware PKI system based on permissioned BCs. This system is an anonymous digital certificate publishing scheme., which achieves the separation of user registration and authorization, and has the characteristics of anonymity and conditional traceability, so as to realize to protect user's identity privacy. The system meets the requirements of certificate security and anonymity, reduces the cost of CA construction, operation and maintenance in traditional PKI technology, and improves the efficiency of certificate application and configuration.

Urien, P..  2018.  Blockchain IoT (BIoT): A New Direction for Solving Internet of Things Security and Trust Issues. 2018 3rd Cloudification of the Internet of Things (CIoT). :1–4.

The Blockchain is an emerging paradigm that could solve security and trust issues for Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. We recently introduced in an IETF draft (“Blockchain Transaction Protocol for Constraint Nodes”) the BIoT paradigm, whose main idea is to insert sensor data in blockchain transactions. Because objects are not logically connected to blockchain platforms, controller entities forward all information needed for transaction forgery. Never less in order to generate cryptographic signatures, object needs some trusted computing resources. In previous papers we proposed the Four-Quater Architecture integrating general purpose unit (GPU), radio SoC, sensors/actuators and secure elements including TLS/DTLS stacks. These secure microcontrollers also manage crypto libraries required for blockchain operation. The BIoT concept has four main benefits: publication/duplication of sensors data in public and distributed ledgers, time stamping by the blockchain infrastructure, data authentication, and non repudiation.

Hepp, Thomas, Wortner, Patrick, Schönhals, Alexander, Gipp, Bela.  2018.  Securing Physical Assets on the Blockchain: Linking a Novel Object Identification Concept with Distributed Ledgers. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains for Distributed Systems. :60–65.

The use of blockchain technology to track physical assets is not new. However, the state of the art concepts are not applicable due to several limitations. One limitation is the scalability of blockchains with regard to the number of transactions that can be processed by the network. The well-established technology in tracking products is based on RFID chips that can be cloned. This paper provides insights into how objects can be protected and monitored by a varnish with a unique crack pattern, as an example of a Physical Unclonable Function. The perceptual hash of the unique pattern is used to encrypt the associated data to ensure privacy. Instead of logging each event on the blockchain individually, which is not possible due to the limited transaction throughput, OriginStamp is used to preserve data integrity on the blockchain. OriginStamp aggregates events, combines them through hashing and embeds this hash into a Bitcoin transaction. Once the Bitcoin network mines the transaction into a block and confirms it, the timestamp is considered as immutable proof of existence. With this approach, the integrity of tracking data cannot be contested. In the future, the craquelure-based tracking approach could be extended to supply chain integration to secure the origin of products, including prevention of counterfeiting, securing the place of manufacture for trademark law or state surveillance of the agricultural economy.

Yue, L., Junqin, H., Shengzhi, Q., Ruijin, W..  2017.  Big Data Model of Security Sharing Based on Blockchain. 2017 3rd International Conference on Big Data Computing and Communications (BIGCOM). :117–121.

The rise of big data age in the Internet has led to the explosive growth of data size. However, trust issue has become the biggest problem of big data, leading to the difficulty in data safe circulation and industry development. The blockchain technology provides a new solution to this problem by combining non-tampering, traceable features with smart contracts that automatically execute default instructions. In this paper, we present a credible big data sharing model based on blockchain technology and smart contract to ensure the safe circulation of data resources.

Matsuo, S..  2017.  How formal analysis and verification add security to blockchain-based systems. 2017 Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design (FMCAD). :1–4.

Blockchain is an integrated technology to ensure keeping record and process transactions with decentralized manner. It is thought as the foundation of future decentralized ecosystem, and collects much attention. However, the maturity of this technology including security of the fundamental protocol and its applications is not enough, thus we need more research on the security evaluation and verification of Blockchain technology This tutorial explains the current status of the security of this technology, its security layers and possibility of application of formal analysis and verification.

Xu, D., Xiao, L., Sun, L., Lei, M..  2017.  Game theoretic study on blockchain based secure edge networks. 2017 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :1–5.

Blockchain has been applied to study data privacy and network security recently. In this paper, we propose a punishment scheme based on the action record on the blockchain to suppress the attack motivation of the edge servers and the mobile devices in the edge network. The interactions between a mobile device and an edge server are formulated as a blockchain security game, in which the mobile device sends a request to the server to obtain real-time service or launches attacks against the server for illegal security gains, and the server chooses to perform the request from the device or attack it. The Nash equilibria (NEs) of the game are derived and the conditions that each NE exists are provided to disclose how the punishment scheme impacts the adversary behaviors of the mobile device and the edge server.