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2019-04-01
Ye, Guixin, Tang, Zhanyong, Fang, Dingyi, Zhu, Zhanxing, Feng, Yansong, Xu, Pengfei, Chen, Xiaojiang, Wang, Zheng.  2018.  Yet Another Text Captcha Solver: A Generative Adversarial Network Based Approach. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :332–348.
Despite several attacks have been proposed, text-based CAPTCHAs are still being widely used as a security mechanism. One of the reasons for the pervasive use of text captchas is that many of the prior attacks are scheme-specific and require a labor-intensive and time-consuming process to construct. This means that a change in the captcha security features like a noisier background can simply invalid an earlier attack. This paper presents a generic, yet effective text captcha solver based on the generative adversarial network. Unlike prior machine-learning-based approaches that need a large volume of manually-labeled real captchas to learn an effective solver, our approach requires significantly fewer real captchas but yields much better performance. This is achieved by first learning a captcha synthesizer to automatically generate synthetic captchas to learn a base solver, and then fine-tuning the base solver on a small set of real captchas using transfer learning. We evaluate our approach by applying it to 33 captcha schemes, including 11 schemes that are currently being used by 32 of the top-50 popular websites including Microsoft, Wikipedia, eBay and Google. Our approach is the most capable attack on text captchas seen to date. It outperforms four state-of-the-art text-captcha solvers by not only delivering a significant higher accuracy on all testing schemes, but also successfully attacking schemes where others have zero chance. We show that our approach is highly efficient as it can solve a captcha within 0.05 second using a desktop GPU. We demonstrate that our attack is generally applicable because it can bypass the advanced security features employed by most modern text captcha schemes. We hope the results of our work can encourage the community to revisit the design and practical use of text captchas.
Wang, M., Yang, Y., Zhu, M., Liu, J..  2018.  CAPTCHA Identification Based on Convolution Neural Network. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :364–368.
The CAPTCHA is an effective method commonly used in live interactive proofs on the Internet. The widely used CAPTCHAs are text-based schemes. In this paper, we document how we have broken such text-based scheme used by a website CAPTCHA. We use the sliding window to segment 1001 pieces of CAPTCHA to get 5900 images with single-character useful information, a total of 25 categories. In order to make the convolution neural network learn more image features, we augmented the data set to get 129924 pictures. The data set is trained and tested in AlexNet and GoogLeNet to get the accuracy of 87.45% and 98.92%, respectively. The experiment shows that the optimized network parameters can make the accuracy rate up to 92.7% in AlexNet and 98.96% in GoogLeNet.
Stein, G., Peng, Q..  2018.  Low-Cost Breaking of a Unique Chinese Language CAPTCHA Using Curriculum Learning and Clustering. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0595–0600.

Text-based CAPTCHAs are still commonly used to attempt to prevent automated access to web services. By displaying an image of distorted text, they attempt to create a challenge image that OCR software can not interpret correctly, but a human user can easily determine the correct response to. This work focuses on a CAPTCHA used by a popular Chinese language question-and-answer website and how resilient it is to modern machine learning methods. While the majority of text-based CAPTCHAs focus on transcription tasks, the CAPTCHA solved in this work is based on localization of inverted symbols in a distorted image. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was created to evaluate the likelihood of a region in the image belonging to an inverted character. It is used with a feature map and clustering to identify potential locations of inverted characters. Training of the CNN was performed using curriculum learning and compared to other potential training methods. The proposed method was able to determine the correct response in 95.2% of cases of a simulated CAPTCHA and 67.6% on a set of real CAPTCHAs. Potential methods to increase difficulty of the CAPTCHA and the success rate of the automated solver are considered.

Li, Z., Liao, Q..  2018.  CAPTCHA: Machine or Human Solvers? A Game-Theoretical Analysis 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :18–23.
CAPTCHAs have become an ubiquitous defense used to protect open web resources from being exploited at scale. Traditionally, attackers have developed automatic programs known as CAPTCHA solvers to bypass the mechanism. With the presence of cheap labor in developing countries, hackers now have options to use human solvers. In this research, we develop a game theoretical framework to model the interactions between the defender and the attacker regarding the design and countermeasure of CAPTCHA system. With the result of equilibrium analysis, both parties can determine the optimal allocation of software-based or human-based CAPTCHA solvers. Counterintuitively, instead of the traditional wisdom of making CAPTCHA harder and harder, it may be of best interest of the defender to make CAPTCHA easier. We further suggest a welfare-improving CAPTCHA business model by involving decentralized cryptocurrency computation.
Liu, F., Li, Z., Li, X., Lv, T..  2018.  A Text-Based CAPTCHA Cracking System with Generative Adversarial Networks. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM). :192–193.
As a multimedia security mechanism, CAPTCHAs are completely automated public turing test to tell computers and humans apart. Although cracking CAPTCHA has been explored for many years, it is still a challenging problem for real practice. In this demo, we present a text based CAPTCHA cracking system by using convolutional neural networks(CNN). To solve small sample problem, we propose to combine conditional deep convolutional generative adversarial networks(cDCGAN) and CNN, which makes a tremendous progress in accuracy. In addition, we also select multiple models with low pearson correlation coefficients for majority voting ensemble, which further improves the accuracy. The experimental results show that the system has great advantages and provides a new mean for cracking CAPTCHAs.
Hu, Y., Chen, L., Cheng, J..  2018.  A CAPTCHA recognition technology based on deep learning. 2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA). :617–620.
Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is an important human-machine distinction technology for website to prevent the automatic malicious program attack. CAPTCHA recognition studies can find security breaches in CAPTCHA, improve CAPTCHA technology, it can also promote the technologies of license plate recognition and handwriting recognition. This paper proposed a method based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model to identify CAPTCHA and avoid the traditional image processing technology such as location and segmentation. The adaptive learning rate is introduced to accelerate the convergence rate of the model, and the problem of over-fitting and local optimal solution has been solved. The multi task joint training model is used to improve the accuracy and generalization ability of model recognition. The experimental results show that the model has a good recognition effect on CAPTCHA with background noise and character adhesion distortion.
Usuzaki, S., Aburada, K., Yamaba, H., Katayama, T., Mukunoki, M., Park, M., Okazaki, N..  2018.  Interactive Video CAPTCHA for Better Resistance to Automated Attack. 2018 Eleventh International Conference on Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Network (ICMU). :1–2.
A “Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart” (CAPTCHA) widely used online services so that prevents bots from automatic getting a large of accounts. Interactive video type CAPTCHAs that attempt to detect this attack by using delay time due to communication relays have been proposed. However, these approaches remain insufficiently resistant to bots. We propose a CAPTCHA that combines resistant to automated and relay attacks. In our CAPTCHA, the users recognize a moving object (target object) from among a number of randomly appearing decoy objects and tracks the target with mouse cursor. The users pass the test when they were able to track the target for a certain time. Since the target object moves quickly, the delay makes it difficult for a remote solver to break the CAPTCHA during a relay attack. It is also difficult for a bot to track the target using image processing because it has same looks of the decoys. We evaluated our CAPTCHA's resistance to relay and automated attacks. Our results show that, if our CAPTHCA's parameters are set suitable value, a relay attack cannot be established economically and false acceptance rate with bot could be reduced to 0.01% without affecting human success rate.
Rathour, N., Kaur, K., Bansal, S., Bhargava, C..  2018.  A Cross Correlation Approach for Breaking of Text CAPTCHA. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Circuits and Systems (ICICS). :6–10.
Online web service providers generally protect themselves through CAPTCHA. A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a person. CAPTCHAS are mainly instigated as distorted text which the handler must correctly transcribe. Numerous schemes have been proposed till date in order to prevent attacks by Bots. This paper also presents a cross correlation based approach in breaking of famous service provider's text CAPTCHA i.e. PayPal.com and the other one is of India's most visited website IRCTC.co.in. The procedure can be fragmented down into 3 firmly tied tasks: pre-processing, segmentation, and classification. The pre-processing of the image is performed to remove all the background noise of the image. The noise in the CAPTCHA are unwanted on pixels in the background. The segmentation is performed by scanning the image for on pixels. The organization is performed by using the association values of the inputs and templates. Two types of templates have been used for classification purpose. One is the standard templates which give 30% success rate and other is the noisy templates made from the captcha images and success rate achieved with these is 100%.
Zhang, T., Zheng, H., Zhang, L..  2018.  Verification CAPTCHA Based on Deep Learning. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :9056–9060.
At present, the captcha is widely used in the Internet. The method of captcha recognition using the convolutional neural networks was introduced in this paper. It was easier to apply the convolution neural network model of simple training to segment the captcha, and the network structure was established imitating VGGNet model. and the correct rate can be reached more than 90%. For the more difficult segmentation captcha, it can be used the end-to-end thought to the captcha as a whole to training, In this way, the recognition rate of the more difficult segmentation captcha can be reached about 85%.
2017-12-20
Azakami, T., Shibata, C., Uda, R..  2017.  Challenge to Impede Deep Learning against CAPTCHA with Ergonomic Design. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:637–642.

Once we had tried to propose an unbreakable CAPTCHA and we reached a result that limitation of time is effect to prevent computers from recognizing characters accurately while computers can finally recognize all text-based CAPTCHA in unlimited time. One of the existing usual ways to prevent computers from recognizing characters is distortion, and adding noise is also effective for the prevention. However, these kinds of prevention also make recognition of characters by human beings difficult. As a solution of the problems, an effective text-based CAPTCHA algorithm with amodal completion was proposed by our team. Our CAPTCHA causes computers a large amount of calculation costs while amodal completion helps human beings to recognize characters momentarily. Our CAPTCHA has evolved with aftereffects and combinations of complementary colors. We evaluated our CAPTCHA with deep learning which is attracting the most attention since deep learning is faster and more accurate than existing methods for recognition with computers. In this paper, we add jagged lines to edges of characters since edges are one of the most important parts for recognition in deep learning. In this paper, we also evaluate that how much the jagged lines decrease recognition of human beings and how much they prevent computers from the recognition. We confirm the effects of our method to deep learning.

An, G., Yu, W..  2017.  CAPTCHA Recognition Algorithm Based on the Relative Shape Context and Point Pattern Matching. 2017 9th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :168–172.
Using shape context descriptors in the distance uneven grouping and its more extensive description of the shape feature, so this descriptor has the target contour point set deformation invariance. However, the twisted adhesions verification code have more outliers and more serious noise, the above-mentioned invariance of the shape context will become very bad, in order to solve the above descriptors' limitations, this article raise a new algorithm based on the relative shape context and point pattern matching to identify codes. And also experimented on the CSDN site's verification code, the result is that the recognition rate is higher than the traditional shape context and the response time is shorter.
Wang, Y., Huang, Y., Zheng, W., Zhou, Z., Liu, D., Lu, M..  2017.  Combining convolutional neural network and self-adaptive algorithm to defeat synthetic multi-digit text-based CAPTCHA. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :980–985.
We always use CAPTCHA(Completely Automated Public Turing test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) to prevent automated bot for data entry. Although there are various kinds of CAPTCHAs, text-based scheme is still applied most widely, because it is one of the most convenient and user-friendly way for daily user [1]. The fact is that segmentations of different types of CAPTCHAs are not always the same, which means one of CAPTCHA's bottleneck is the segmentation. Once we could accurately split the character, the problem could be solved much easier. Unfortunately, the best way to divide them is still case by case, which is to say there is no universal way to achieve it. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to achieve state-of-the-art performance, what was more, we also constructed a new convolutional neural network as an add-on recognition part to stabilize our state-of-the-art performance of the whole CAPTCHA system. The CAPTCHA datasets we are using is from the State Administration for Industry& Commerce of the People's Republic of China. In this datasets, there are totally 33 entrances of CAPTCHAs. In this experiments, we assume that each of the entrance is known. Results are provided showing how our algorithms work well towards these CAPTCHAs.
Le, T. A., Baydin, A. G., Zinkov, R., Wood, F..  2017.  Using synthetic data to train neural networks is model-based reasoning. 2017 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :3514–3521.
We draw a formal connection between using synthetic training data to optimize neural network parameters and approximate, Bayesian, model-based reasoning. In particular, training a neural network using synthetic data can be viewed as learning a proposal distribution generator for approximate inference in the synthetic-data generative model. We demonstrate this connection in a recognition task where we develop a novel Captcha-breaking architecture and train it using synthetic data, demonstrating both state-of-the-art performance and a way of computing task-specific posterior uncertainty. Using a neural network trained this way, we also demonstrate successful breaking of real-world Captchas currently used by Facebook and Wikipedia. Reasoning from these empirical results and drawing connections with Bayesian modeling, we discuss the robustness of synthetic data results and suggest important considerations for ensuring good neural network generalization when training with synthetic data.
Koning, R., Graaff, B. D., Meijer, R., Laat, C. D., Grosso, P..  2017.  Measuring the effectiveness of SDN mitigations against cyber attacks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :1–6.
To address increasing problems caused by cyber attacks, we leverage Software Defined networks and Network Function Virtualisation governed by a SARNET-agent to enable autonomous response and attack mitigation. A Secure Autonomous Response Network (SARNET) uses a control loop to constantly assess the security state of the network by means of observables. Using a prototype we introduce the metrics impact and effectiveness and show how they can be used to compare and evaluate countermeasures. These metrics become building blocks for self learning SARNET which exhibit true autonomous response.
Althamary, I. A., El-Alfy, E. S. M..  2017.  A more secure scheme for CAPTCHA-based authentication in cloud environment. 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :405–411.

Cloud computing is a remarkable model for permitting on-demand network access to an elastic collection of configurable adaptive resources and features including storage, software, infrastructure, and platform. However, there are major concerns about security-related issues. A very critical security function is user authentication using passwords. Although many flaws have been discovered in password-based authentication, it remains the most convenient approach that people continue to utilize. Several schemes have been proposed to strengthen its effectiveness such as salted hashes, one-time password (OTP), single-sign-on (SSO) and multi-factor authentication (MFA). This study proposes a new authentication mechanism by combining user's password and modified characters of CAPTCHA to generate a passkey. The modification of the CAPTCHA depends on a secret agreed upon between the cloud provider and the user to employ different characters for some characters in the CAPTCHA. This scheme prevents various attacks including short-password attack, dictionary attack, keylogger, phishing, and social engineering. Moreover, it can resolve the issue of password guessing and the use of a single password for different cloud providers.

Lukaseder, T., Hunt, A., Stehle, C., Wagner, D., Heijden, R. v d, Kargl, F..  2017.  An Extensible Host-Agnostic Framework for SDN-Assisted DDoS-Mitigation. 2017 IEEE 42nd Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :619–622.

Summary form only given. Strong light-matter coupling has been recently successfully explored in the GHz and THz [1] range with on-chip platforms. New and intriguing quantum optical phenomena have been predicted in the ultrastrong coupling regime [2], when the coupling strength Ω becomes comparable to the unperturbed frequency of the system ω. We recently proposed a new experimental platform where we couple the inter-Landau level transition of an high-mobility 2DEG to the highly subwavelength photonic mode of an LC meta-atom [3] showing very large Ω/ωc = 0.87. Our system benefits from the collective enhancement of the light-matter coupling which comes from the scaling of the coupling Ω ∝ √n, were n is the number of optically active electrons. In our previous experiments [3] and in literature [4] this number varies from 104-103 electrons per meta-atom. We now engineer a new cavity, resonant at 290 GHz, with an extremely reduced effective mode surface Seff = 4 × 10-14 m2 (FE simulations, CST), yielding large field enhancements above 1500 and allowing to enter the few (\textbackslashtextless;100) electron regime. It consist of a complementary metasurface with two very sharp metallic tips separated by a 60 nm gap (Fig.1(a, b)) on top of a single triangular quantum well. THz-TDS transmission experiments as a function of the applied magnetic field reveal strong anticrossing of the cavity mode with linear cyclotron dispersion. Measurements for arrays of only 12 cavities are reported in Fig.1(c). On the top horizontal axis we report the number of electrons occupying the topmost Landau level as a function of the magnetic field. At the anticrossing field of B=0.73 T we measure approximately 60 electrons ultra strongly coupled (Ω/ω- \textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbar

Liu, Z., Liu, Y., Winter, P., Mittal, P., Hu, Y. C..  2017.  TorPolice: Towards enforcing service-defined access policies for anonymous communication in the Tor network. 2017 IEEE 25th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1–10.
Tor is the most widely used anonymity network, currently serving millions of users each day. However, there is no access control in place for all these users, leaving the network vulnerable to botnet abuse and attacks. For example, criminals frequently use exit relays as stepping stones for attacks, causing service providers to serve CAPTCHAs to exit relay IP addresses or blacklisting them altogether, which leads to severe usability issues for legitimate Tor users. To address this problem, we propose TorPolice, the first privacy-preserving access control framework for Tor. TorPolice enables abuse-plagued service providers such as Yelp to enforce access rules to police and throttle malicious requests coming from Tor while still providing service to legitimate Tor users. Further, TorPolice equips Tor with global access control for relays, enhancing Tor's resilience to botnet abuse. We show that TorPolice preserves the privacy of Tor users, implement a prototype of TorPolice, and perform extensive evaluations to validate our design goals.
Yamaguchi, M., Kikuchi, H..  2017.  Audio-CAPTCHA with distinction between random phoneme sequences and words spoken by multi-speaker. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3071–3076.
Audio-CAPTCHA prevents malicious bots from attacking Web services and provides Web accessibility for visually-impaired persons. Most of the conventional methods employ statistical noise to distort sounds and let users remember and spell the words, which are difficult and laborious work for humans. In this paper, we utilize the difficulty on speaker-independent recognition for ASR machines instead of distortion with statistical noise. Our scheme synthesizes various voices by changing voice speed, pitch and native language of speakers. Moreover, we employ semantic identification problems between random phoneme sequences and meaningful words to release users from remembering and spelling words, so it improves the accuracy of humans and usability. We also evaluated our scheme in several experiments.
Kumar, S. A., Kumar, N. R., Prakash, S., Sangeetha, K..  2017.  Gamification of internet security by next generation CAPTCHAs. 2017 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–5.

CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test to ensure that the response is only generated by humans and not by computerized robots. CAPTCHA are getting harder as because usage of latest advanced pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms are capable of solving simpler CAPTCHA. However, some enhancement procedures make the CAPTCHAs too difficult to be recognized by the human. This paper resolves the problem by next generation human-friendly mini game-CAPTCHA for quantifying the usability of CAPTCHAs.

2017-10-04
Weeks, Michael, Pan, Yi, Zhang, Yanqing.  2016.  Increasing Security Awareness in Undergraduate Courses with Labware (Abstract Only). Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education. :687–687.
This poster documents three approaches that we are undertaking to increase security awareness within undergraduate computer science classes. The first approach is a verbal password entry system, with surreptitious photos being taken when the mobile device is stolen. The second approach is a lab where students develop a password entry and verification system between a mobile device and a remote server. The third approach is a captcha system, where students implement a simple challenge that can be verified. Like password entry, the captcha communications must be secure and difficult to automatically manipulate. Unlike password entry, the captcha is meant to allow humans access while denying other computers.
Algwil, Abdalnaser, Ciresan, Dan, Liu, Beibei, Yan, Jeff.  2016.  A security analysis of automated chinese turing tests. Proceeding ACSAC '16 Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference on Computer Security Applications Pages 520-532 .

Text-based Captchas have been widely used to deter misuse of services on the Internet. However, many designs have been broken. It is intellectually interesting and practically relevant to look for alternative designs, which are currently a topic of active research. We motivate the study of Chinese Captchas as an interesting alternative design - co-unterintuitively, it is possible to design Chinese Captchas that are universally usable, even to those who have never studied Chinese language. More importantly, we ask a fundamental question: is the segmentation-resistance principle established for Roman-character based Captchas applicable to Chinese based designs? With deep learning techniques, we offer the first evidence that computers do recognize individual Chinese characters well, regardless of distortion levels. This suggests that many real-world Chinese schemes are insecure, in contrast to common beliefs. Our result offers an essential guideline to the design of secure Chinese Captchas, and it is also applicable to Captchas using other large-alphabet languages such as Japanese.

Jaume-i-Capó, Antoni, Mena-Barco, Carlos, Moyà-Alcover, Biel.  2016.  Analysis of Blood Cell Morphology in Touch-based Devices Using a CAPTCHA. Proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Human Computer Interaction. :27:1–27:2.
In this paper, we present an experimental system for controlling human access to information systems. Also, the system allows analyzing the morphology of red blood cells of microscope images of patients with sicklemia.
Kim, Suzi, Choi, Sunghee.  2016.  Automatic Generation of 3D Typography. ACM SIGGRAPH 2016 Posters. :21:1–21:2.
Three-dimensional typography (3D typography) refers to the arrangement of text in three-dimensional space. It injects vitality into the letters, thereby giving the viewer a strong impression that is hard to forget. These days, 3D typography plays an important role in daily life beyond the artistic design. It is easy to observe the 3D typography used in the 3D virtual space such as movie or games. Also it is used frequently in signboard or furniture design. Despite its noticeable strength, most of the 3D typography is generated by just a simple extrusion of flat 2D typography. Comparing with 2D typography, 3D typography is more difficult to generate in short time due to its high complexity.
Wang, Zhao, Xi, Yuan.  2016.  A Kind of De-noising and Segmentation Method for Hollow CAPTCHAs with Noise Arcs. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Network, Communication and Computing. :68–72.
While many text-based CAPTCHA schemes have been broken, hollow CAPTCHAs as a new technology have been used by many websites. The generation method of currently used hollow CAPTCHAs is investigated, we found there is color difference between the boundary of characters contour lines and noise arcs. An algorithm of noise arcs removal to deal with this vulnerability is proposed. Furthermore, a de-noising and segmentation scheme for hollow CAPTCHAs with noise arcs is presented. The scheme is verified by the real CAPTCHA data from the website Sina Weibo. The success segmentation rate is 77%. Finally, some advice is given to improve the design of hollow CAPTCHA.
A. Rawat, A. K. Singh, J. Jithin, N. Jeyanthi, R. Thandeeswaran.  2016.  RSJ Approach for User Authentication. Proceeding AICTC '16 Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Information Communication Technology & Computing Article No. 101 .

Some of the common works like, upload and retrieval of data, buying and selling things, earning and donating or transaction of money etc., are the most common works performed in daily life through internet. For every user who is accessing the internet regularly, their highest priority is to make sure that there data is secured. Users are willing to pay huge amount of money to the service provider for maintaining the security. But the intention of malicious users is to access and misuse others data. For that they are using zombie bots. Always Bots are not the only malicious, legitimate authorized user can also impersonate to access the data illegally. This makes the job tougher to discriminate between the bots and boots. For providing security form that threats, here we are proposing a novel RSJ Approach by User Authentication. RSJ approach is a secure way for providing the security to the user form both bots and malicious users.