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Rabari, Jeet, Kumar, Arun Raj P..  2021.  FIFA: Fighting against Interest Flooding Attack in NDN-based VANET. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1539–1544.
A vehicular Ad-hoc network (VANET) allows groups of autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles to share information and content with each other and infrastructure. Named Data Networking (NDN) is recently proposed as one of the future internet architectures, which allows communication in network-based upon content name. It has originated from Information-centric networking (ICN). NDN-based VANET uses NDN as an underlying communication paradigm. NDN-based VANET suffers from several security attacks, one such attack is the Interest Flooding Attack (IFA) that targets the core forwarding mechanism of NDN-based VANET. This paper focuses on the detection and mitigation of IFA in NDN-based VANET. We proposed a method FIFA to detect and mitigate IFA. Our proposed method is capable of detecting normal IFA as well as a low-rate IFA. Along with that FIFA also ensures non-repudiation in networks. We have compared our proposed method with the existing mechanism to detect and mitigate IFA named IFAMS. Experiment results show that our method detects and mitigates normal IFA and low-rate IFA in the network.
Pan, T., Xu, C., Lv, J., Shi, Q., Li, Q., Jia, C., Huang, T., Lin, X..  2019.  LD-ICN: Towards Latency Deterministic Information-Centric Networking. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :973–980.
Deterministic latency is the key challenge that must be addressed in numerous 5G applications such as AR/VR. However, it is difficult to make customized end-to-end resource reservation across multiple ISPs using IP-based QoS mechanisms. Information-Centric Networking (ICN) provides scalable and efficient content distribution at the Internet scale due to its in-network caching and native multicast capabilities, and the deterministic latency can promisingly be guaranteed by caching the relevant content objects in appropriate locations. Existing proposals formulate the ICN cache placement problem into numerous theoretical models. However, the underlying mechanisms to support such cache coordination are not discussed in detail. Especially, how to efficiently make cache reservation, how to avoid route oscillation when content cache is updated and how to conduct the real-time latency measurement? In this work, we propose Latency Deterministic Information-Centric Networking (LD-ICN). LD-ICN relies on source routing-based latency telemetry and leverages an on-path caching technique to avoid frequent route oscillation while still achieve the optimal cache placement under the SDN architecture. Extensive evaluation shows that under LD-ICN, 90.04% of the content requests are satisfied within the hard latency requirements.
Campioni, Lorenzo, Tortonesi, Mauro, Wissingh, Bastiaan, Suri, Niranjan, Hauge, Mariann, Landmark, Lars.  2019.  Experimental Evaluation of Named Data Networking (NDN) in Tactical Environments. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :43–48.
Tactical edge networks represent a uniquely challenging environment from the communications perspective, due to their limited bandwidth and high node mobility. Several middleware communication solutions have been proposed to address those issues, adopting an evolutionary design approach that requires facing quite a few complications to provide applications with a suited network programming model while building on top of the TCP/IP stack. Information Centric Networking (ICN), instead, represents a revolutionary, clean slate approach that aims at replacing the entire TCP/IP stack with a new communication paradigm, better suited to cope with fluctuating channel conditions and network disruptions. This paper, stemmed from research conducted within NATO IST-161 RTG, investigates the effectiveness of Named Data Networking (NDN), the de facto standard implementation of ICN, in the context of tactical edge networks and its potential for adoption. We evaluated an NDN-based Blue Force Tracking (BFT) dissemination application within the Anglova scenario emulation environment, and found that NDN obtained better-than-expected results in terms of delivery ratio and latency, at the expense of a relatively high bandwidth consumption.
Xue, Kaiping, Zhang, Xiang, Xia, Qiudong, Wei, David S.L., Yue, Hao, Wu, Feng.  2018.  SEAF: A Secure, Efficient and Accountable Access Control Framework for Information Centric Networking. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2213–2221.
Information Centric Networking (ICN) has been regarded as an ideal architecture for the next-generation network to handle users' increasing demand for content delivery with in-network cache. While making better use of network resources and providing better delivery service, an effective access control mechanism is needed due to wide dissemination of contents. However, in the existing solutions, making cache-enabled routers or content providers authenticate users' requests causes high computation overhead and unnecessary delay. Also, straightforward utilization of advanced encryption algorithms increases the opportunities for DoS attacks. Besides, privacy protection and service accountability are rarely taken into account in this scenario. In this paper, we propose a secure, efficient, and accountable access control framework, called SEAF, for ICN, in which authentication is performed at the network edge to block unauthorized requests at the very beginning. We adopt group signature to achieve anonymous authentication, and use hash chain technique to greatly reduce the overhead when users make continuous requests for the same file. Furthermore, the content providers can affirm the service amount received from the network and extract feedback information from the signatures and hash chains. By formal security analysis and the comparison with related works, we show that SEAF achieves the expected security goals and possesses more useful features. The experimental results also demonstrate that our design is efficient for routers and content providers, and introduces only slight delay for users' content retrieval.
Frey, Michael, Gündoğan, Cenk, Kietzmann, Peter, Lenders, Martine, Petersen, Hauke, Schmidt, Thomas C., Juraschek, Felix, Wählisch, Matthias.  2019.  Security for the Industrial IoT: The Case for Information-Centric Networking. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :424–429.

Industrial production plants traditionally include sensors for monitoring or documenting processes, and actuators for enabling corrective actions in cases of misconfigurations, failures, or dangerous events. With the advent of the IoT, embedded controllers link these `things' to local networks that often are of low power wireless kind, and are interconnected via gateways to some cloud from the global Internet. Inter-networked sensors and actuators in the industrial IoT form a critical subsystem while frequently operating under harsh conditions. It is currently under debate how to approach inter-networking of critical industrial components in a safe and secure manner.In this paper, we analyze the potentials of ICN for providing a secure and robust networking solution for constrained controllers in industrial safety systems. We showcase hazardous gas sensing in widespread industrial environments, such as refineries, and compare with IP-based approaches such as CoAP and MQTT. Our findings indicate that the content-centric security model, as well as enhanced DoS resistance are important arguments for deploying Information Centric Networking in a safety-critical industrial IoT. Evaluation of the crypto efforts on the RIOT operating system for content security reveal its feasibility for common deployment scenarios.

Campioni, Lorenzo, Hauge, Mariann, Landmark, Lars, Suri, Niranjan, Tortonesi, Mauro.  2019.  Considerations on the Adoption of Named Data Networking (NDN) in Tactical Environments. 2019 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1-8.

Mobile military networks are uniquely challenging to build and maintain, because of their wireless nature and the unfriendliness of the environment, resulting in unreliable and capacity limited performance. Currently, most tactical networks implement TCP/IP, which was designed for fairly stable, infrastructure-based environments, and requires sophisticated and often application-specific extensions to address the challenges of the communication scenario. Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a clean slate networking approach that does not depend on stable connections to retrieve information and naturally provides support for node mobility and delay/disruption tolerant communications - as a result it is particularly interesting for tactical applications. However, despite ICN seems to offer some structural benefits for tactical environments over TCP/IP, a number of challenges including naming, security, performance tuning, etc., still need to be addressed for practical adoption. This document, prepared within NATO IST-161 RTG, evaluates the effectiveness of Named Data Networking (NDN), the de facto standard implementation of ICN, in the context of tactical edge networks and its potential for adoption.

Suksomboon, Kalika, Ueda, Kazuaki, Tagami, Atsushi.  2018.  Content-centric Privacy Model for Monitoring Services in Surveillance Systems. Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. :190–191.
This paper proposes a content-centric privacy (CCP) model that enables a privacy-preserving monitoring services in surveillance systems without cloud dependency. We design a simple yet powerful method that could not be obtained from a cloud-like system. The CCP model includes two key ideas: (1) the separation of the private data (i.e., target object images) from the public data (i.e., background images), and (2) the service authentication with the classification model. Deploying the CCP model over ICN enables the privacy central around the content itself rather than relying on a cloud system. Our preliminary analysis shows that the ICN-based CCP model can preserve privacy with respect to the W3 -privacy in which the private information of target object are decoupled from the queries and cameras.
AbdAllah, E. G., Zulkernine, M., Hassanein, H. S..  2018.  A Security Framework for ICN Traffic Management. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :78-85.

Information Centric Networking (ICN) changed the communication model from host-based to content-based to cope with the high volume of traffic due to the rapidly increasing number of users, data objects, devices, and applications. ICN communication model requires new security solutions that will be integrated with ICN architectures. In this paper, we present a security framework to manage ICN traffic by detecting, preventing, and responding to ICN attacks. The framework consists of three components: availability, access control, and privacy. The availability component ensures that contents are available for legitimate users. The access control component allows only legitimate users to get restrictedaccess contents. The privacy component prevents attackers from knowing content popularities or user requests. We also show our specific solutions as examples of the framework components.

Xue, Haoyue, Li, Yuhong, Rahmani, Rahim, Kanter, Theo, Que, Xirong.  2017.  A Mechanism for Mitigating DoS Attack in ICN-based Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Internet of Things and Machine Learning. :26:1–26:10.
Information-Centric Networking (ICN) 1 is a significant networking paradigm for the Internet of Things, which is an information-centric network in essence. The ICN paradigm owns inherently some security features, but also brings several new vulnerabilities. The most significant one among them is Interest flooding, which is a new type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack, and has even more serious effects to the whole network in the ICN paradigm than in the traditional IP paradigm. In this paper, we suggest a new mechanism to mitigate Interest flooding attack. The detection of Interest flooding and the corresponding mitigation measures are implemented on the edge routers, which are directly connected with the attackers. By using statistics of Interest satisfaction rate on the incoming interface of some edge routers, malicious name-prefixes or interfaces can be discovered, and then dropped or slowed down accordingly. With the help of the network information, the detected malicious name-prefixes and interfaces can also be distributed to the whole network quickly, and the attack can be mitigated quickly. The simulation results show that the suggested mechanism can reduce the influence of the Interest flooding quickly, and the network performance can recover automatically to the normal state without hurting the legitimate users.
Massey, Daniel.  2017.  Applying Cybersecurity Challenges to Medical and Vehicular Cyber Physical Systems. Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Automated Decision Making for Active Cyber Defense. :39–39.

This is a critical time in the design and deployment of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Advances in networking, computing, sensing, and control systems have enabled a broad range of new devices and services. Our transportation and medical systems are at the forefront of this advance and rapidly adding cyber components to these existing physical systems. Industry is driven by functional requirements and fast-moving markets and unfortunately security is typically not a driving factor. This can lead to designs were security is an additional feature that will be "bolted on" later. Now is the time to address security. The system designs are evolving rapidly and in most cases design standards are only now beginning to emerge. Many of the devices being deployed today have lifespans measured in decades. The design choices being made today will directly impact next several decades. This talk presents both the challenges and opportunities in building security into the design of these critical systems and will specifically address two emerging challenges. The first challenge considers how we update these devices. Updates involve technical, business, and policy issues. The consequence of an error could be measured in lives lost. The second challenges considers the basic networking approach. These systems may not require traditional networking solutions or traditional security solutions. Content centric networking is an emerging area that is directly applicable to CPS and IoT devices. Content centric networking makes fundamental changes in the core networking concepts, shifting communication from the traditional source/destination model to a new model where forwarding and routing are based on the content sought. In this new model, packets need not even include a source. This talk will argue this model is ideally suited for CPS and IoT environments. A content centric does not just improve the underlying communications system, it fundamentally changes the security and allows designs to move currently intractable security designs to new designs that are both more efficient and more secure.

Kumar, Naveen, Singh, Ashutosh Kumar, Srivastava, Shashank.  2017.  Evaluating Machine Learning Algorithms for Detection of Interest Flooding Attack in Named Data Networking. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :299–302.

Named Data Networking (NDN) is one of the most promising data-centric networks. NDN is resilient to most of the attacks that are possible in TCP/IP stack. Since NDN has different network architecture than TCP/IP, so it is prone to new types of attack. These attacks are Interest Flooding Attack (IFA), Cache Privacy Attack, Cache Pollution Attack, Content Poisoning Attack, etc. In this paper, we discussed the detection of IFA. First, we model the IFA on linear topology using the ndnSIM and CCNx code base. We have selected most promising feature among all considered features then we applied diïňĂerent machine learning techniques to detect the attack. We have shown that result of attack detection in case of simulation and implementation is almost same. We modeled IFA on DFN topology and compared the results of different machine learning approaches.

Naik, B. B., Singh, D., Samaddar, A. B., Lee, H. J..  2017.  Security Attacks on Information Centric Networking for Healthcare System. 2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :436–441.

The Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a novel concept of a large scale ecosystem of wireless actuators and computing technologies. ICN technologies are getting popular in the development of various applications to bring day-to-day comfort and ease in human life. The e-healthcare monitoring services is a subset of ICN services which has been utilized to monitor patient's health condition in a smart and ubiquitous way. However, there are several challenges and attacks on ICN. In this paper we have discussed ICN attacks and ICN based healthcare scenario. We have proposed a novel ICN stack for healthcare scenario for securing biomedical data communication instead of communication networks. However, the biomedical data communication between patient and Doctor requires reliable and secure networks for the global access.

Lim, H., Ni, A., Kim, D., Ko, Y. B..  2017.  Named data networking testbed for scientific data. 2017 2nd International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :65–69.

Named Data Networking (NDN) is one of the future internet architectures, which is a clean-slate approach. NDN provides intelligent data retrieval using the principles of name-based symmetrical forwarding of Interest/Data packets and innetwork caching. The continually increasing demand for rapid dissemination of large-scale scientific data is driving the use of NDN in data-intensive science experiments. In this paper, we establish an intercontinental NDN testbed. In the testbed, an NDN-based application that targets climate science as an example data intensive science application is designed and implemented, which has differentiated features compared to those of previous studies. We verify experimental justification of using NDN for climate science in the intercontinental network, through performance comparisons between classical delivery techniques and NDN-based climate data delivery.

Ghosh, U., Chatterjee, P., Tosh, D., Shetty, S., Xiong, K., Kamhoua, C..  2017.  An SDN Based Framework for Guaranteeing Security and Performance in Information-Centric Cloud Networks. 2017 IEEE 10th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :749–752.

Cloud data centers are critical infrastructures to deliver cloud services. Although security and performance of cloud data centers have been well studied in the past, their networking aspects are overlooked. Current network infrastructures in cloud data centers limit the ability of cloud provider to offer guaranteed cloud network resources to users. In order to ensure security and performance requirements as defined in the service level agreement (SLA) between cloud user and provider, cloud providers need the ability to provision network resources dynamically and on the fly. The main challenge for cloud provider in utilizing network resource can be addressed by provisioning virtual networks that support information centric services by separating the control plane from the cloud infrastructure. In this paper, we propose an sdn based information centric cloud framework to provision network resources in order to support elastic demands of cloud applications depending on SLA requirements. The framework decouples the control plane and data plane wherein the conceptually centralized control plane controls and manages the fully distributed data plane. It computes the path to ensure security and performance of the network. We report initial experiment on average round-trip delay between consumers and producers.

Adhatarao, S. S., Arumaithurai, M., Fu, X..  2017.  FOGG: A Fog Computing Based Gateway to Integrate Sensor Networks to Internet. 2017 29th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 29). 2:42–47.
Internet of Things (IoT) is a growing topic of interest along with 5G. Billions of IoT devices are expected to connect to the Internet in the near future. These devices differ from the traditional devices operated in the Internet. We observe that Information Centric Networking (ICN), is a more suitable architecture for the IoT compared to the prevailing IP basednetwork. However, we observe that recent works that propose to use ICN for IoT, either do not cover the need to integrate Sensor Networks with the Internet to realize IoT or do so inefficiently. Fog computing is a promising technology that has many benefits to offer especially for IoT. In this work, we discover a need to integrate various heterogeneous Sensor Networks with the Internet to realize IoT and propose FOGG: A Fog Computing Based Gateway to Integrate Sensor Networks to Internet. FOGG uses a dedicated device to function as an IoT gateway. FOGG provides the needed integration along with additional services like name/protocol translation, security and controller functionalities.
Marxer, Claudio, Scherb, Christopher, Tschudin, Christian.  2016.  Access-Controlled In-Network Processing of Named Data. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. :77–82.

In content-based security, encrypted content as well as wrapped access keys are made freely available by an Information Centric Network: Only those clients which are able to unwrap the encryption key can access the protected content. In this paper we extend this model to computation chains where derived data (e.g. produced by a Named Function Network) also has to comply to the content-based security approach. A central problem to solve is the synchronized on-demand publishing of encrypted results and wrapped keys as well as defining the set of consumers which are authorized to access the derived data. In this paper we introduce "content-attendant policies" and report on a running prototype that demonstrates how to enforce data owner-defined access control policies despite fully decentralized and arbitrarily long computation chains.