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Morapitiya, Sumali S., Furqan Ali, Mohammad, Rajkumar, Samikkannu, Wijayasekara, Sanika K., Jayakody, Dushantha Nalin K., Weerasuriya, R.U..  2020.  A SLIPT-assisted Visible Light Communication Scheme. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :368–375.
Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) technique is introduced in Radio Frequency (RF) communication to carry both information and power in same medium. In this approach, the energy can be harvested while decoding the information carries in an RF wave. Recently, the same concept applied in Visible Light Communication (VLC) namely Simultaneous Light Wave Information and Power Transfer (SLIPT), which is highly recommended in an indoor applications to overcome the problem facing in RF communication. Thus, SLIPT is introduced to transmit the power through a Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaries. In this work, we compare both SWIPT and SLIPT technologies and realize SLIPT technology archives increased performance in terms of the amount of harvested energy, outage probability and error rate performance.
Cho, Sunghwan, Chen, Gaojie, Coon, Justin P..  2020.  Enhancing Security in VLC Systems Through Beamforming. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
This paper proposes a novel zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming strategy that can simultaneously cope with active and passive eavesdroppers (EDs) in visible light communication systems. A related optimization problem is formulated to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the legitimate user (UE) while suppressing the SNR of active ED to zero and constraining the average SNR of passive EDs. The proposed beamforming directs the transmission along a particular eigenmode related to the null space of the active ED channel and the intensity of the passive ED point process. An inverse free preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method is used to find the eigenmode. The numerical results show that the proposed ZF beamforming scheme yields better performance relative to a traditional ZF beamforming scheme in the sense of increasing the SNR of the UE and reducing the secrecy outage probability.
Sun, Yu, Zhao, Xiang.  2020.  On the Secrecy Performance of Random Mobile User in Visible Light Communication Systems. 2020 12th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :172–177.
For most of the current research on physical-layer security in indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems, a static communication environment was mainly considered, where secure communication about static users was investigated. However, much secure problems remain to be settled about mobile users. To improve the secrecy performance of mobile users, a two-dimensional circular optical atto-cell with security protected zone is considered. The proposed VLC systems include a LED transmitter Alice, a mobile user Bob and a passive eavesdropper Eve. A typical random waypoint model (RWP) being assumed, the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and secrecy throughput (ST) have been investigated for mobile users in VLC systems. The theoretical analysis results have been verified through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the secrecy performance of mobile users in VLC can be improved by enlarging the radius of protected zone, and it also depends on the target secrecy rate and the LEDs' configuration.
Soderi, Simone.  2020.  Enhancing Security in 6G Visible Light Communications. 2020 2nd 6G Wireless Summit (6G SUMMIT). :1–5.
This paper considers improving the confidentiality of the next generation of wireless communications by using the watermark-based blind physical layer security (WBPLSec) in Visible Light Communications (VLCs). Since the growth of wireless applications and service, the demand for a secure and fast data transfer connection requires new technology solutions capable to ensure the best countermeasure against security attacks. VLC is one of the most promising new wireless communication technology, due to the possibility of using environmental artificial lights as data transfer channel in free-space. On the other hand, VLCs are even inherently susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. This work proposes an innovative scheme in which red, green, blue (RGB) light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and three color-tuned photo-diodes (PDs) are used to secure a VLC by using a jamming receiver in conjunction with the spread spectrum watermarking technique. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work that deals with physical layer security on VLC by using RGB LEDs.
Alresheedi, Mohammed T..  2020.  Improving the Confidentiality of VLC Channels: Physical-Layer Security Approaches. 2020 22nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–5.
Visible light communication (VLC) is considered as an emerging system for wireless indoor multimedia communications. As any wireless communication system, its channels are open and reachable to both licensed and unlicensed users owing to the broadcast character of visible-light propagation in public areas or multiple-user scenarios. In this work, we consider the physical-layer security approaches for VLC to mitigate this limitation. The physical-layer security approaches can be divided into two categories: keyless security and key-based security approaches. In the last category, recently, the authors introduced physical-layer key-generation approaches for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In these approaches, the cyclic prefix (CP) samples are exploited for key generation. In this paper, we study the effect of the length of key space and order of modulation on the security level, BER performance, and key-disagreement-rate (KDR) of the introduced key-based security approaches. From the results, our approaches are more efficient in higher order of modulation as the KDR decreases with the increase of order of modulation.
Liu, Xiaodong, Chen, Zezong, Wang, Yuhao, Zhou, Fuhui, Ma, Shuai, Hu, Rose Qingyang.  2020.  Secure Beamforming Designs in MISO Visible Light Communication Networks with SLIPT. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technique in the fifth and beyond wireless communication networks. In this paper, a secure multiple-input single-output VLC network is studied, where simultaneous lightwave information and power transfer (SLIPT) is exploited to support energy-limited devices taking into account a practical non-linear energy harvesting model. Specifically, the optimal beamforming design problems for minimizing transmit power and maximizing the minimum secrecy rate are studied under the imperfect channel state information (CSI). S-Procedure and a bisection search is applied to tackle challenging non-convex problems and to obtain efficient resource allocation algorithm. It is proved that optimal beamforming schemes can be obtained. It is found that there is a non-trivial trade-off between the average harvested power and the minimum secrecy rate. Moreover, we show that the quality of CSI has a significant impact on achievable performance.
Yesilkaya, Anil, Cogalan, Tezcan, Erkucuk, Serhat, Sadi, Yalcin, Panayirci, Erdal, Haas, Harald, Poor, H. Vincent.  2020.  Physical-Layer Security in Visible Light Communications. 2020 2nd 6G Wireless Summit (6G SUMMIT). :1–5.
Optical wireless communications (OWC) and its potential to solve physical layer security (PLS) issues are becoming important research areas in 6G communications systems. In this paper, an overview of PLS in visible light communications (VLC), is presented. Then, two new PLS techniques based on generalized space shift keying (GSSK) modulation with spatial constellation design (SCD) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) cooperative relaying are introduced. In the first technique, the PLS of the system is enhanced by the appropriate selection of a precoding matrix for randomly activated light emitting diodes (LEDs). With the aid of a legitimate user's (Bob's) channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSIT), the bit error ratio (BER) of Bob is minimized while the BER performance of the potential eavesdroppers (Eves) is significantly degraded. In the second technique, superposition coding with uniform signaling is used at the transmitter and relays. The design of secure beamforming vectors at the relay nodes along with NOMA techniques is used to enhance PLS in a VLC system. Insights gained from the improved security levels of the proposed techniques are used to discuss how PLS can be further improved in future generation communication systems by using VLC.
Chu, Wen-Yi, Yu, Ting-Guang, Lin, Yu-Kai, Lee, Shao-Chuan, Hsiao, Hsu-Chun.  2020.  On Using Camera-based Visible Light Communication for Security Protocols. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :110–117.
In security protocol design, Visible Light Communication (VLC) has often been abstracted as an ideal channel that is resilient to eavesdropping, manipulation, and jamming. Camera Communication (CamCom), a subcategory of VLC, further strengthens the level of security by providing a visually verifiable association between the transmitter and the extracted information. However, the ideal security guarantees of visible light channels may not hold in practice due to limitations and tradeoffs introduced by hardware, software, configuration, environment, etc. This paper presents our experience and lessons learned from implementing CamCom for security protocols. We highlight CamCom's security-enhancing properties and security applications that it enables. Backed by real implementation and experiments, we also systematize the practical considerations of CamCom-based security protocols.
Mir, Ayesha Waqar, Maqbool, Khawaja Qasim.  2020.  Robust Visible Light Communication in Intelligent Transportation System. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :387–391.
Wireless communication in the field of radio frequency (RF) have modernized our society. People experience persistent connection and high-speed data through wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and LTE while browsing the internet. This causes congestion to network; users make it difficult for everyone to access the internet or to communicate reliably on time. The major issues of RF spectrum are intrusion, high latency and it requires an individual transmitter receiver setup in order to function. Dr. Herald Hass came up with an idea of `data through illumination'. Surmounting the drawbacks of RF spectrum, visible light communication (VLC) is more favored technique. In intelligent transportation system (ITS), this evolving technology of VLC has a strong hold in order to connect vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links wirelessly. Indoor VLC applications have been studied deeply while the field of vehicular VLC (V-VLC) networking is relatively a less researched domain because it has greater level of intrusion and additive ambient light noise is higher in outdoor VLC. Other factors due to which the implementation of VLC faces a lot of hurdles are mostly related to environment such as dust, haze, snow, sunlight, rain, fog, smog and atmospheric disturbances. In this paper, we executed a thorough channel modelling in order to study the effects of clear weather, fog, snow and rain quantitatively with respect to different wavelengths in consideration for an ITS. This makes ITS more robust in nature. The parameters under consideration will be signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER) and optical power received (OPR) for different LED wavelengths.
Shen, Chao.  2020.  Laser-based high bit-rate visible light communications and underwater optical wireless network. 2020 Photonics North (PN). :1–1.
This talk presents an overview of the latest visible light communication (VLC) and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) research and development from the device to the system level. The utilization of laser-based devices and systems for LiFi and underwater Internet of Things (IoT) has been discussed.
Memedi, A., Sommer, C., Dressler, F..  2018.  On the need for coordinated access control for vehicular visible light communication. 2018 14th Annual Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services (WONS). :121–124.
We argue on the need for a dedicated medium access control (MAC) for Vehicular VLC (V-VLC). The huge unlicensed spectrum that can support high throughput applications and the intrinsic security due to the LOS requirement make visible light a viable candidate for use in vehicular communications. In some first research work, the directionality of V-VLC has been considered and an initial conclusion was that the small collision domain leads to negligible interference and, thus, dedicated mechanisms for medium access are unnecessary. However, in a more realistic simulation setup using the Luxembourg mobility model, we are able to show that, in certain geographical areas, the number of transmitters seen at a single receiver can easily grow up to 30. Considering packet transmissions, the interference-induced packet loss can be substantial, reaching up to 13 % during rush hours. We thus make the case that this packet loss should be mitigated with a dedicated MAC for coordinated access control in V-VLC.
Zhao, J., Kong, K., Hei, X., Tu, Y., Du, X..  2018.  A Visible Light Channel Based Access Control Scheme for Wireless Insulin Pump Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Smart personal insulin pumps have been widely adopted by type 1 diabetes. However, many wireless insulin pump systems lack security mechanisms to protect them from malicious attacks. In previous works, the read-write attacks over RF channels can be launched stealthily and could jeopardize patients' lives. Protecting patients from such attacks is urgent. To address this issue, we propose a novel visible light channel based access control scheme for wireless infusion insulin pumps. This scheme employs an infrared photodiode sensor as a receiver in an insulin pump, and an infrared LED as an emitter in a doctor's reader (USB) to transmit a PIN/shared key to authenticate the doctor's USB. The evaluation results demonstrate that our scheme can reliably pass the authentication process with a low false accept rate (0.05% at a distance of 5cm).
Cho, S., Chen, G., Chun, H., Coon, J. P., O'Brien, D..  2018.  Impact of multipath reflections on secrecy in VLC systems with randomly located eavesdroppers. 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.
Considering reflected light in physical layer security (PLS) is very important because a small portion of reflected light enables an eavesdropper (ED) to acquire legitimate information. Moreover, it would be a practical strategy for an ED to be located at an outer area of the room, where the reflection light is strong, in order to escape the vigilance of a legitimate user. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the impact of multipath reflections on PLS in visible light communication in the presence of randomly located eavesdroppers. We apply spatial point processes to characterize randomly distributed EDs. The generalized error in signal-to-noise ratio that occurs when reflections are ignored is defined as a function of the distance between the receiver and the wall. We use this error for quantifying the domain of interest that needs to be considered from the secrecy viewpoint. Furthermore, we investigate how the reflection affects the secrecy outage probability (SOP). It is shown that the effect of the reflection on the SOP can be removed by adjusting the light emitting diode configuration. Monte Carlo simulations and numerical results are given to verify our analysis.
Shahjalal, M., Chowdhury, M. Z., Hasan, M. K., Hossan, M. T., Jang, Y. Min.  2018.  A Generalized SDN Framework for Optical Wireless Communication Networks. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :848–851.
Wireless communication based on optical spectrum has been a promising technology to support increasing bandwidth demand in the recent years. Light fidelity, optical camera communication, visible light communication, underwater optical wireless communication, free space optical communication are such technologies those have been already deployed to support the challenges in wireless communications. Those technologies create massive data traffic as lots of infrastructures and servers are connected with the internet. Software defined optical wireless networks have been introduced in this paper as a solution to this phenomenon. An architecture has been designed where we provide the general software defined networking (SDN) structure and describe the possible tasks which can be performed by the SDN for optical wireless communication.
Wang, J., Lin, S., Liu, C., Wang, J., Zhu, B., Jiang, Y..  2018.  Secrecy Capacity of Indoor Visible Light Communication Channels. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1–6.
In the indoor scenario, visible light communications (VLC) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for future wireless communications. Recently, the physical layer security for indoor VLC has drawn considerable attention. In this paper, the secrecy capacity of indoor VLC is analyzed. Initially, an VLC system with a transmitter, a legitimate receiver, and an eavesdropper is established. In the system, the nonnegativity, the peak optical intensity constraint and the dimmable average optical intensity constraint are considered. Based on the principle of information theory, the closed-form expressions of the upper and the lower bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived, respectively. Numerical results show that the upper and the lower bounds on secrecy capacity are very tight, which verify the accuracy of the derived closed-form expressions.
Lian, J., Wang, X., Noshad, M., Brandt-Pearce, M..  2018.  Optical Wireless Interception Vulnerability Analysis of Visible Light Communication System. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Visible light communication is a solution for high-security wireless data transmission. In this paper, we first analyze the potential vulnerability of the system from eavesdropping outside the room. By setting up a signal to noise ratio threshold, we define a vulnerable area outside of the room through a window. We compute the receiver aperture needed to capture the signal and what portion of the space is most vulnerable to eavesdropping. Based on the analysis, we propose a solution to improve the security by optimizing the modulation efficiency of each LED in the indoor lamp. The simulation results show that the proposed solution can improve the security considerably while maintaining the indoor communication performance.
Schrenk, B., Pacher, C..  2018.  1 Gb/s All-LED Visible Light Communication System. 2018 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC). :1–3.
We evaluate the use of LEDs intended for illumination as low-cost filtered optical detectors. An optical wireless system that is exclusively based on commercial off-the-shelf 5-mm R/G/B LEDs is experimentally demonstrated for Gb/s close-proximity transmission.
Chen, Z., Wang, X..  2018.  A Method for Improving Physical Layer Security in Visible Light Communication Networks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–5.
In this paper, a method is proposed for improving the physical layer security for indoor visible light communication (VLC) networks with angle diversity transmitters. An angle diversity transmitter usually consists of multiple narrow-beam light-emitting diode (LED) elements with different orientations. Angle diversity transmitters are suitable for confidential data transmission, since data transmission via narrow light beams can effectively avoid the leakage of messages. In order to improve security performance, protection zones are introduced to the systems with angle diversity transmitters. Simulation results show that over 50% performance improvement can be obtained by adding protection zones.
Zhou, Y., Shi, J., Zhang, J., Chi, N..  2018.  Spectral Scrambling for High-security PAM-8 Underwater Visible Light Communication System. 2018 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP). :1–3.
We propose a spectral scrambling scheme to enhance physical layer security for an underwater VLC system which also simplifies the real-value signal generation procedure. A 1.08-Gb/s PAM-8 encrypted data over 1.2m transmission is experimentally demonstrated.
Cabaj, Krzysztof, Gregorczyk, Marcin, Mazurczyk, Wojciech, Nowakowski, Piotr, \textbackslashtextbackslash.Zórawski, Piotr.  2018.  SDN-based Mitigation of Scanning Attacks for the 5G Internet of Radio Light System. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :49:1–49:10.
Currently 5G communication networks are gaining on importance among industry, academia, and governments worldwide as they are envisioned to offer wide range of high-quality services and unfaltering user experiences. However, certain security, privacy and trust challenges need to be addressed in order for the 5G networks to be widely welcomed and accepted. That is why in this paper, we take a step towards these requirements and we introduce a dedicated SDN-based integrated security framework for the Internet of Radio Light (IoRL) system that is following 5G architecture design. In particular, we present how TCP SYN-based scanning activities which typically comprise the first phase of the attack chain can be detected and mitigated using such an approach. Enclosed experimental results prove that the proposed security framework has potential to become an effective defensive solution.
Solanki, Deepak.  2018.  Optical Wireless Communication. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. :858–860.
Data is the new currency impacting everybody's lives. As the modern world receives & sends millions of Terabytes of data every day, the present-day wireless data communication technologies comprising of Wi-Fi & 4G-LTE is on the verge of becoming partially inept for information exchange as they suffer from spectrum congestion in both controlled and uncontrolled environments. Li-Fi, also known as light fidelity, is a full duplex communication network enabling transmittal of data. The potency of bidirectional Visible Light Communication allows us to build an ideal medium, independent of congested radio frequencies and interference from electromagnetic waves, thus, resulting in faster data transfer. Inception of LED technology for lighting in 90's paved the way for high growth trajectory for LED Lighting industry which we have witnessed from the last 2 decades. As semiconductors, LEDs were poised to develop much bigger applications like integrated sensors apart from normal dimming and ambient lighting. Li-Fi is a technology which creates a bridge between the world of data communication & LED Lighting. Multiple forward & backward integration are poised to happen in coming years when lighting players will develop enterprise communication enabled lighting products. Even system integrators will look forward to Li-Fi enabled luminaires for establishing wireless networks. Li-Fi is being seen as a big step forward in enabling 5G telecommunication networks. Security benefits and outdoor long-range communication capabilities Li-Fi a potential technology for Defence & Smart Cities applications. Li-Fi uses the visible and invisible frequency band (380nm - 1500nm) which is 10,000 times broader than usable RF frequency band. The property of light spectrum to be unlicensed and free from any health regulations makes it even more desirable for us. Its applications can extend in areas where the RF technology lacks its presence like aircrafts and hospitals (operation theatres), power plants and various other areas, where electromagnetic (Radio) interference is of great concern for safety and security of equipment's and people. Since there is no potential health hazard associated with light, it can be used safely in such locations or areas. Li-Fi / OWC has applications in both indoor (≅) and outdoor ( ) scenarios.
Yang, M., Wang, A., Sun, G., Liang, S., Zhang, J., Wang, F..  2017.  Signal Distribution Optimization for Cabin Visible Light Communications by Using Weighted Search Bat Algorithm. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1025–1030.
With increasing demand for travelling, high-quality network service is important to people in vehicle cabins. Visible light communication (VLC) system is more appropriate than wireless local area network considering the security, communication speed, and narrow shape of the cabin. However, VLC exhibits technical limitations, such as uneven distribution of optical signals. In this regard, we propose a novel weight search bat algorithm (WSBA) to calculate a set of optimal power adjustment factors to reduce fluctuation in signal distributions. Simulation results show that the fairness of signal distribution in the cabin optimized by WSBA is better than that of the non-optimized signal distribution. Moreover, the coverage rate of WSBA is higher than that of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization.
Cosmas, J., Kapovits, Á.  2017.  Internet of Radio Light: Unleashing Innovation in Building Networks. 2017 Global Wireless Summit (GWS). :257–261.

Wireless networks in buildings suffer from congestion, interference, security and safety concerns, restricted propagation and poor in-door location accuracy. The Internet of Radio-Light (IoRL) project develops a safer, more secure, customizable and intelligent building network that reliably delivers increased throughput (greater than lOGbps) from access points pervasively located within buildings, whilst minimizing interference and harmful EM exposure and providing location accuracy of less than 10 cm. It thereby shows how to solve the problem of broadband wireless access in buildings and promotes the establishment of a global standard in ITU.

Wang, Y., Zhang, L..  2017.  High Security Orthogonal Factorized Channel Scrambling Scheme with Location Information Embedded for MIMO-Based VLC System. 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). :1–5.
The broadcast nature of visible light beam has aroused great concerns about the privacy and confidentiality of visible light communication (VLC) systems.In this paper, in order to enhance the physical layer security, we propose a channel scrambling scheme, which realizes orthogonal factorized channel scrambling with location information embedded (OFCS-LIE) for the VLC systems. We firstly embed the location information of the legitimate user, including the transmission angle and the distance, into a location information embedded (LIE) matrix, then the LIE matrix is factorized orthogonally in order that the LIE matrix is approximately uncorrelated to the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) channels by the iterative orthogonal factorization method, where the iteration number is determined based on the orthogonal error. The resultant OFCS-LIE matrix is approximately orthogonal and used to enhance both the reliability and the security of information transmission. Furthermore, we derive the information leakage at the eavesdropper and the secrecy capacity to analyze the system security. Simulations are performed, and the results demonstrate that with the aid of the OFCS-LIE scheme, MIMO-based VLC system has achieved higher security when compared with the counterpart scrambling scheme and the system without scrambling.
Araya, A., Jirón, I., Soto, I..  2017.  A New Key Exchange Algorithm over a VLC Indoor Channel. 2017 First South American Colloquium on Visible Light Communications (SACVLC). :1–5.
This paper proposes a new cryptosystem that combines Diffie-Hellman protocol implemented with hyperelliptic curves over a Galois field GF(2n) with Tree Parity Machine synchronization for a Visible Light Communication indoor channel. The proposed cryptosystem security focuses on overcoming a weakness of neuronal synchronization; specifically, the stimulus vector that is public, which allows an attacker to try to synchronize with one of the participants of the synchronization. Real data receptions of the Visible Light Communication channel are included. In addition, there is an improvement of 115% over a range of 100 $łeq$ tsync$łeq$ 400 of the average synchronization time t\_sync, compared to the classic Tree Parity Machine synchronization.