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Baek, Ui-Jun, Ji, Se-Hyun, Park, Jee Tae, Lee, Min-Seob, Park, Jun-Sang, Kim, Myung-Sup.  2019.  DDoS Attack Detection on Bitcoin Ecosystem using Deep-Learning. 2019 20th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS). :1—4.
Since Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency that applied blockchain technology was developed by Satoshi Nakamoto, the cryptocurrency market has grown rapidly. Along with this growth, many vulnerabilities and attacks are threatening the Bitcoin ecosystem, which is not only at the bitcoin network-level but also at the service level that applied it, according to the survey. We intend to analyze and detect DDoS attacks on the premise that bitcoin's network-level data and service-level DDoS attacks with bitcoin are associated. We evaluate the results of the experiment according to the proposed metrics, resulting in an association between network-level data and service-level DDoS attacks of bitcoin. In conclusion, we suggest the possibility that the proposed method could be applied to other blockchain systems.
Yin, H. Sun, Vatrapu, R..  2017.  A First Estimation of the Proportion of Cybercriminal Entities in the Bitcoin Ecosystem Using Supervised Machine Learning. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3690–3699.

Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer payment system and digital currency, is often involved in illicit activities such as scamming, ransomware attacks, illegal goods trading, and thievery. At the time of writing, the Bitcoin ecosystem has not yet been mapped and as such there is no estimate of the share of illicit activities. This paper provides the first estimation of the portion of cyber-criminal entities in the Bitcoin ecosystem. Our dataset consists of 854 observations categorised into 12 classes (out of which 5 are cybercrime-related) and a total of 100,000 uncategorised observations. The dataset was obtained from the data provider who applied three types of clustering of Bitcoin transactions to categorise entities: co-spend, intelligence-based, and behaviour-based. Thirteen supervised learning classifiers were then tested, of which four prevailed with a cross-validation accuracy of 77.38%, 76.47%, 78.46%, 80.76% respectively. From the top four classifiers, Bagging and Gradient Boosting classifiers were selected based on their weighted average and per class precision on the cybercrime-related categories. Both models were used to classify 100,000 uncategorised entities, showing that the share of cybercrime-related is 29.81% according to Bagging, and 10.95% according to Gradient Boosting with number of entities as the metric. With regard to the number of addresses and current coins held by this type of entities, the results are: 5.79% and 10.02% according to Bagging; and 3.16% and 1.45% according to Gradient Boosting.

Liao, K., Zhao, Z., Doupe, A., Ahn, G. J..  2016.  Behind closed doors: measurement and analysis of CryptoLocker ransoms in Bitcoin. 2016 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime). :1–13.

Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptographic currency that has experienced proliferating popularity over the past few years, is the common denominator in a wide variety of cybercrime. We perform a measurement analysis of CryptoLocker, a family of ransomware that encrypts a victim's files until a ransom is paid, within the Bitcoin ecosystem from September 5, 2013 through January 31, 2014. Using information collected from online fora, such as reddit and BitcoinTalk, as an initial starting point, we generate a cluster of 968 Bitcoin addresses belonging to CryptoLocker. We provide a lower bound for CryptoLocker's economy in Bitcoin and identify 795 ransom payments totalling 1,128.40 BTC (\$310,472.38), but show that the proceeds could have been worth upwards of \$1.1 million at peak valuation. By analyzing ransom payment timestamps both longitudinally across CryptoLocker's operating period and transversely across times of day, we detect changes in distributions and form conjectures on CryptoLocker that corroborate information from previous efforts. Additionally, we construct a network topology to detail CryptoLocker's financial infrastructure and obtain auxiliary information on the CryptoLocker operation. Most notably, we find evidence that suggests connections to popular Bitcoin services, such as Bitcoin Fog and BTC-e, and subtle links to other cybercrimes surrounding Bitcoin, such as the Sheep Marketplace scam of 2013. We use our study to underscore the value of measurement analyses and threat intelligence in understanding the erratic cybercrime landscape.